페이지 이미지

Rev. Joseph Sewall, who delivered the Artillery election sermon in 1714, died in 1769. Two years after, Sept. 25, 1771, Rev. John Hunt became his successor, and was ordained on that day. Mr. Hunt was a genial and affectionate man, of winning and persuasive manners. He died, deeply lamented, Dec. 30, 1775, at the age of thirty-one years, after a pastorate of but four years' duration.

Rev. John Lathrop, of Boston, delivered the Artillery election sermon of 1774. He was born May 17, 1740, in Norwich, Conn. He graduated at Princeton College in 1763, and pursued the study of medicine. For a short time he was an assistant in Moors' Indian School, then kept at Lebanon. On the death of Rev. Mr. Checkley, who delivered the Artillery election sermon in 1757, Mr. John I athrop was engaged to supply the pulpit. After a trial of several months, the Second Church and Society unanimously invited him to become its pastor. He accepted, and was installed May 18, 1768. He was pastor of the church during the Revolution, when the Old North Meeting-House, erected in 1677, was torn down for fuel by the British. After the Evacuation, the Old North, or Second, Church and the New Brick Church united in public worship, and May 6, 1779, they formed a perpetual union.

Mr. Pemberton died Sept. 9, 1779, and Rev. Mr. Lathrop continued as pastor of the new Second Church. His ministry covered the long period of fifty years, and he died Jan. 4, 1816. The sermon, at his interment, was delivered by Rev. Mr. Parkman, of Boston. He was buried in the Granary Burial-Ground.

It was upon March 6, 1775, that Gen. Joseph Warren delivered the I 775. oration “to perpetuate the memory of the horrid massacre perpetrated on the evening of the 5th of March, 1770, by a party of soldiers” under Capt. Thomas Preston. Thanks were voted to the orator, and a committee, of which Col. Thomas Marshall (1761) was one, was appointed to wait upon him, and request a copy for the press. Samuel Adams, moderator of the adjourned town meeting, April 3, 1775, being at the Congress then sitting in Concord, Samuel Swift (1746) was chosen moderator pro tempore. From the last-mentioned date until March 29, 1776, nearly one year, no meeting of the inhabitants is recorded, except the inhabitants of Boston were warned to meet March 5, 1776, at the meeting-house in Watertown, to listen to an oration by Rev. Peter Thacher, commemorative of “the horrid massacre of the 5th of March, 1770.” Nathaniel Barber, Jr. (1758), was present on that occasion, and was assigned a place on each of the three committees appointed at that meeting. William Copp was the early proprietor of that portion of the hill which has subsequently borne his name. Copp's Hill was at one time in possession of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. In 1775, the Common was occupied by the British troops, and the Artillery Company was refused admittance to perform its usual exercise

Rev. John Lathrop. AUTHORITIEs: Robbins's Hist, of Second Church; Funeral Sermon, by Rev. Mr. Parkman; Sprague's Annals of American Pulpit.

and evolutions." Major Bell, the commander, therefore marched the Company to Copp's Hill, as has been fully related in the sketch of Major Bell (1756).”

In the introduction to the above-mentioned “Letters of John Andrews, Esq., of Boston,” there are certain explanatory paragraphs. It was Samuel Breck, Esq., who recognized these letters as productions of his uncle, John Andrews. Mr. Breck adds: “Benjamin Andrews [1754] . . . was the elder brother of John. Shortly after this date [April 11, 1776] my uncle Benjamin [1754] was writing in his parlor on some business, preparatory to a journey into the country the next day. His friend, Benjamin Hitchborn, a lawyer of eminence, sat near the chimney, preparing for use a pair of pistols, — without which in those days no one ventured to travel,- when, by some awkward turn, the pistol which he held in his hand exploded and killed Andrews [1754] on the spot. The very melancholy event was supposed to be accidental; and Hitchborn, who married his [Mr. Breck's] widowed aunt, took the best possible care of her children by Andrews [1754], whom he educated and established in life with true parental affection.”

