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was then sold to the First Universalist Society of Boston, Rev. John Murray, “the father of American Universalism,” being the first pastor. After ninety-six years of service, this house was succeeded by the brick edifice built in 1838, now a Baptist Seamen's Bethel. After Mr. Mather's decease, in accordance with his request, most of his followers united with the Second Church.

He married Sarah (Foster) Hutchinson, daughter of Col. Thomas Hutchinson (1694) and sister of Gov. Thomas Hutchinson, “the historian of Massachusetts.” They had three children, one of whom, Samuel, married Margaret, daughter of Benjamin Gerrish (1714). He died June 27, 1785, and was buried in the tomb of his family at Copp's Hill.

The following-named members of the Company are given in a list as “Artillery Soldiers under fine of 12d. per diem for non-appearance”: —

Matthew Barnard (1734), Daniel Bell (1733), John Bennett (1734), Joseph Blanchard (1737), John Chandler, Jr. (1734), Nathan Cheever (1733), Thomas Clark (1733), William Cock (1733), John Daniel (1738), Moses Deshon (1737), Thomas Downe (1733), Joseph Dwight (1734), Jacob Emmons (1738), Daniel Epes, Jr. (1734), Joseph Fitch (1733), Zechariah Fitch (1733), Samuel Haley (1738), Ralph Hartt (1739), Elnathan Jones (1734), John Pecker (1733), Thomas Pratt (1733), Andrew Symmes (1734), Nathaniel Thwing (1736), Daniel Tucker (1733), William Warner (1733), Samuel Watts (1733), Jacob Wendell (1733).

The following-named members of the Company are given in the record book as “Artillery Soldiers under fine of 6/ per diem for non-appearance”: —

Ephraim Baker (1733), Abraham Belknap (1735), Aaron Bordman (1736), Geyer (Gear) Coffin (1734), Thomas Drowne (1737), Joseph Dyar (1733), Joseph Edwards (1738), Joseph Goldthwait (1732), Joseph Jackson (1738), Joseph Pomeroy (1733), Samuel Pratt (1734), Samuel Salter, Jr. (1739), Arthur Savage (1738), Thomas Savage (1739), Ebenezer Storer (1732), William Taylor (1738), Nathaniel Thayer (1734), Daniel Watts (1736), John Welch (1736), John Wendell, Jr. (1735), Sendall Williams (1738), James Wright (1736).

The above lists were made out, probably, in 1739–40.

the Field. As for the light-arm'd Foot, They for the
most Part are now arm'd with Musket and Sword
or Rapier.
“As to the Cavalry or Horse, They have now
their peculiar Weapons: as the Pistol, which was
invented by Camillo Vitelli, an Italian, in the Time
of Henry, the Eighth of England, the Harquebuss,
which is of older Late and the Carabine. The Cara-
bine is usually carried about the Soldier's Neck in a
Bandileer of Leather, which is a far easier Way of
carrying them than the former one of hanging them
at their Saddles. Some, instead of these Carabines,
carry Blunderbusses, which are short Hand-Guns of
great Bore. Broad Swords were constantly used by
the English and Scots. As for the Rapier, that is
not over forty Years old; altho' the long Sort of
hem was used in the Times of the Civil War in
England for a while, and afterwards laid aside.

“Nor may we omit to mention here great Guns, which by the English are accurately divided into the Cannon, the Culverin, the Pierior and the Mortar. Each of which are sub-divided into several Sorts according to their various Bores: The three former are generally made of Iron Brass and Copper: The latter, I think, is generally of Iron: And, under the Mortar may be comprehended Pot-Pieces, Square Murtherers, Tortles and Petards. . . .

“Thus I have cursorily called over the most used and approved Arms of . . . the Moderns, and rank'd them in the best Order I could. And, altho’ what I have thus done might appear very strangely on any other Occasion; yet, in such an Auditory as This, there cannot, I think, be any sufficient Reason to blame me for it.”

