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ran to attack the intruder. He, though superior in size and strength, saw his danger, and flew to attain the top of a pagoda eleven stories high, whither he was instantly followed, and seemed ready to be assailed on all sides; but when arrived at the top of the building, which terminated in a small round dome, he placed himself firm, and taking advantage of his situation, seized three or four of the most hardy and threw them to the ground. These proofs of his courage so frightened the rest, that after much noise they all retreated. The conqueror remained till evening, and then betook himself to a place of safety."

Monkeys do not want resources for life; but still, the stolen morsel is with them always the sweetest. Never satisfied with what nature so bountifully affords, they seldom miss an occasion to steal whatever they can from houses or gardens. As these proceedings are attended with danger, some monkeys lurk in obscure places, and watch, while the theft is going on, and this guard gives a shrill cry when any precaution is necessary. "Those who inhabit the tops of ancient temples," says M. D'Obsonville, "will descend among the peaceful tribes of Indians settled near them, and rob them whenever they can. If a monkey perceives a child alone with bread, or fruit, he will often go and steal it; and if the child make any resistance, will shake him with an angry countenance, or perhaps give him a gentle bite. If a woman is drying grain in the sun, she is obliged to stand with a stick in her hand, not with any intention of hurting them, but because a company of these thieves are sometimes clinging to the tiles and walls of her dwelling, and others skipping round, all of which perfectly understand how to take advantage of the least inattention. Thus, while she threatens or chases the most enterprizing, others behind her watch the opportunity and seize the grain with all the address imaginable." The Mahometans often free themselves from these troublesome visitors by a little powder and shot, but where the Hindoos have an ascendancy by their numbers this would be a dangerous experiment to try.

A French soldier was once with difficulty


rescued from the populace of Benglour, for killing a monkey who had eaten his food.

The Siamang is another singular species of ape discovered in Sumatra by the researches of Sir Stamford Raffles and the French naturalists, Diard and Duvancelle. It is chiefly remarkable for producing the most astounding cries, which may be heard, when the animals join in chorus, for many miles. It is undoubtedly assisted in this power of swelling the voice by a large sack which is beneath the chin, which is distended with air when the animal cries. The orang-oton has also a similar appendage. This species is very common in the forests of Sumatra, and salute the rising and setting sun with the most terrific cries; this is the morning and evening call of the Malays in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen, but to such of the inhabitants of the town as are unaccustomed to it, the cries are stunning if not alarming. During the day, however, they are perfectly quiet unless disturbed. These animals are slow and heavy in their gait, want confidence when they climb, and agility when they leap. They are endowed, however, with a vigilance which rarely fails them; and if they hear a noise at the distance of a mile, fright seizes them, and they immediately take flight. However numerous the troop may be, if one is wounded, it is immediately abandoned by the rest, unless indeed it happen to be a young one; then the mother, who either carries, or is close behind it, stops, falls with it, and uttering the most frightful cries, throws herself upon the common enemy with open mouth and extended arms. But it is manifest that these animals are not made for combat; they neither know how to deal or shun a blow. The females are at all times particularly fond of their young, and pay theni the most tender attention. "It is a curious and interesting spectacle," says M. Duvancelle, "which a little precaution has enabled me to witness, to see the females carry their young to the river, wash their faces in spite of their outcries, and altogether bestow a time and attention that in many cases the children of our own species might envy." And yet the Siamang apes are described as being stupid, sluggish, and awkward, and occupying a very inferior place amongst the species. In the hind arms of this ape the fore and middle fingers are connected, and cannot be moved separately; this may, perhaps, be one cause why the creature is not so agile in climbing as its more lively brethren.

The Ungka ape of Sumatra (Simia syndactyly), a specimen of which may be seen in the British Museum, is a singular exception to the species of monkey in general, as it invariably walks in an erect posture, when on a level surface, and without the usual difficulty. His general mode of progress is to keep his arms uplifted in an erect position; he is thus ready to seize either a branch of a tree or a rope, and swing himself out of danger. All his feet bear a striking resemblance to the human hand, having nails very similar; they are also large, in proportion to his size; this may account for his being enabled to walk so much better than others of his race. It is about two feet four inches in height; the span of the long arms four feet. It is entirely black in colour, covered with stiff hair over the whole

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