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of that country. I think it will be found, that any considerable success, which has attended the publication of the Gospel in India, has been effected by the instrumentality of converted natives. All the persons who received baptism at Agra in ISlS-l*, were the fruit of the labours of Abdool Museeh, who was himself converted, through the labours of the late Rev. Henry Martyn. But at all events, the duty of attending to the religious improvement of the native Christians is so obvious, that it must force itself upon the notice of every Christian minister in India, and is expressly enjoined upon the chaplains of the Hon. East India Company by the charter. It is well known, that the Protestant Missionaries in the south of India have attended diligently to the improvement of their converts, and of their descendants, and a manifest superiority is said to be discernible, in the Protestant Christians over the other classes of natives among whom they dwell. A lamentable neglect of instruction is but too evident among the Roman Catholic converts on the Malabar coast, as appears from the report of the Bombay Auxiliary Bible Society, and also among the converts in that class in the north of India, as well as among the Indian descendants of the Portuguese and other Europeans in that quarter. With a view to the improvement of these, the late Rev. H. Martyn preached a sermon in the presidency church at Calcutta, which sermon was afterwards published, and entitled, "The Appeal of 800,000 Native Christians;" and soon after, the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society was formed, for the express purpose of supplying the Scriptures to the native Christians of India, in their different vernacular languages. The Protestant Christians in the south of India, having been instructed to a considerable extent in the use of letters, proved
themselves capable, as appears by the report of the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, of valuing, and using to advantage, the gift of Tamul New Testaments supplied to them; but in order that the native Christians in the north of India, as well as at Bombay, might profit by the Scriptures, it is necessary that they should be taught to read. On this account, the benevolent institution in Calcutta was established by the Baptist Missionaries, and has received much of its support, from members of the established church, who, having no person at hand in their own connection to conduct a work of that kind, were happy to assist in supplying to the Baptist Missionaries, the means of carrying it on. The object of the benevolent institution is, to afford education, on the British system, to children of all classes in Calcutta, and especially to the children of Christian parents. At the time I left Calcutta, there were upwards of a hundred children on the books of the school, and on the day I visited the school, there were present upwards of sixty boys, and about twelve girls in a separate apartment, all descendants of Portuguese and other Christians. Their proficiency in reading and accounts was very pleasing. At Chinsurah also, I had an opportunity of visiting a free school, established by the British Resident for children of the same description, and conducted by a pious Dutchman. In that school, fiftytwo native Christian children were receiving instruction in reading and arithmetic. It forms a prominent part in the plans of the Church Missionary Society, to afford instruction to the native Christians of India; with this view, they have directed one episcopally ordained Missionary, to put himself under the directions of Major Munro, in his plans for the improvement of the Syrian Christians, and their two Missionaries stationed at Madras have begun their labours in ihe native congregation, which is under the superintendence of the Rev. Dr. Rottler, one of the Danish Missionaries. Of about twelve hundred children, educated at Madras and at Tranquebar, at the expense of the Church Missionary Society, about two hundred are the children of native Christians. It should be observed, that divine service is celebrated in the Black Town chapel, Madras, according to the rites of the Church of England ; the Book of Common Prayer having been translated into Tamul for that purpose. A compendium of the Book of Common Prayer, translated into the Hindusthani language, has also been printed in Calcutta at the expense of the Church Missionary Society, and I am informed, by private letters, is much sought after by the native Christians, in the north of India. I am also authorized in stating, that it is intended by the committee of the Church Missionary Society, to erect, as opportunity may be afforded them, places of worship, wherever anybody of native Christians are to be found in India without the means of instruction. I shall only add, that with a view, in the first instance, to the improvement of the class of people in question, a school has been set on foot in Calcutta, for the education of native Christian youths, as schoolmasters. It is intended, that under the direction of the proper authorities, these should hereafter be placed as schoolmasters at the different stations, under European superintendance. The number of these youths has, from want of proper assistance, been hitherto greatly confined. A few are, at present, under the care of one of the chaplains near Calcutta, and are receiving instruction in English, and in the rudiments of Ile
brew and Greek, beside the learned languages of the country; and their progress is such, as to afford an encouraging specimen of what may be expected from continued exertions of that kind. I might mention many instances of the good effects produced on the minds and conduct of native Christians of India, where the usual means of instruction have been afforded them; and I would affirm generally respecting them, that after due allowances for the peculiar temptations to which they are exposed, from the habits of the other classes of natives, among whom they dwell, a Christian minister will find his labours among them not in vain. The progress which has already been made, in extending the benefits of Christianity to India, though embracing, as yet, but a small part of the immense population of thatregion,affords sufficient ground to expect, that the same methods, prudently and perseveringly persisted in, will not fail of producing corresponding effects. Considering, however, how opposed the mysteries of revelation are, to the prevailing prejudices of the population of India, we shall expect little effect from any means which may be adopted to bring them to a better mind, if we lose sight of the peculiar character of the Gospel, as " the power of God." That power which attended its first publication, still attends it in all things that pertain to salvation. The promise of the Spirit in his ordinary (not extraordinary) grace and influence, forms the distinguishing superiority of Christian truth, and will ever distinguish it from the theories of men, as the power of God.