The officers of the Artillery Company elected in 1740 were: John 17 40. Wendell (1733), captain; James Fosdick (1722), lieutenant; John Phillips (1725), ensign. Josiah Carter (1732) was first sergeant; John Bennett (1734), second sergeant; Matthew Barnard (1734), third sergeant; John Welch (1736), fourth sergeant; Nathaniel Thayer (1736), clerk, and Bartholomew Gedney (1726), clerk's assistant. - Notwithstanding the former failures to provide market houses, the friends of the measure persisted. In 1734, a convenient building was erected on the town's ground at the town dock, called “Dock Square,” which was used for a time, but was soon “demolished and pulled down.” It obliged the “people to go out upon the Neck and spend a great part of the day in providing necessaries for their families.” Peter Faneuil, of Boston, having been pleased to offer to build, at his own expense, an edifice for a market for the sole use of the town, Thomas Palmer (1702), Edward Hutchinson (1702), John Osborn, father of Capt. John, Jr. (1764), and three hundred and forty others, presented a petition to the town, July 2, 1740, asking for a special town meeting that the desire of the people in regard thereto might be expressed. At the town meeting, held in the afternoon of July 14, the matter was considered, and, upon the question of the acceptance of the proposal of Peter Faneuil, the yea and nay ballot was announced. “Number of yeas, 367 ; number of nays, 360.” Such was the slender majority that gave Faneuil Market to Boston and the Cradle of Liberty to the country. Mr. Faneuil was immediately notified that his proposal had been accepted by the town, and the thanks of the town were expressed to him by the selectmen. A manuscript description of New England, by Mr. Joseph Bennett, contains his impressions of the Castle. He says: “The entrance to the harbor is defended by a strong castle, which they call “Fort William,' on which there are mounted a hundred guns, twenty of which lie on a platform level with the water, to prevent an enemy passing the castle; which is a quarry, surrounded by a covered way, joined with two lines of communication to the main battery. This battery is situated so near the channel that all ships going up to the town must sail within musket-shot of it. They have always one company of soldiers doing duty in the castle even in time of peace, but in time of war they are said to have five hundred; and, as I was taught to believe, they had now till I saw the contrary; but there is such a number of men who are excused all other military duty on purpose to attend the service of the castle if need require it, whom they say they can call together in an hour's time.” The members of the Artillery Company recruited in 1740 were : John Adams, Thomas Baxter, Joseph Bradford, Jonathan Carey, Benjamin Goldthwait, Newman Greenough, John Hyland, John Nichols.

John Adams (1740), son of John and Mary Adams, was born in Boston, Oct. Io, 17 Io. He married Mary Clough, July 20, 1732.

There were two citizens in Boston named John Adams, both mentioned in the town records. Ensign John (1740) is distinguished as “living at the North End.” He was a fence-viewer from 1740 to 1744 inclusive, and viewer of boards and shingles in 1745. He is probably the John Adams of the Third Company, First Massachusetts Regiment, on the Cape Breton expedition. In the military he rose to the rank of ensign. His will was proved in 1761.

Thomas Baxter (1740), of Braintree, son of Samuel and Mary Baxter, of Braintree, was born Feb. 25, 1702. He married, Nov. 12, 1724, Deliverance Marshall, of Braintree, by whom he had children in 1726, 1733, and their last, born in Braintree, was Thomas, Jan. 23, 1737–8. He was a surveyor of highways of Braintree in 1735, and a tithing-man in 1738. Soon after, he removed to Boston and opened a cabinet-maker's shop. Nov. 2, 1741, he was paid by Mr. Price, rector of King's Chapel, sixteen pounds thirteen shillings and eleven pence, “for a new chair for the Gov. Seat.” He was third sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1744.

Joseph Bradford (1740), glazier, of Boston, son of Moses and Elizabeth Bradford, was born in Boston, May 14, 1705. He married, July 17, 1729, Ruth Baker, of Boston. He held minor town offices in 1742 and 1743; was clerk of the market in 1744 and 1745, and re-elected in 1746, but declined to serve. March 12, 1743, he was appointed on two committees of the town, – one to devise means to prevent fraud in the measurement of wood, and the other to prevent the firing of chimneys. Both committees reported May 4, 1744. He was elected assessor in 1749 and collector in 1751, but declined both offices. He rose to the grade of ensign in the Boston militia.

Under date of Sept. 22, 1746, the town records state, “Whereas it is suggested that there are several persons, Roman Catholicks, that now dwell and reside in this town, and that it may be very dangerous to permit such persons to reside here in case we should be attacked by an enemy, Therefore voted that Mr. Jeremiah Allen, Mr. Nathaniel Gardner, and Mr. Joseph Bradford [1740]” be a committee to prevent danger from their residing here. He was elected assessor in 1759, 1760, 1761, and 1762, and though he declined in 1762, he was elected again the next year. His will was proved in 1787.

