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tudes of snow, summoning to her aid all when the dissentions of the rulers of the the terrors and grandeur of the hills. It three petty states afforded the opportuniwould be a long task to enumerate the ty of conquest to the ambition and intrigue multiplicity of appearances which the con of the Gorkha. The nobles of Lelit descending or enraged deities liave in this Patan, or as by way of eminence it is valley or its vicinity, afforded to their usually called Patan (the city), had nomiworshippers. Kailasa Manasarowar, and nated for their sovereign Gainprejas, a the mysterious Gangutri, with innumer man of most extensive influence. He had able places of pilgrimage, are here all, not reigned however many years, when more or less, approximated. The whole for some reason being displeased with his land is rendered sacred ; every mountain, conduct, they had removed him from the spring, or torrent, bears a name in me sovereignty, which they conferred on the morial of some preternatural exploit or king of Bhatgan, who as rapidly succeeded occurrence. No doubt, amongst many his predecessor in disgrace and dethroneothers which are presented to us, we may ment. Another king was next called to recognize an interesting fact of natural the throne, and apparently in as short a history, disguised under the mysterious, time to execution. The aristocracy, for but splendid, garb of allegory. The snows such it was which had hitherto swayed at of heaven which descend upon the lofty their caprice the politics of this imporsummit of Mahadevaka Linga, and melt tant city, were unhappily not so much ing, afford her sacred waters to the at liberty in the next offer of their Ganges, have afforded this wild spirit the

sceptre. materials for one of her most interesting Prithwinarayana,the Gorkha Raja, had legends, that of the descent of Ganga. But formerly been tributary to Patan in the it was not only as the scene of unintel

days of Gainprejas : the capital of his ligible wonders that Nepal was renowned original possessions lies immediately westeven in those days. If the information ward of Mount Bansfore, the lofty peak which Mr. Wilford has produced be cor of which is seen from Nepal, about fifty rect, we learn that the valour of the miles distant. He had long meditated the mountaineers was the means of placing subjugation of the petty neighbouring the celebrated Chandragupta on the states. He had already seized the country throne of the eastern division of India. of the kings of Marecajis, who were his

The valley of Nepal, although not above relations ; and had prepared a readier ac200 miles in circuit, at the time of the cess by conciliating or subduing the several Gorkha invasion contained the capitals of mountain chiefs, whose rocks and glens three independent kingdoms. Catmandu, lay interposed between Gorkha and the the residence of the most powerful of these valley, when he was invited to his assistRajas, consisted of about 18,000 houses, ance against his brother Kings by the with a territory extended over the sur

Prince of Bhatgan. He obeyed the rounding hills to the north as far as summons, commenced hostilities against Tibet, and eastward about twelve days' Patan, and as promptly received the subjourney :-he is reported to have main mission of the nobles. His brother was tained 50,000 troops. The kingdom of constituted viceroy ; but the Raja still Lelit Patan, although the city contained continuing to disturb the tranquillity of a larger pumber of houses, was reckoned his new territories, the nobles revolted, of secondary importance ; it extended and set up Delmerden Sah the viceroy, four days' journey to the borders of Muc- For several years he waged war against wampur. Bhatgan, which lies eastward his brother, until the opinion of the arisof Lelit Patan, contained about 12,000 tocracy again changing, he also was defamilies, and stretched eastward to the posed from his dignity, and made room distance of five or six days' journey, as far for a man of Lelit Patan, poor, but of the as the country of the Ciratas, a wild and royal house. The first effort of Prithsavage hill tribe, of whom at present little winarayana against the plain, was thus is known. Favoured by the rugged nature rendered abortive. of the surrounding country, Nepal appears Decisive and energetic in his active to have preserved its religion, language, measures, the king of Gorkha knew also and independence equally uncontaminated how to relax or change them as the oc. by any foreign admixtures to the time casion might require. After more fully

