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array' for cultu quam poterant modestissimo; ' with the bright shining and glistering' for splendore ; 'silly poor' for miserorum ; 'at home, in their own country,' for domi ; 'trimmed and adorned' for ornati.

HUGH LATIMER.--ABOUT 1491-1555. HUGH LATIMER, son of a Leicestershire yeoman, was educated at Cambridge (M.A. 1514), and entered the Church. By the influence of Thomas Bilney, who afterwards suffered death for God's word sake,' he was converted at the age of thirty, and became a zealous advocate of the Protestant doctrines. He even wrote to Henry VIIL à letter of remonstrance against the prohibition of the Bible in English; yet Henry, perhaps not forgetting that Latimer, as a member of the University Commission on the validity of the king's marriage with Catherine, had pronounced in his favour, presented the bold reformer to a living in Wiltshire, and in 1535 made him Bishop of Worcester. On the passing of the Statute of the Six Articles establishing Popish doctrine in 1539, Latimer resigned his see, and was placed a prisoner first in the house of the Bishop of Chichester, and then in the Tower. He was released on the accession of Edward VI., in whose reign (1547–53) he was a popular Court preacher. Under Mary, he again fell into trouble on account of his faith, was again thrown into prison, and at length suffered at the stake.

Latimer's Sermons are very remarkable for their homeliness, familiarity, directness, and even drollery. His topics are the things and facts of common life, which he treats in a most unconventional

"When I was in trouble,' he says, “it was objected and said unto me that I was singular . . . that I loved a singularity in all that I did.'



(From the Sermon on the Ploughers.) [The Sermon on the Ploughers was 'preached in the Shrouds at Paul's Church in London,' on Friday, Jan. 18, 1549.]

And well may the preacher and the ploughman be likened together. First for their labour of all seasons of the year. For there is no time of the year in which the ploughman hath not some special work to do, as in my country in Leicestershire the ploughman hath a time to

set forth and to assay his plough, and other times for other necessary works to be done. And then they also may be likened together for the diversity of works and variety of offices that they have to do. For as the ploughman first setteth forth his plough and then tilleth his land and breaketh it in furrows, and sometime ridgeth it up again. And at another time harroweth it, and clotteth it, and sometime dungeth it, and hedgeth it, diggeth it, and weedeth it, purgeth and maketh it clean. So the prelate, the preacher hath many divers offices to do. He hath first a busy work to bring his parishioners to a right faith, as Paul calleth it. And not to a swerving faith, but to a faith that embraceth Christ, and trusteth to his merits, a lively faith, a justifying faith, a faith that maketh a man righteous without respect of works. As ye have it very well declared and set forth in the homily. He hath then a busy work, I say, to bring his flock to a right faith, and then to confirm them in the same faith. Now casting them down with the law and with threatenings of God for sin. Now ridging them up again, with the gospel and with the promises of God's favour. Now weeding them, by telling them their faults, and making them forsake sin. Now clotting them, by breaking their stony hearts, and by making them supple-hearted, and making them to have hearts of flesh, that is, soft hearts, and apt for doctrine to enter in. Now teaching to know God rightly, and to know their duty to God and to their neighbours. Now exhorting them, when they know their duty, that they do it, and be diligent in it: so that they have a continual work to do.

NOTES. Well may the preacher &c. Earlier in plough-works, and the preacher is

the sermon Latimer says: 'Preach- one of God's ploughmen.' ing of the gospel is one of God's | My country, my (part of the) country,

the part of the country that I am
specially connected with somehow,
as by birth, residence, &c. Latimer
was born at Thurcaston in Leicester-

And then they. Who? The reference

is somewhat distant.
Diversity of works-variety of offices.

Apparently unnecessary repetition

of meaning; how far justifiable?
Clotteth, cloddeth, breaketh up larger

masses into clods or small lumps.
*Clot' is now usually applied to
liquid (especially blood) when it

coagulates or forms into lumps.
Purgeth-maketh it clean. Another

tautology: compare also 'weedeth
it.' 'Purge'is Lat. purgo (cleanse),
contracted from purum ago (make-

pure, or clean).
Prelate, Fr. prélat, from Lat. præ-

latum (carried before): a clergy-
man of a superior order, placed or
set before or over others-e.g. arch-

bishop, bishop. In Latimer's view, a prelate is that man, whatsoever he be, that hath a flock to be taught of him, whosoever hath any spiritual charge in the faithful congregation, and whosoever he be that hath cure

of soul.' Homily, a plain familiar discourse on a

religious subject. Gr. homilia, from homileo (converse, have intercourse with). In 1547 was published a volume of Certain Sermons, or Homilies, appointed by the King's Majesty to be declared and read by all parsons, vicars, or curates, every Sunday in their churches, where they have cure.' Latimer refers to the fourth of the twelve homilies, which is entitled 'Of the true and lively faith,' 'The Seconde Tome of Homilies' was issued in Elizabeth's reign,

1563. The law : the precepts or rules laid

down in the Old Testament.

