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indignation at his conduct, he left Passir, diately assumed the title, and established and when he had almost reached Mampa- a court in a very expensive style. His prowa, he was informed of his death. Re- fusion attracted new followers and he was solving now to settle at Sango, in the in- joined by various Arabs, who, though terior of Borneo, he entered the river of they impaired his fortune, yet for the time Pontiana or rather Lava, and proceeded increased his consequence. By these up it about twelve miles to the conflux of means Pontiana, in the space of a single the river of Landak with that of Pon- year, became a considerable settlement, tiana, anchoring for the night at the point and attracted the jealousy of the of where the rivers join. In the morning, Landak. The Rajah of Landak was at being struck with the situation of the this time a dependant of the Sultan of place, which had never been inhabited, he Bantam, and being alarmed at the reports determined to settle in it, and proposing which he heard, that the Sultan of Pontithe plan to his followers, most of them ana intended to block up the river and enacceded to it, but a few objected and left gross its trade, he dispatched an embassy him. After repeated discharges of his to Pontiana, to enquire what were his ingreat guns loaded with shot, into a small tentions. The Sultan of Pontiaua, though island near the point, Abdul Rehman he professed that his intentions were not landed, cut down some trees, displayed of a hostile nature, took care to display his colours, and prayed for success to the his power, and fired off his great guns reundertaking.

peatedly in their presence. They transHaving erected a small house for the mitted to Bantam a very exaggerated acnight, he slept ashore, and named the count of the strength of Pontiana, the place Pontiana or rather Pontianak, which consequence of which was, that the Sultan Ss the name the Malays give to a spectre of Bantam conceiving himself uuable to of the forests, which appears in the form protect Landak, resigned it to the Dutch. of a winged female; this was in the year In 1776 the Dutch sent a strong force 1770. He then built a mosque on the from Batavia to Pontiana to establish small island, which still remains, having themselves in their newly acquired posbeen renewed on the same spot, and a sessions, and the Sultan of Pontiana, infort on the point of land, which com timidated by their power, allowed them mands the entrances of the rivers of Sango to settle at Pontiana, where they built a and Landak, whither he also brought up stockade fort and mounted on it six guns, the French ship. The crew of this vessel They also established a factory, consisto he employed as slaves in clearing the ing of a resident, a secretary and his clerk, jungle, and his followers built houses a surgeon, a captain with a subaltern, along the banks of the river; such was and twenty-five European soldiers. They the foundation of Pontiana. As soon as also stationed an armed cutter in the river, Abdul Rehman was settled in his new which was likewise manned with Euroresidence, he visited Mampawa to pray peans, so that they had altogether about over the tomb of his father, whose for one hundred Europeans, but no native giveness he had never procured, and this soldiers. The Dutch now imposed what ceremony he continued to perform at duties they pleased, and allowed the Sulstated periods until the year of his death. tan but a very small share of them, which

As the traders to Landak, Sango, and circumstance, together with his profuse other settlements in the interior of Bor manner of living, compelled the Sultan to neo, were necessitated to pass by Pon run deeply in debt. In the year 1786, tiana, Seyad Abdul Rehman daily acquired the Dutch, assisted by the force of Ponnew settlers by his insinuating address, tiana, destroyed Sacadina and Mampawa, and the protection which he was ready in the latter of which they placed the Sulto afford the traders against the Lanuns, tan of Pontiana's eldest son, as Panamand he was joined by several Bugis and bahan, establishing there a factory of their Chinese traders from Mampawa, Sambas, own, dependent on that of Pontiana. and other Malay ports. He next applied Previous however to the settlement of the to Raja Haji of Reaw, who conferred on Dutch at Pontiana, it was visited by a him the title of Sultan of Pontiana. By French frigate, commanded by the brother what right such a title was conferred it is of the French Captain, whom the Sultan impossible to conjecture, but be imme- had formerly cut off at Passir, and whe

had been dispatched for the express pur to persuade the Resident to return, but pose of attacking him, but as the frigate finding all remonstrances in vain, he could not pass the bar, and durst not send represented the matter to Batavia, when in her boats to attack the place, she was the Resident was recalled and another able to effect nothing, and was compelled sent in his place, who returned and look to return after destroying a few proas at up his residence at Pontiana. . the mouth of the river, which had never

During the residence of the Dutch at had any concern in the crime of the Pontiana a good deal of illicit trade had Sultan.