Samuel Bixby, a private in Capt. Bolster's company, of Sutton, in Col. Learned's regiment, then encamped before Boston, wrote in his journal: —

“June 5th [1775] Monday. This day is “Artillery Election': but it is not much thought of by the soldiers. About 12 o. c. the regulars fired from the fortifications; and they fired from the Castle at a party of our men on shore digging clams but did no damage. Our men picked up one of the balls, a 24 pounder, and carried it to the General, who gave them two gallons of rum. A party of our men out towards Noddles Island captured a barge and four men belonging to a man of war and carried it ashore at Cambridge; and this day brought the barge to Roxbury in a cart, with the sails up and three men in it. It was marched round the meeting house, while the engineer fired the cannon for joy.”

The record of the Artillery Company for 1775 is as follows: —

“April 3d, 1775. The Company being under Arms, it was then Voted, That the Rev. Mr. William Gordon of Roxbury be desired to preach on the anniversary Artillery Election of Officers in June next, and the present Commission Officers, with the Treasurer, be a committee to wait on him and request the same. Voted, That the Company meet to exercise at Faneuil Hall every Tuesday evening preceding the training in May next, precisely at half past seven o'clock, on penalty of six pence for nonattendance at roll-call, and one shilling if absent the whole evening, and any Member appearing without his firelock & bayonett shall pay a fine of one shilling. “Attest : SAMUEL CONDON, Clerk.”

* It is possible this event occurred twice. There merly us’d to. Their fifes and drums, when near

is no record of a public parade of the Artillery Com-
pany either Oct. 3, 1774, or in April, 1775, but Mr.
Whitman (1810) repeats the story of a “bystander,”
who said the event occurred in 1775, “before the
meetings were suspended,” and Mr. Andrews recites
a similar event as occurring Oct. 3, 1774.
* “Monday, October 3 [1774], the wind North-
East, and the weather cold but fair. Artillery train-
ing for the last time this year.” — Thomas Mewell's
“October 4th [1774]. Yesterday asternoon our
honorable and ancient Artillery turned out, and for
want of a better place, they march'd down to Cop's
hill, where they went through their several manoeu-
vres to the satisfaction of every one, and really made
a much more respectable appearance than they for-

the hill, alarmed the Lively, which lays near the
ferry; and when they had got upon the hill, in sight
of the ship, the Boatswain's whistle call'd all hands
upon deck, the marines with their firelocks were
fix’d upon the quarter, the ports opened with a
spring upon their cables, the round tops manned,
and a boat manned and sent out upon each side to
reconnoitre. Such was the terror they were in,
from the appearance of about fifty pompions in
arms. At about five o'clock they remarched into
King street, where they perform'd their evolutions
with the greatest propriety and exactness; much
more so, in my opinion, than any performances of
the troops since they've been here.” — From Letters
of John Andrews, Esq., of Roston, compiled and
edited by Mr. Winthrop Sargent.