Jonathan Carey (1740), shipwright, of Boston, son of James (1723) and Sarah Carey, was born in Boston, April 30, 1717. He was published May 16, 1744, to marry Elizabeth Proctor. He was a constable of Boston in 1747, and, Jan. 13, 1747–8, made with the principal citizens the annual visitation. He was chosen a culler of staves in 1758. He was identified with the Boston militia and became a captain. March 14, 1768, “Capt. Jonathan Carey [1740]” was chosen one of a committee “to obtain subscriptions to an Agreement not to purchase any Lamb untill the First Day of July next.” He was third sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1759, and its lieutenant in 1762. He died at his residence in Fish Street, Dec. 29, 1801, aged eighty-five years. His gravestone on Copp's Hill says “he was a Universalist,” and Mr. Whitman (1810) adds, “Probably one of the first converts of the Rev. Mr. John Murray, and a founder of the First Universalist Church.” His son, Capt. Jonathan Carey, joined the Artillery Company in 1756.

Benjamin Goldthwait (1740), merchant, of Boston, son of John (1720) and Sarah (Hopkins) Goldthwait, was born Nov. 25, 1704. He married, (1) Oct. 10, 1726, Charity Edwards, and, (2) Aug. 9, 1759, Sarah Dawes, daughter of Story Dawes and a niece of William Dawes (1760). Their youngest child, Susanna, married James Lanman, who joined the Artillery Company in 1786.

Thomas Baxter (1740). Authorities: An- ton Records; Wyman's Charlestown Genealogies

nals of King's Chapel; Braintree Town Records. and Estates. Joseph Bradford (1740). AUthority: Bos- Benjamin Goldthwait (1740). AUTHORITIEs: ton Records. Boston Records; New Eng. I list. and Gen. Reg.,

Jonathan Carey (1740). AUthorities: Bos- 1870; M.S. of Mr. Joseph C. Whitney, Boston.

He was a constable of the town of Boston in 1736, and was a clerk of the market in 1743, who, for his extraordinary care in attending to his duty, was given a special allowance by the selectmen. March 4, 1736–7, in company with the selectmen and others, he made the annual visitation of the town. He was captain of the fourth company, Second Massachusetts Regiment in the Cape Breton expedition, and was commissioned Feb. 9, 1744. May 20, 1746, the agents of the various regiments held a meeting at Capt. Peter Prescott's. Capt. Goldthwait (1740) was agent for Col. Waldo's regiment. Capt. Benjamin (1740) was a brother of Joseph Goldthwait (1732). The latter died at Weston, March 1, 1780, and hence was not “living in 1784,” as Mr. Whitman (1810) states in his history of the Artillery Company. Benjamin Goldthwait (1740) died in March, 1782, and his estate was advertised by the administrator April 4, 1782.

Newman Greenough (1740), sailmaker, of Boston, third son of Capt. John (1712), grandson of Capt. William Greenough (1675), and brother of Thomas (1744), was born in Boston, May 6, 1708, and married Elizabeth Montfort, Sept. 6, 1730. Their son, Samuel, joined the Artillery Company in 1786. Major Newman Greenough (1740) lived on Charter Street, was active in military matters and in all that concerned the well-being of his native town. He held the offices of fourth sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1744, ensign in 1755, lieutenant in 1757, and captain in 1758. He was elected clerk of the market in 1736 and constable in 1741, but declined the latter office. In August, 1752, he was chosen fireward, and was annually re-elected for twenty-five years. In the town records, he is called “Captain” in 1756, “Esquire” in 1762, and “Major" in 1764. He held office in the Boston regiment. Dec. 28, 1738, Mr. Newman Greenough (1740) became a member of the company having charge of the “copper engine by the North Meeting-house.” Oct. 29, 1740, “the master of the copper engine" reported to the selectmen that Newman Greenough (1740) had left them. July 1, 1767, with other gentlemen, Major Greenough (1740) made the annual visitation to the public schools. May 11, 1773, the town voted to apply to the General Court for an act empowering the town to erect, support, and defend lamps in the public streets. Newman Greenough, Esq. (1740), and Capt. Fortesque Vernon were appointed a committee to locate the lamps in Ward 2. At a meeting of the inhabitants of Boston, Dec. 7, 1774, Jonathan Williams, Esq. (1729), being moderator, a committee was chosen “for carrying the resolutions of the late Continental Congress into execution,” of which committee Major Newman Greenough (1740) was a member, and, July 26, 1776, he was appointed by the committee of correspondence to take charge of the inhabitants of Boston residing in Ward 2, both on the alarm and train-band lists. His will, proved Feb. 23, 1781, speaks of “his advanced age.”