been carried on by the English, with the In the year '1790 the Dutch withdrew connivance of the Dutch Resident, the their factories from both Pontiana and ships anchoring only without the moutu Mampawa, after a residence of fourteen of the river; but after the factory was years, finding, that though they had im- withdrawn Pontiana became a resort of posed what duties they pleased, and given English traders, and was also frequented the Sultan only what share they liked, by the Portuguese from Macao, and the their profits were far from compensating Arabs from Muscat and Mocha. It was the expense of the establishment. We have also visited by numerous proas from all no detail of the expense and profits of this parts of Borneo, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa factory, unless for the year 1779, when and Java. This, however, only continued the expense amounted to about 884 pounds till Pulu Penang began to flourish, since sterling, and the receipts only to about which time it had greatly decayed. The 160 pounds. The residence of the Dutch Java trade was nearly extinguished by the at Pontiana was not without occasional war between the Dutch and English, the misunderstandings occurring between prohibition of the export of dollars from them and the Sultan. One of the most Java, and some unjustifiable acts of the serious of these seems to have originated Sultan in swindling many of the Javanese entirely from their ignorance of Malay

owners out of their cargoes. customs. Soon after the settlement of

Sultan Abdul Rehman died after a the factory at Pontiana a siri or prepared short illness, February 26, 1808, about betel was presented by a male slave to the the age of 70 years. When he perceived surgeon. Among the Malays this is re himself dangerously ill, he assembled the garded as an overture to an intrigue from chief men, and told them he appointed some female of rank, but the surgeon was his eldest son, the Panambahan of Mamignorant of this custom, aud the slave had pawa, to succeed him, and dispatched a retired without speaking a word. The person to summon the Panambahan into surgeon holding the siri in his haud met his presence. Next day the chiefs assemthe Sultan, and related to him the circum- bled, and declared that they desired the stance, expressing his surprize at what it Pangerang to be Sultan, who was his could mean. The Sultan requested him second son, but by an interior wife, and to point out the person who had brought that they would abandon the place if the it, which he did immediately, and the Panambahan was to succeed him, accusslave being seized confessed that the siri ing him of cruelty and divers acts of murhad been sent by one of the Sultan's con

der and poisoning, especially the poisoncubines. The Sultan immediately, with- ing the Master of a Chinese junk, to whom out further explanation, ordered the he was indebted about 8000 dollars, and slave's head to be cut off in the presence of the assassination of Captain Sadler, to the surgeon, and the woman was dis whom he was indebted 30,000 dollars. patched privately. The Dutch Resident They added that they expected his bad and the rest of the factory took the alarm conduct would speedily place them in the and declared that they would return to same situation as Sambas, and probably Java. "The Sultan endeavoured to pacify draw on them the resentment of the Engthem, but in vain, and they retired to lish. Batu Layang, a solitary rock, on which The Sultan assented and told them a fort is built, about five miles below since they desired it, the Pangerang Pontiana. Here they fortified themselves would be the Sultan. The Panambahan and posted the armed cutter, and firing arrived next day and was informed of this upon all proas, attempted to block up the resolution. When he came into his fariver. The Sultan repeatedly attempted ther's presence the old man severely re-

probated his conduct and advised him to played more of the character of the artful go in pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sultan trader than of the Sovereign, though it also sent for Mr. Burn, whom he had must be owned, that he exhibited consisometime before swindled out of a valua derable suppleness and dexterity in ruling ble cargo, and having requested his for the motley mass of subjects which he had giveness, desired him to beware of the collected at Pontiana. Panambahan, as a man of naturally bad

In punishment he was uncommonly seheart, and after his death to have no in

vere and even barbarous. In his own faterviews with him unless in public. On mily the faults of his domestics, especialthe death of the old Sultan, the second ly his women, were punished in the most brother, desirous of not being involved in

cruel manner, and by the most infamous his father's debts, declined the honour of

sort of tortures, sumetimes pouring boilbeing Sultan. The head-men, however, ing water into the privities of the females, were at first refractory, and it was some or burning them alive with their paratime before they could be brought to ac mours on the suspicion of incontinence. knowledge him as Sultan, which he only The present Sultan, since the death of accomplished by dint of presents and pro his father, has conducted himself in such mises, engaging to discharge his father's

a manner as in a great measure to efface debts as soon as possible, while he gave the former dislike which was entertained up many of his own claims, especially of him by the people, carefully avoiding those which were due by the Arabs. the most prominent errors of his father's