I remain, Sir,
1816. Daniel Corrie.
A SKETCH OF THE ISLAND OF BORNEO.
By the late Dr. Ley den.
As Pontiana is of more recent origin than any other of the Malay states, so it is almost the only one in which the rise can be accurately traced. The account of the origin of Pontiana was procured by Mr. J. Burn, from the kte Sultan, who was its founder and hi» principal associate in the course of a residence of several years at that place, and communicated lately to Mr. Raffles, together with the result of his euquiries concerning the interior of the island of Borneo. The information thus collected has every claim to authority, and is the more valuable, because it illustrates in a striking manner the origin of the other Malay states, the greater number of which may be fairly considered as counterparts to Pontiana.
Pontiana was founded in 1770, by Scyad Abdul Rehman, the son of Seyad Hassan, by a woman of inferior rank, and born at Mattan. His father, Seyad Hassan, was a native of Arabia, highly respected among the Malay Rajas, who had married at Mattan. He afterwards took up his residence at Mampawa, where he died a few months before Pontiana wa3 founded. He had several wives, and left several children, but none of them distinguished themselves but Abdul Rehman. The latter possessing great abilities, intrepidity, and a most insinuating address, soon became an enterprizing and successful merchant, and realized considerable property. He married a sister of the Sultan of Banjar, and also a sister of the Raja of Mampawa, hut generally resided at Banjar Massing. Possessing a brig or sloop, and several war proas of his own, besides several merchant vessels, he applied vigorously to commerce, frequenting Coti, Passir, Palembang, and other Malay ports, but seldom visiting Java. His operations, however, were not entirely confined to commercial pursuits, but when favourable opportunities occurred, he shewed no greater repugnance to piracy than is usual among the Arabs. He had already cut off a Dutch Vessel in the vicinity of Banca, and an English one
at Passir, and done many things which, were highly disapproved by the venerable Seyad, his father, when at last, about a year or eighteen months before his father's death, he succeeded in cutting oft* at Passir a French ship, with a very rich cargo, by which he incurred the displeasure of his father, who renounced all further communication with him. The manner in which the ship was cut off, however, he deemed so discreditable, that he never would relate the story, though he admitted the fact, alledging, that previous to this transaction, some of his vessels had been stopped by the French, and his women ill treated, An old woman, who had been the Sultan's concubine, and who had borne a material part in the transaction, related the following circum-' stances to Mr. Burn, after the death of the Sultan. After having greatly ingratiated himself with the French Captain, he informed him that he intended to present him with two beautiful slave girls, a* the same time expressing a desire to se» the ship. The French Captain invited him an hoard, catching at the bait, and Seyad Abdul Rehman promised to bring the slave girls with him. The Captain prepared an entertainment, and saluted him as he came on board, which he did, with several followers properly instructed, but apparently unarmed. He sat down with his people, and partook of the entertainment, after which he called the two women he had brought, one of whom was the concubine who related the story. Abdul Rehman pointed to the concubine and desired the Captain to conduct her to his cabin, the Captain did so, and the woman, as she had been instructed, secured the door. The rest of the Frenchmen were all on deck, as well as a number of his Malay followers. Abdul Rehman gave the signal with his hand, and the whole of them were instantly creesed, the lascars at the same time throwing themselves into the sea, according to their usual practice. The Captain was then put to death, and the vessel secured. When Abdul Rehman heard of his father*i!