The “Loyal Address from the Gentlemen and Principal Inhabitants of Boston to Gov. Gage, on his departure for England, Oct. 6, 1775,” was signed by ninety-seven persons, of whom the following-named were members of the Artillery Company : — William Brattle (1729), Martin Gay (1761), John Gore (1743), John Joy (1755), Adino Paddock (1762). The editor of the “Memorial History of Boston,” in Vol. III., pages 175—177, gives the names of five hundred and thirty-four loyalists who resided in Boston or its vicinity. Among them are found the following names of members of the Artillery Company : — William Brattle (1729), James Butler (1739), Hopestill Capen (1763), Josiah Edson, Jr. (1747), Martin Gay (1761), John Gore (1743), William Heath (1754), John Joy (1755), Edward Lyde (1758), William Murray (1758), Adino Paddock (1762), Benjamin Phillips (1755), Moses Pitcher (1760), Isaac Royall (1750), Job Wheelwright (1759). In contradistinction to the above lists of “addressers” and “loyalists,” the great majority, probably more than nine tenths, of the active membership of the Artillery Company at the beginning of the Revolutionary War were loyal to the cause of the colonies, and, without exception, were more or less active in the stirring events of those days. Some members were alert at home, answering alarm calls, guarding the harbor and coasts, collecting materials for the war; while others enlisted for the war, and, on land or sea, bore their share of the privations and sacrifices necessitated by the sanguinary struggle. Their training in the military art previous to the war prepared them to command, hence the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company was represented by commissioned officers on every battle-field where the banner of Massachusetts waved. Having assisted to drive the British from Massachusetts Bay, they hastened to other American colonies to drive the British thence. They endured the sorrows of the midwinter camp; they shared in the successes at Saratoga and Yorktown. The loyalty, sacrifice, and service of members of the Artillery Company in the War of the Revolution give an immortal lustre to those pages in its history. George William Curtis, in his oration at Concord in 1873, said, “Such was the opening battle of the Revolution, a conflict which, so far as we can see, saved civil liberty in two hemispheres, – saved England as well as America, and whose magnificent results shine through the world as the beacon light of free popular government. And who won this victory? The minute-men and militia, who, in the history of our English race, have been always the vanguard of freedom. The minute-man of the American Revolution 1 — who was he? He was the husband and father, who, bred to love liberty and to know that lawful liberty is the sole guaranty of peace and progress, left the plow in the furrow and the hammer on the bench, and, kissing wife and children, marched to die or to be free. He was the son and lover, the plain, shy youth of the singing-school and the village choir, whose heart beat to arms for his country, and who felt, though he could not say, with the old English cavalier, —

“‘I could not love thee, dear, so much,
Loved I not honour more.”

The minute-man of the Revolution | He was the old, the middle-aged, and the young. This was the minute-man of the Revolution, — the rural citizen trained in the common school, the church, and the town meeting, who carried a bayonet that thought, and whose gun, loaded with a principle, brought down, not a man but a system.”

Rev. William Gordon, of Roxbury, was invited to deliver the Artillery election sermon in 1775, but, Boston being in a state of siege, the June anniversary was unobserved.

Rev. William Gordon, D. D., was a native of Hitchin, England, and, prior to his coming to Boston, was settled in Ipswich, England, and in Old Gravel Lane, Wapping, England. He emigrated to America in 1770, began to preach to the Third Parish Church in Roxbury in 1771, and, July 6, 1772, was installed as its pastor. He held this relation for fourteen years. He was elected chaplain to the Provincial Congress, May 4, 1775, and that body voted him a horse to use in the service, and gave him free access to all the prisoners of war. It also commissioned him to procure the letter-books of Gov. Hutchinson, then in the possession of Capt. McLane, of Milton. Mr. Gordon was a thorough patriot, but blunt, harsh, and injudicious. April 2, 1778, he was dismissed from the office of provincial chaplain for his violent expressions in regard to a part of the proposed constitution of Massachusetts. John Adams said of him, “He is an eternal talker, and somewhat vain, and not accurate or judicious.”

He left America for London, March 17, 1786, that he might publish his history of the American Revolution on more favorable terms than in this country. The work was issued in London in 1788. He died at Ipswich, England, Oct. 19, 1807, aged seventyseven years.