The deceased Sultan was a man of fine character. He has endeavoured to liquipresence and the most respectable appear

date his father's debts, but has found ance, possessing the most insinuating ad them so enormous, that a long period dress and imposing manners. Profuse must elapse before this can possibly be efand ostentatious in his habits, he scrupled

fected. Carefully avoiding all superfluous at no means, however base, for raising expense and the contracting of new debts, money to support this exterior state, and he has attempted to establish better reguas he was perfectly versed in every spe

lations. He gradually dismissed the cies of deception, and always supported Arabs and religious impostors, who had the appearance of wealth, he seldom fail preyed on his father's credulity, and ated to procure credit from strangers. He tempted likewise to compel the Bugis traconcealed his debts with the utmost care, ders to pay the usual duties. In this and was in the constant habit of coutract however, he has never been able to sucing one debt to discharge another, often ceed, and many of them have left Pontiaselling goods for that purpose at a large na, in consequence of his measures, neidiscount on what he had bought them.

ther are the Chinese traders so numerous By this means his debts and his difficulties as they formerly were. went on gradually accumulating to his The present Sultan has been engaged in death. The most considerable part of his no hostilities excepting with Sambas, debts were incurred to the Bugis traders, which is still the inveterate enemy of Ponand in consequence of this, the Sul tiana. Shortly after the death of the old tan was obliged to wink at many ir Sultan of Pontiana, the chief of Sambas regularities of those traders, in regard attacked Mampawa, and had very nearly to avoiding the usual port duties. The taken the fort. Immediately on receiving Chinese repeatedly made him offers to intelligence of it, the present Sultan profarm the duties of the port, but to this ceeded to Mampawa with two thousand he would not consent, foreseeing the men, and defeated the Sambas army, tadisputes that were certain of arising king their guns, and a number of prisonbetween the Bugis and Chinese. In the all of whom, even the women, were midst of these difficulties, however, the put to death at Pontiana, and their heads Arabs and other religious impostors pre exposed publicly. The union of the Lavailed on him to advance to them nuns with the chief of Sambas, has howlarge sums of money, which they ne ever, given that chieftain a decided prever thought of refunding; thus with all ponderance at sea. his dissimulation, becoming the dupe of The mouth of Lewa or Pontiana river hypocrisy. He seems always to have dis lies about three or four miles to the N.


of the equator. The bar at the entrance from Pontiana all their supplies of opium, has only from eleven to twelve feet at piece goods, iron, and China articles. high spring tides, but above this the river The Bugis at Pontiana chiefly apply themis very deep to an immense distance, and selves to trade, the manufacture of Bugis the strength of the current seldom ex cloth, and the working of raw silk into ceeds from three to three and a half miles cloths. Many of them are possessed of an hour, and is generally less. The an very large property, amounting to above chorage in the roads is safe and free from 100,000 dollars. They are generally poor shoals, and the weather, even in October, when they come from Bugis-land, but which is the worst month, is never so bad soon acquire property from uniting fruas to interrupt the regular intercourse be gality with dexterity in trade. They are tween the ship and the shore. About se extremely economical and even penurious veu miles from the mouth of the river, at in their manner of living, insomuch that Balu Layang, there is a fort on each side the daily expense of a Bugis-man's family, of the river, with fourteen or fifteen guns however great his property may be, does mounted, being eighteen and twenty-four not amount to above three or four wangs, pounders ; on the north side of the river when the meanest Chinese labourer will and on the south side, directly opposite, continue to spend a rupee ; and a wang a number of smaller guns. The town of at Pontiana is only the twelfth part of a Pontiana is about twelve miles from the rupee. mouth of the river, where there is like The Sultan allows them to cultivate as wise a fort, and some armed vessels sta much ground as they please, without any tioned.

consideration for the same, but they selIn the town and bounds of Pontiana, dom avail themselves of this permission, there are settled about 3000 Malays, permitting their domestic slaves only to 1000 Bugis, 100 Arabs, and about 10,000

till as much as serves for their own subChinese; besides these, who are the free sistence. In navigation, the Bugis seem inhabitants, there are a considerable to liave been stationary probably for these number of slaves, many of whom are thousand years; the proas in which they Javanese, and the rest of all the other