indignation at his conduct, he left Passir, and when he had almost reached Mampawa, he was informed of his death. Resolving now to settle at Sango, in the interior of Borneo, he entered the river of Pontiana or rather Lava, and proceeded up it about twelve miles to the conflux of the river of Landak with that of Pontiana, anchoring for the night at the point where the rivers join. In the morning, being struck with the situation of the place, which had never been inhabited, he determined to settle in it, and proposing the plan to his followers, most of them acceded to it, but a few objected and left him. After repeated discharges of his great guns loaded with shot, into a small island near the point, Abdul Rehnian landed, cut down some trees, displayed his colours, and prayed for success to the undertaking.
Having erected a small house for the night, he slept ashore, and named the place Pontiana or rather Pontianak, which is the name the Malays give to a spectre of the forests, which appears in the form of a winged female; this was in the year 1770. He then built a mosque on the small island, which still remains, having been renewed on the same spot, and a fort on the point of land, which commands the entrances of the livers of Sango and Landak, whither he also brought up the French ship. The crew of this vessel he employed as slaves in clearing the jungle, and his followers built houses along the banks of the river; such was the foundation of Pontiana. As soon as Abdul Rehman was settled in his new residence, he visited Mampawa to pray over the tomb of his father, whose forgiveness he had never procured, and this ceremony he continued to perform at stated periods until the year of his death. As the traders to Landak, Sango, and other settlements in the interior of Borneo, were necessitated to pass by Pontiana, Seyad Abdul Rehman daily acquired new settlers by his insinuating address, and the protection which he was ready to afford the traders against the Lanuns, and be was joined by several Bugis and Chinese traders from Mampawa, Sambas, and other Malay ports. He next applied to Raja Haji of Reaw, who conferred on him the title of Sultan of Pontiana. By what right such a title was conferred it is impossible to conjecture, but be imme
diately assumed the title, and establishftl a court in a very expensive style. His profusion attracted new followers and lie was joined by various Arabs, who, though they impaired his fortune, yet for the time increased his consequence. By these means Pontiana, in the space of a single year, became a considerable settlement, and attracted the jealousy of the Rajah of Landak. The Rajah of Landak was at this time a dependant of the Sultan of Bantam, and being alarmed at the reports which he heard, that the Sultan of Pontiana intended to block up the river and engross its trade, he dispatched an embassy to Pontiaua, to enquire what were his intentions. The Sultan of Pontiaua, though he professed that his intentions were not of a hostile nature, took care to display his power, and fired off his great guns repeatedly in their presence. They transmitted to Bantam a very exaggerated account of the strength of Pontiana, the consequence of which was, that the Sultaa of Bantam conceiving himself unable to protect Landak, resigned it to the Dutch. In 1776 the Dutch sent a strong force from Batavia to Pontiana to establish themselves in their newly acquired possessions, and the Sultau of Pontiana, intimidated by their power, allowed them to settle at Pontiana, where they built a stockade fort and mounted on it six guna. They also established a factory, consist, ingof a resident, a secretary andhis clerk, a surgeon, a captain with a subaltern, and twenty-five European soldiers. They also stationed an armed cutter in the river, which was likewise manned with Europeans, so that they had altogether about one hundred Europeans, but no native soldiers. The Dutch now imposed what duties they pleased, and allowed the Sultau but a very small share of them, which circumstance, together with his profuse manner of living, compelled the Sultan to run deeply in debt. In the year 1786, the Dutch, assisted by the force of Pontiana, destroyed Sacadina and Mampawa, in the latter of which they placed the Sultan of Pontiana's eldest son, as Panambahan, establishing there a factory of their own, dependent on that of Pontiana. Previous however to the settlement of the Dutch at Pontiana, it was visited by a French frigate, commanded by the brother of the French Captain, whom the Sultaa had formerly cut off at Passir, and whe had been dispatched for the express purpose of attacking him, but as the frigate could not pass the bar, and durst not send in her boats to attack the place, she was able to effect nothing, and was compelled to return after destroying a few proas at the mouth of the river, which had never had any concern in the crime of the Sultan.