The passage may be re-written in modern form. Violent ellipsis may

be avoided.


(From the First Sermon before Edward VI.) [In 1549, Latimer preached his seven 'famous Friday sermons in Lent' 'before the king's majesty,' Edward VI., 'within His Grace's palace at Westminster.' The First Sermon was delivered on Friday, March 8. The text was Rom. xv. 4.]

Well : then, if God will not allow a king too much. Whether will he allow a subject too much ? No, that he will not. Whether have any men here in England too much? I doubt most rich men have too much, for without too much we can get nothing. As for example. The physician. If the poor man be diseased, he can have no help without too much. And of the lawyer the poor man can get no counsel, expedition, nor help in his matter, except he give him too much. At merchants' hands no kind of wares can be had, except we


give for it too much. You landlords, you rentraisers, I may say you steplords, you unnatural lords, you have for your possessions yearly too much. For that herebefore went for twenty or forty pound by year (which is an honest portion to be had gratis in one lordship of another man's sweat and labour), now is it let for fifty or a hundred pound by year.

Of this too much cometh this monstrous and portentous dearth is made by man, notwithstanding God doth send us plentifully the fruits of the earth, mercifully, contrary unto our deserts. Notwithstanding too much, which these rich men have, causeth such dearth that poor men (which live of their labour) can not with the sweat of their face have a living, all kind of victuals is so dear, pigs, geese, capons, chickens, eggs, &c.

These things with other are so unreasonably enhanced. And I think verily that if this continue, we shall at length be constrained to pay for a pig a pound. I will tell you, my lords and masters, this is not for the king's honour. . . . It is the king's honour that his subjects be led in the true religion. That all his prelates and clergy be set about their work in preaching and studying, and not to be interrupted from their charge. Also it is the king's honour that the common wealth be advanced, that the dearth of these foresaid things be provided for, and the commodities of this realm so employed as it may be to the setting his subjects on work, and keeping them from idleness. And herein Testeth the king's honour and his office. So doing, his account before God shall be allowed and rewarded. Furthermore, if the king's honour (as some men say) standeth in the great multitude of people. Then these graziers, inclosers, and rent-rearers are hinderers of the king's honour. For where as have been a great many of householders and inhabitants, there is now but a shepherd and his dog, so they hinder the king's honour


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I know where is a great market town with divers hamlets and inhabitants, where do rise yearly of their labours to the value of fifty pound, and the vicar that serveth (being so great a cure) hath but twelve or fourteen marks by year, so that of this pension he is not able to buy him books, nor give his neighbour drink, all the great gain goeth another way. My father was a yeoman, and had no lands of his own, only he had a farm of three or four pound by year at the uttermost, and hereupon he tilled so much as kept half a dozen men. He had walk for a hundred sheep, and my mother milked thirty kine. He was able, and did find the king a harness, with himself, and his horse, while he came to the place that he should receive the king's wages. I can remember that I buckled his harness, when he went unto Blackheath field. He kept me to school, or else I had not been able to have preached before the king's majesty now. He married my sisters with five pound or twenty nobles apiece, so that he brought them up in godliness, and fear of God.

He kept hospitality for his poor neighbours. And some alms he gave to the poor, and all this did he of the said farm. Where he that now hath it payeth sixteen pound by year or more, and is not able to do anything for his prince, for himself, nor for his children, or give a cup of drink to the poor. Thus all the enhancing and rearing goeth to your private commodity and wealth. So that where you had a single too much, you have that; and since the same, ye have enhanced the rent, and so have increased another too much. So now ye have double too much, which is too too much. But let the preacher preach till his tongue be worn to the stumps, nothing is amended. We have good statutes made for the common wealth as touching commoners, enclosers, many meetings, and sessions, but in the end of the matter there cometh

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