securing the alliance of the hill people, occasion, some inhabitants of a neighhe began again to descend into the plain, bouring village, having been detected in and more openly to evince his intentions. an attempt to smuggle a trifling article Cirtipur, a populous town reckoning 8000 into the plain, the whole of their fellow houses, about a league from Catmandu, villagers were, without regard to age or was the first point which arrested the in- sex, or innocence, or mercy, destroyed vader's progress. Disappointed of relief with circumstances of the most revolting from their sovereign the King of Patan, barbarity. Still however, the king of and pressed by the activity of the besieger, Gorkha was disappointed and obliged the inhabitants obtained the assistance of again to change his policy. That maxim Gainprejas, who, without delay, gave which may justly be styled the last resort battle and a complete overthrow to the of tyrants, which has been exhibited with Gorkha. A brother of the king was num so much splendour and effect in the most bered among the slain ; and Prithwina- important histories of our species, was rayana himself escaped with difficulty into not above the comprehension of this unthe mountains, by the fidelity and vigour civilized invader. What the sword and of his bearers. Gainprejas, to whom the famine had equally failed to effect, dissenhonour of victory was due, was at once tions fomented among the nobles of the elected king by the inhabitants of the three kingdoms would appear to have rescued city. This spontaneous effusion speedily realized. In the execution of of admiring gratitude did not however suf this design, we cannot but be struck with fice to remove the suspicions or the malice the circumstance, that a large body of of Gainprejas :—when the chief persons Brahımans were the tools employed ; of the town waited on him at a confer secured by the notions of sanctity and inence appointed in consequence, they were violability which all ranks of their counbasely seized by his soldiers ; some were trymen attach to the person of a Brahman clandestinely put to death, and others these characters were suffered to traverse openly disgraced and led about the city in all boundaries and all distinctions; alan ignominious manner. Revenge for though subjects of the enemy, they found their foriner conduct is conjectured to opportunity to bribe the principal men by have deluded the reinstated prince to this liberal promises. When the party of the conduct.

invader was in his estimation sufficiently The king of Gorkha, although thus re- strong he advanced a second time to the pulsed with disgrace, could not abandon defences of Cirtipur, correcting at the the favourite project of his ambition; hi same time a military error which he had therto his abilities or his valour had al- committed in the former siege, when he ways succeeded, and generally with great exposed his army before an unsubdued facility. Wild and unlettered as he might fortress between Catmandu and Patan, have been, he had no doubt frequently cities in the possession of the enemy. We listened to a common rule of policy which have previously seen that his disposition instructs the young Hindu Raja, that was (naturally) severe and sanguinary; it where the strength of the lion fails, re

was further inflamed at this time to a recourse should be had to the craftiness of morseless rage by the conduct of the bethe jackal. The mountain barriers which sieged. After several months blockade, afford such security to the plain, it is very

the Gorkha demanded the submission of obvious, may be rendered, if the passes

the inhabitants, when a letter was reare in the hands of an enemy, the un

turned with abusive and exasperating friendly means of cutting off all inter- language, a surer proof of their determicourse with other states. These we have nation to persevere, than of their courage before mentioned were now at the com

or their wisdom. The instant of its remand of the Gorkha ; accordingly, a most ception a general storm was ordered. rigorous blockade was imposed, with the He was repulsed however by the resoludesign of creating a famine; and with tion of the town's people with considersuch dreadful severity were the orders ex able loss; his brother was wounded by ecuted, that a little salt or cotton found an arrow, and the siege of Cirtipur was on a traveller was sufficient to condemn

raised the second time, Prithwiparayana's him to death on the next tree. On one

attention for a season after this event

was occupied with one of the twenty-four Gainprejas, amongst other endeavours to kings, whose territories lie to the west; olitain succours, had applied to the Engas soon as matters in that quarter were ac lish, who had already detached a small commodated he recommenced the attack party in the direction of Nepal to repress of Cirtipur. Suruparatna his brother, who some outrages committed against their had been wounded in the last assault, was subjects by the people of Gorkha. Capt. the conductor of this expedition; the Kinloch, it will be remembered, penetrated siege had continued a considerable time as far as Sidli, a strong fort in the hills, when the three kings of Nepal resolved which he captured ; when the news was to send assistance to the heroic Cirtipu- brought to the Raja, he suddenly marched rans. The benefits which might have the whole of the Gorkha army under cobeen expected from the league were how ver of night from the siege to meet the ever frustrated by the treachery of the European intruders who dared to appear in nobles, who out of envy to Gainprejas the cause of justice, and their allies ; but had actually joined the enemy and fought the British army was not able to proceed against their countrymen in an unsuccess amongst the hills, and the Raja returned fal attack made on the Gorkha's posts. to the attack of Catmandu, which he At the end of about seven months á noble now considered of more easy acquisition of Lelit Patan, who had deserted to the thau Lelit Patan. Gorkhas, found means of introducing Gainprejas even in this extremity was their forces into the town. The strong not to be subdued by force. The Bralıholds above the petta still held out; but man emissaries of the Gorkha are related a general amnesty being promised, the Cir at this time to have engaged not only the tipurans exhausted by a long siege sur nobles, but to have gained the confidence rendered. Prithwinarayana was not pre- of the king himself, so far it is said, as sent at this transaction, he no sooner to obtain his credit to a plausible story learned that his gallant enemies were in of a conspiracy organising in his camp, his power, than an order was transmitted against the liberty of his foe, who they to his commanders to put to death a se promised should be delivered in charge to lection of the principal inhabitants, and himself. The king thus deluded and his to cut off the noses and lips of the rest, chiefs corrupted, the besieger found it not excepting the infants in arms; these no difficult matter to introduce unopposhe ordered to be carefully preserved, that ed, a sutficient number of armed men into he might have the pleasure of ascertain