In the year 1790 the Dutch withdrew their factories from both Pontiana and Mampawa, after a residence of fourteen years, finding, that though they had imposed what duties they pleased, and given the Sultan only what share they liked, their profits were far from compensating the expense of the establishment. We have no detail of the expense and profits of this factory, unless for the year 1779, when the expense amounted to about 884 pounds sterling, and the receipts only to about 460 pounds. The residence of the Dutch at Pontiana was not without occasional misunderstandings occurring between them and the Sultan. One of the most serious of these seems to hare originated ■entirely from their ignorance of Malay customs. Soon after the settlement of the factory at Pontiana a siri or prepared betel was presented by a male slave to the surgeon. Among the Malays this is regarded as an overture to an intrigue from some female of rank, but the surgeon was ignorant of this custom, aud the slave had retired without speaking a word. The sureeon holding the siri in his baud met the Sultan, and related to him the circumstance, expressing his surprize at what it could mean. The Sultan requested him to point out the person who had brought it, which he did immediately, and the slave being seized confessed that the siri had been sent by one of the Sultan's concubines. The Sultan immediately, without further explanation, ordered the slave's head to be cutoff in the presence of the surgeon, and the woman was dispatched privately. The Dutch Resident and the rest of the factory took the alarm and declared that they would return to Java. The Sultan endeavoured to pacify them, but in vain, aud they retired to Batu Layang, a solitary rock, on which a fort is built, about five miles below Pontiana. Here they fortified themselves and posted the armed cutter, and firing •pon all proas, attempted to block up the river. The Sultan repeatedly attempted
to persuade the Resident to return, but finding all remonstrances in vain, he represented the matter to Batavia, when the Resident was recalled and another sent in his place, who returned and took up his residence at Pontiana. .
During the residence of the Dutch at Pontiana a good deal of illicit trade had been carried on by the English, with the connivance of the Dutch Resident, the ships anchoring only without the mouth of the river; but after the factory was withdrawn Pontiana became a resort of English traders, aud was also frequented by the Portuguese from Macao, and the Arabs from Muscat and Mocha. It was also visited by numerous proas from all parts of Borneo, Bali, Loiubok, Sumbawa and Java. This, however, only continued till Pulu Penang began to flourish, since which time it had greatly decayed. The Java trade was nearly extinguished by the war between the Dutch and English, the prohibition of the export of dollars from Java, and some unjustifiable acts of the Sultan in swindling many of the Javanese owners out of their cargoes.
Sultan Abdul Rehman died after a short illness, February 26, 1808, about the age of 70 yeai s. When he perceived himself dangerously ill, he assembled the chief men, and told them he appointed his eldest sou, the I'auambalian of Mampawa, to succeed him, and dispatched a person to summon the Panambahan into his presence. Next day the chiefs assembled, and declared that they desired the Pangerang to be Sultan, who was his second son, but by an interior wife, and that they would abandon the place if the Pauambahan was to succeed him, accusing him of cruelty and divers acts of murder and poisoning, especially the poisoning the Master of a Chinese junk, to whom he was indebted about 8000 dollars, and the assassination of Captain Sadler, to whom he was indebted 30,000 dollars. They added that they expected his bad conduct would speedily place them in the same situation as Sambas, and probably draw on them the resentment of rlie English.
The Sultan assented and told thehi since they desired it, the Pangerang would be the Sultan. The Panambahan arrived next day and was informed of this resolution. When he came into his father's presence the old man severely re-