sail from Pontiana to Pulu Penang, Java, Eastern tribes; there are also a few Bali, or any similar place, generally cost runaway Lascars from different vessels. from 150 to 300 dollars, and the whole The character of the Malays is nearly outfit, as far as respects sails, cordage, the same at Pontiana as in other Eastern provisions, stores, &c. for one of these towns; phlegmatic, indolent and proud, voyages, seldom exceeds the sum of 40 or and few of them possess much wealth. 50 dollars, while the amount of the carThe Arabs live by trade; they are gene go is generally from 10 to 40,000 dollars. rally poor when they settle, but are re The crews receive no wages, but only a spected on account of their religious cha share of the adventure, according to the racter by the Malays. They are, how- regulations of the Undang-undang. Many ever, neither such economists as the Bugis, of these proas are lost at sea, but few nor so expert as the Chinese in trade, taken by pirates, as they defend themand at present few of them possess pro- selves desperately, and never surrender. perty to the amount of 20,000 dollars. The duties at Pontiana on sales are six The Chinese seldom acquire property per cent. on all piece-goods, one dollar per above this amount at Pontiana, though pecul on iron, ditto on steel, ditto on they are industrious and expert in trade. tin, ditto on saltpetre, 50 dollars per They are fond of good living, and addict- chest on opium, bees' wax from the ined to gambling, opium, and merry mak- terior two dollars per pecul. The trade ing. They follow the occupations of mer of Pontiana, however, has greatly declinchants, mechanics and labourers, culti ed. Formerly it was annually visited by vate the ground, distill arrack, make sugar,

from eight to fifteen Chinese junks ; at search for gold-dust, and trade to the in- present, however, they never exceed the terior as well as along the coast. The number of five. Two or three small junks Chinese of Monterano and Salakan, two

come annually from Siam, but the value places very near each other, and situated of their cargoes is only about 7 or 8000* a short way to the north of Mampawa, dollars each. and who are estimated at 30,000, receive (To be concluded in our next.)



RUNJEET Singh, at an early age, found careless of fatigue ; impatient of misfor. himself at the head of the religion and go- tune, generally mild, but at intervals cruel vernment of the Sikhs, a Hindu people and inhuman. Disgrace was new to him, situate in the Punjab, or country of Five and he revenged it on those who surRivers. To a fine and prepossessing rounded him. His impetuosity broke figure he unites a countenance remarkably forth in useless imprecations on the seveanimated ;-his eyes are large and of jetrity of the season, and on the snowy black, his forehead high, nose what is mountains, those natural barriers of Kashcommonly called Roman, and a mouth mir, the obstacles to his success. At small, with an expressive smile. He pos- Lahore, his capital, Raja Runjeet Singh sesses a richly endowed mind; is well is beheld to advantage. Wholly devoid versed in the Eastern dialects ; and speaks of the tyranny which characterizes many with Auency, one or more European lan native princes, lie happily unites in himguages. His ministers he selects with self the rarely associated qualities of awe discrimination-never permitting interest and attachment, the love and duty of his to gain the ascendant of ability. During subjects. His laws are mild, and equally the whole of his reign, war has been his administered. Genius finds in him a delight. He has, however, little confi- liberal patron ; and poverty, when undence in his own subjects, and seems ever sullied by crime, a generous benefactor. . to place his chief reliance on that hardy At Lahore splendour is without ostenrace, the mountaineers of Afghanistan. tation--power devoid of oppression-muHis recent attempt and failure in the in nificence and encouragement spring from vasion of the valley of Kashmir have the throne --gratitude and admiration attached a celebrity to his character it from the people. The Punjab bears witcould not have otherwise obtained. In ness of its Prince's humanity in villages this instance he was actuated more by rebuilt, canals cleared, and wells sunk in avarice than ambition; more throu lust the sandy plains which border on the Inof spoil, than anxiety to conquer Kash dus and its branches. mir, hitherto deemed impregnable. His Runjeet Siugh is amiable in private life; reason calculated the dangers, his imagi- in politics deceitful. Generally speaking, nation heightened the probabilities of sục - the father of his subjects--terrible to his cess :-in the last he was deceived. He enemies. In his demeanour courteous, relied on the fidelity of his Sirdars, and though in conversation somewhat reserv, was misled by their treachery. Rarely ed. His reply to a General Officer, who has any native power undertaken a war had lately signalized șimself in India, with such prospects of success-never shews native intrepidity of soul:- Should one in which such flattering hopes were the British Government attack Lahore,' so justly disappointed. In the termina said Rınjeet Siugh, 'its King can die tion, as on the outset of this disgraceful lighting under its walls, but can peser expedition, Runjeet Singh evinced himself survive the fall of his capital.'




The valley of Nepal, situated ainidst well as of late by the ambition of the the immense and almost pathless moun Gorkha, and the exhibition of British tain groups which rise .southward of the power. The wild spirit of mythology, as still more elevated range of Himalaya, ap- if delighted with something covgenial in pears to have been rendered famous in the the bleakness and barrenness of nature, days of the Puranas, by the sublime oca has laid the scene of some of her most stucurrences in the history of the gods, as pendous legends amidst these dreary soliAsiatic Journ.- No. 13.

Vol. III. D

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