the city, which he effected by night, and ing exactly, how many souls there were

it was with a most diligent use of a few in Cirtipur. The name of the unfortu- minutes, that the outcast monarch escapnate city was changed by the brutal con

ed to Patan with three hundred of his queror to Naskatapur or the Town of cut

best and most faithful soldiers. noses.

The fall of Catmandu occurred in 1768. Patan, the royal residence, was the The Gorkha Raja without loss of time next object to engage the attention of the pushed forward his attempt on Patan ; Gorkha. He 'laid siege to it immediately; the same methods were again resorted to many severe engagements took place; the

to cajole the vobles ; he was lavish in his inhabitants, on whom the fate of their promises, so far from deteriorating their countrymen had a most appalling effect, possessions he would even augment them z being threatened with the additional pu- his domestic priest, in his master's name, nishment of losing their right hands, was commissioned to 'engage him under were much inclined to surrender ; their the most awful imprecations to the falspirit however was not yet subdued, and filment of his protestations. Gainprejas great difficulties remaired to success,

and the king of Patan perceived the when an eveät transpired which forcibly spreading corruption, and withdrew to characterizes the activity of Prithwinaray- Bhatgan. For some months after his ana's mind, who seized with decision an

admission, the Gorkha adhered to his enopportunity which enabled him to retire gagements, treated the chiefs with markfrom a disadvantageous advance without ed attention ; even a viceroy from their apparent disgrace, and at the same time

own number was to be granted ; but on transfer his 'efforts to a weaker point. the day of his formal entry he succeeded

in securing the persons of the whole as more elevated character among the nobles sembly which was collected at the river and the people, the Gorkha power might side to receive him ; their sons were al not have been sufficient even at this periready at his court as companions to his od to overthrow it: but the same arts son, and an individual of each house was had only to contend with similar venality, in durance at Navacut; the conqueror

and of course had the same result. It then made a sort of triumphal entry, and was conquered in the early part of 1769. proceeded in procession amidst his troops Gainprejas, it may be proper to notice, in to the principal temple, and to take pos his last extremity sallied and rushing in session of the royal palace. It was not despair towards the palanquin of the tyto be supposed that the uncultivated sol rant received a wound which in a few days diers of the hills could be restrained on terminated his life. The king of Lelit such an occasion; certain it is that the Patan died in contivement. The king of houses ind property of the nobles were Bhatgan retired to end his days as a devisited with the afflictions which they in votee at the holy Kasi. contestably believed were merited. The Thns in the space of four years was the consternation was excessive, but cruelty conquest of Nepal achieved ; that of the and perfidy could not stop here ; men na country of the Ciratas followed. Prithwi. turally hate those whom they bave wrong narayana still extended his domination; at ed. The tyrant ordered all the unhappy

the time of his death it stretched as far nobles to execution, his will was put as Cooch Bahar, a district of Bengal. He into effect hy characters who found a plea was succeeded by his eldest son Pratapa sure in the torments of their mangled Singla, who held the government two victims.

years, and was succeeded by his eldest The torrent of invasion had now nearly brother Bahadar Sah. Different pretenreached its greatest height. Bhatgan, sions to the government were now made, lying to the east of the two other royal and the politics of Nepal were thrown into cities, had as yet been protected from its the greatest confusion. effects. Had there been any principles of

OBSERVATIONS

ON THE

EXCAVATIONS AND SCULPTURES IN THE ISLAND OF

ELEPHANTA.
(Extracted from the MS. Journal of W. Pyke, kept in the year 1712.)