John Hyland (1740). His name does not appear on the town records.

John Nichols (1740), of Boston, son of John (who was admitted an inhabitant of Boston, July 27, 1702) and Rebecca Nichols, was born March 17, 1714–5. He married Mary Laughton, Jan. 5, 1737. He was first sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1746.

The record of the Artillery Company for 1740 is as follows: —
“April 11th, 1740. The Company, being under arms, made choice of the Rev.

Newman Greenough (1740). AUTHORITY: Boston Records.

Mr. Mather Byles to preach the next Artillery sermon, and that the present commission officers, with the field officers, be a committee to request it of him. Returned answer that it was accepted by him. “June 2d, 1740. The Company, being under arms, voted, that the present commission officers of the Company, with those to be now elected, and the field officers of the Regiment of the town of Boston, be a committee to give the thanks of the Company to the Rev. Mr. Mather Byles for his sermon preached to them this day, and desire a copy thereof for the press. And in the evening, after lodging the Colours, Voted, that the sermon be printed at the charge of the Company, and that each member of the General Assembly have one sermon, and that each member of this Company have two sermons, and that Mr. Thomas Fleet [1727] and Mr. Joseph Edwards [1738] have the care of the same. “Oct. 6th. Voted, that the Company would have a new slight of Colours, made of red taffety; and that Ensign Phillips [1725] should provide the same against the next training day, and dispose of the old ones for the most they will fetch for the use of the Company. Also, Voted, at the same time, that the Company on the next training day would exercise after the new method, and that the Company in the meantime would endeavour to get the members compleat in said exercise.”

Rev. Mather Byles, of Boston, delivered the Artillery election sermon in 1740. He was a son of Josiah and Elizabeth Byles, was born in Boston, March 26, 1706, and graduated at Harvard College in 1725. The degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him by Aberdeen College in 1765. He married, (1) Feb. 14, 1733, Anna Gale, a niece of Gov. Belcher, and, (2) June 11, 1747, Rebekah, daughter of Lieut.-Gov. Tailer (1712). He received a call from Hollis Street Church, Boston, to become its first pastor. He accepted, and was ordained Dec. 30, 1733 He remained with this church until 1776, when his sympathy with the Royalists caused the relation to be dissolved. In May, 1777, he was denounced in town meeting as an enemy to his country; was afterwards tried before a special court, and was sentenced to be sent to England. The sentence, however, was never executed. He never afterward assumed any pastoral charge, but lived in retirement. In 1783 he had a stroke of paralysis, and, gradually declining, died July 5, 1788.

He became especially known for his exhaustless wit, and had considerable reputation as a preacher. He was tall, well-proportioned, and commanding in appearance. His voice was powerful and melodious, and his manner of address popular. He delivered the funeral sermon at the burial of Hon. William Dummer (1702), lieutenant-governor.

The officers of the Artillery Company elected in 1741 were: Joshua

I 74 I. Cheever (1732), captain; Joseph Fitch (1733), lieutenant; Hugh McDaniel

(1729), ensign. Andrew Symmes (1734) was first sergeant; Aaron Bord

man (1736), second sergeant; Moses Deshon (1737), third sergeant; Thomas Drowne (1737), fourth sergeant, and William Taylor (1738), clerk.

Rev. Mather Byles. AUTHorities: Sprague's American Literature, Vol. II., p. 192; Tudor's Life

Annals of American Pulpit, Vol. I., p. 376; Drake's of Otis; Allen's Biog. Dict.; Polyanthos, 1V.; Mem.

Landmarks of Boston, p. 412; Chaney's Hist. Dis- I list. of Boston, Vols. II. and 1 II.; Sabine's Americourses on Hollis Street Church; Tyler's Hist, of can Loyalists.

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