-- - -

Aug. 26 a committee of thirty-six persons was chosen to take a census of 1776. the people of the town. Eleven of this committee were members of the Artillery Company, and one third of the jury selected for the trial and condemnation of vessels, Sept. 5, were members of the Company, Timothy Pickering, Esq., being the judge. Sept. 9 the town clerk announced to the inhabitants that, agreeably to their recommendation, the General Assembly had appointed Henry Bromfield colonel, Thomas Dawes (1754) lieutenant-colonel, Ephraim May (1765) major, William Dawes, Jr. (1768), second major of the regiment of militia in the town of Boston. At this time, according to the report of the committee chosen Aug. 26, there were “535 of the Inhabitants . . . now in the Continental Service, 206 in the Colony, and 166 in the Sea Service, making in all 907 persons in the service of their Country.” Upon all the working committees of this eventful period the Artillery Company was constantly represented, and its members were active in the affairs of the town and the colony. The General Court having ordered a draft, as a reinforcement for the Continental Army, at or near New York, the selectmen of Boston executed the order, Dec. 18 and 19, 1776. Two hundred and sixty-nine persons were drafted, of whom the following-named were members of the Artillery Company (those with a * prefixed paid the fine): — *Benjamin Andrews (1754), Samuel Ballard (1755), Capt. Samuel Barrett (1755), *Daniel Bell (1733), Capt. William Bell (1756), "Daniel Boyer (1756), Joseph Bradford (1740), Capt. Edward Carnes (1755), Capt. Caleb Champney (1762), "John Coburn (1751), "Amasa Davis (1786), Major William Dawes, Jr. (1768), * Benjamin Edes (1760), Joshua Farrington (1786), “Stephen Gore (1773), Thomas Greenough (1744), John Haskins (1768), "John Head (1757), "William Homes (1747), Col. Joseph Jackson (1738), "John Lucas (1786), "Ephraim May (1765), John May (1786), Moses Peck (1758), Benjamin Phillips (1755), Joseph Pierce (1769), Edward Proctor (1756), “William Shattuck (1787), Capt. John Simpkins (1769), Capt. Jonathan Stoddard (1765), Andrew Symmes (1734), "Edward Tuckerman (1765), John Waldo (1739), John Welch (1736), "Samuel Whitwell (1755), Charles Williams (1768), *Jonathan Williams, Esq. (1729). Under the act passed Nov. 14, 1776, no station in life, place, employment or office, exempted any person from serving in arms for the defence of the country, except those persons who had, before April 19, 1775, been by law deemed to be of the denomination of Christians called Quakers, clergymen, teachers, and undergraduates of Harvard College, Indians, negroes, and mulattoes, should not be held to take up arms or procure any person to do it in their room. One quarter of the able-bodied male persons within the State, not in actual military service, from sixteen years old and upwards, were to be drafted, to march at a moment's notice, and to serve for a term not exceeding three months. The fine for non-service was ten pounds.

[ocr errors]

Capt. Jonathan Williams (1729) was chairman of the committee to 177 • express the thanks of the town to Benjamin Hitchburne, Esq., for his “spirited oration,” delivered March 5, 1777, “to commemorate the horrid massacre perpetrated March 5, 1770, by a party of soldiers of the Twenty-Ninth Regiment,” and was also chairman of the committee authorized to select a person to deliver an oration March 5, 1778. Capt. Williams (1729) was also moderator of the meeting, and received the thanks of the town for “his good services.” April 2, a committee was appointed to take the names of such persons in Boston as “are suspected as being inimical to the States of America.” May 19 the list was made public. It contains twenty-nine names; among them are those of the following members of the Artillery Company: Benjamin Phillips (1755) and Hopestill Capen (1763). A jury was drawn, May 22, for the trial of these suspected persons in a special court. It consisted of six persons, of whom Jeremiah Belknap joined the Artillery Company in 1745, Edward Carnes in 1755, and John Newell in 1768. The people of Boston suffered greatly in 1777. Five hundred persons in Boston, of the families of such as were in the Continental Army, were in suffering circumstances. Donations were gladly received. Hon. Viscount Demauroy, brigadier-general of the French army, gave one hundred dollars for the soldiers' wives and children. Col. Nathaniel Barber (1758), Thomas Dawes (1754), and Ezekiel Price were appointed to express to Gen. Demauroy the thanks of the town for his donation.

[ocr errors]

Oct. 16, 1778, the Assembly passed an act “to prevent the return to this

I 77 . State of certain persons named therein, and others who have left this State, or either of the United States, and joined the enemy.” A hundred and fifty residents of Boston are named in the act, and about the same number from other towns in the State. Among them are the following-named members of the Artillery Company:

« 이전계속 »