I HAD been here many days constantly of Bombay Castle, attended by twentyemployed in clearing the ship, so that I four lascars and sailors carrying two days had no time for diversion of any kind, but provisious, I set off early for Elephanta, at length made a holiday to see a famous and in two hours' time arrived at a place pagoda on the island of Elephanta ; my of the Company's called Butcher's Island, curiosity was occasioned by having heard a low but fruitful land, where the Commuch of the stupendous works on the pány formerly kept their cattle for the island of Salset, and that this pagoda factory, but now so often plundered by on Elephanta was somewhat of that na Caun Anjee Angria, that they are no longer ture. The little time I had to stay here ventured on it. We went there for shootnot permitting me to go to see the won- ing, but finding no game proceeded diderful pagodas on Salset, I resolved to rectly for Elephanta, and came there in take to myself one day at least, in order two hours. We coasted along shore, to view something which might give me which was lined with sunken rocks, till an idea of the rest; wherefore, in my we came to a bay on the S. E. side, where own long boat, with Captain Baker in his we saw on a small hill, a sea-mark, which pinnace, accompanied by Captain Mack- I suppose gave name to this island, it intosh, Mr. Craddock, purser of the being an elephant with a young one standLichfield, my doctor, and two gentlemen ing on its back. Leaving six hands in the

ner.

boats we landed, and ascended a hill to a trouble which I had now was because the small ruinated castle that overlooks the little time I had to stay was not sufficient bay. Just on the brow of the hill we set to take a tolerable account of what I saw ; up a tent, and fenced it well about with however we fell to work, and with markstones and pricking briars, so that we ed lines measured every part, both length could not be attacked on a sudden any and breadth, throughout, and found it to other way than by the slope of the hill, be one hundred and four feet wide, and which we defended by our fire-arms : for one hundred and four feet long, and would the famous pirate of these parts, Caun have been a square but for some small Anjee Angria, very often lands here, and apartments (or vestries) left at each corcarries away all the cattle, and sometimes the people too. Then, having placed cen In this temple there are no windows, tinels, we went to take a more exact nor other light than what comes in from survey of our sea-mark, the elephant, the three great entrances on the north, which stood on a small hill by himself, a the south, and the western sides, which little below our quarters: our way to it was makes the middle and the eastern side now a little overgrown with briars; the dark; so much so that we were obliged rock itself seems to have received injuries to light candles, or should not have obby time, it being cracked, and also in some tained so perfect a survey : it appeared places flawed by the weather, which, in that the temple consists of seven alleys the season of the westerly monsoons, is (aisles) all alike, and the entrances alike, very violent in these parts. But who cut which I will describe presently. Now this rock into the shape of an elephant is this mountain was a vast rock, and by not now to be known npon the strictest the industry of man it had been cut and enquiry.

hollowed away with so much art, that it Having taken a survey of this, we set became a temple, and for the pillars and out the next morning for the great Pa- necessary ornaments of the church they goda. In our way thither I took notice of left supports of the same solid rock, not a very small and mean village, and the cut away, but carved in the likeness of cottagers told us, that last night they lay pillars, so digging out this spacious place, there in their houses, they not being consecrated to their deity. afraid of Caun Angria, because of us At the east end, in the chief or middle English, who were so well prepared with niche stood the image of a queen, eighteen fire-arms that they feared no danger. As feet high from the waist to the top of the we passed towards the great pagoda, in crown; she shewed three faces and four a smooth narrow road cut out of the hands, all curiously carved and loaded rock, where the ground would not natu with ornaments. rally allow of an even passage, I took In the middle of the south part of this notice of another rock, cut into the shape temple stood a lesser temple, carved also of a borse, which has obtained the name

out of the same rock, as if built like of Alexander's horse, I know not for a wall. It was four-square and had a what reason. We pursued this road till doorway in every side, each corner was a we arrived at the end of the island, where, pillar, and on every side of each doorway about one third up the mountain, we stood an image of a gigantic size, armed found the path and entrance to the Pa at all points as if to defend the place. goda ; the road we went was narrow, When you enter this place you find all but very pleasant, yielding various de- plain within, no manner of resemblance lightful prospects. In an easy ascent or carved work to be seen ; but in the round the mountain at length we came to middle thereof a square low altar, on our journey's end, and the reward of all which was placed a large polished stone our trouble ; for when we entered and of cylindrical form standing on its basis, beheld the Pagoda, we found it so noble,' but the top or upper end was covered. so spacious, and magnificent, that it abun- The Gentoos call this the stone of Mahadantly exceeded what I expected to find; devať, a name they give to the original for though I had heard wonderful ac of all things; and this hieroglyphic of counts of these stupendous works, yet the half of the curious and remarkable things I saw had never been told me, The chief

• The Lingam.

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