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God is intended to shew that it is beyond body of a man with the head of an elethe limited comprehension of man, to phant. feign to himself any just idea of him who There is neither writing nor character made the world; for, they say, that vo to discover what people it belonged to, nor man can behold the great God and live, aby distinct dress, for the different habits which is the reason that he cannot be fo all the Indian people appear in one represented in his proper shape. I en- figure or other, and no man that I have quired into the reason of their placing yet met with can tell who were the proper such a stone there, and in that awful and inhabitants of this place, or who built solemn manner; they answered, that this this temple; but I have been informed, stone is dedicated to the honour of Maha that the great fane, or pagoda, on Salset, deva, who created the universe, and his is vastly superior to this in all respects, name is placed under it, and therefore and that Captain Baker has taken a great that the stone which defends the name of deal of pains to describe it. the great and inconceivable God from all Ramajee Comajee, the Company's bropollution, is itself a holy memorial and ker on Bombay, tells me there are several monument of what cannot be described, very fine temples of this nature, far exhut is not itself a God; yet, being thus ceeding these, up in the country; but placed, though a stone, no profane or wherever the Moors come they destroy polluted person ought to touch it. them, because of the imagery, and the
The ceiling or roof of this temple is flat. Portuguese for the idolatry, so that most Above is only a representation of beams
of them are now falling to decay; yet I cut in the stone, and lying along from take this sort of building to be much more pillar to pillar. The pillars and pilas- durable than any of the European buildters are of grotesque shapes; there are ings whatever ; for it seems to me that fifty-two, which is ten more than Dr. nothing but an earthquake could entirely Fryer gives account of in his description destroy it; it must therefore endure till of this place. All the east side, and the nature itself decay, when this and all N.E.S. E. and S. W. corners are full of things else must end. When this was curious imagery of men, women, and begun, though I am far from knowing, beasts, and sometimes a composition of I yet take the liberty to make some conhoth. For example the effigies of great jectures. persons compelling their subjects to obe If we look back to the creation of the dience, others executing justice, others, world, we shall find that men did first as we conceived by the aspect of their offer sacrifices in the fields ; afterwards faces, shewing mildness and giving friendly they rolled huge stones to the place where admonitions, and some shewing their feats they worshipped, as a memorial that the of war.
place was hallowed. Succeeding ages I now return to give some more particu- erected altars somewhat more methodilar account of the imagery within the cally, and fixed them in groves, and on temple. In the S. E. gate were carved out the goodliest and pleasantest parts of the all the solemnities of the ma age of a mountains, some in grottos and darker Gentoo prince or raja, as we guessed recesses and solitudes; as the Chinese, him to be by a particular sort of line or though they have many temples, consecord he wore about him, that none others crate to their gods places on the tops of are allowed to wear ; opposite to this is hills, in caves, in grottos, and on rocks, the figure of a king sitting on his throne, in groves, &c. : but later times increaswith divers attendants, and on each side ing in experience and wisdom, men arriva woman in a pleading posture, with an ed at the perfection of building noble and armed man holding a child by the leg in regular structures, and all for the purpose one hand, and in the other a sword, as if of paying religious duties and homage to going to divide it, and this because of the the deity they adored. likeness to the story we called the history
The ancient Egyptians appear first to of Solomon's justice. There were divers have excelled in the curious art of archiother representations of which we learned tecture, and have many great monunot the stories. There were some with mental pyramids yet standing, shewing six hands, almost all bearing weapons,
their ancient industry and ingenuity. and having habits of defence; one had the Solomon, in his temple at Jerusalem, im
proved the style of building, but he was that counrty published in Italian at Rome, inspired by the Fountain of Wisdom him And Ludolphus in his history before-menself, and might well exceed those who tioned, page 391, says that formerly arhad gone before him. This work I con chitecture as it was " in request so it was clude to be much later than any of those an art well known amongst them, as is times, though it seems to have copied evident by the ruins of the city Axuma, somewhat from each of those different and the structures of magnificent temples styles of building; for all the pillars here
cut out of the living stone rocks ; but the are nearly of such forms as I have seen imperial seat being removed, those builddescribed in old draughts for the pillars of ings grew out of date, their kings choosSolomon's temple, only these, as they are ing rather to abide in tents or pavilions, supposed to support a greater weight, are being because of their wars accustomed made lower ; neither are they like to any to camps." of the Tuscan, Grecian, or Roman orders:
Thus we find that the Egyptian workbut the temple itself, being only a large grotto, has a close afinity to the Egyptian and also that before the days of Lalibala,
men were the builders of such like temples, method; as for instance, the twelve that is about five hundred years ago, this chambers at the four corners. This,
astonishing kind of workmanship had not indeed, being the natural rock, is more capable of being capacious than the pyra- estimate this not to be older, perhaps of
been heard of in Ethiopia, wherefore I mids which needed many thick walls to
lesser date, for this temple was never support the top.
quite finished ; for by some figures which The earliest account of such temples I
are but half carved, it would appear that have met with in history, is that mentioned by Job Ludolphus, in his history of their work was suddenly broken off. It Ethiopia, now published in English;where
seems to me probable, that when Tamerin (page 170) he gives an account of Ne. lane the Great, who was a Muhammadan, gus Lalibala, who iu the beginning of the (from whom the present Mogul is the
twelfth in descent) had conquered India, thirteenth century, when he came to rule the worship of imagery was entirely overthe kingdoms of Ethiopia, sent for artists
turned, and the chief of the Gentus driven out of Egypt, and after a wonderful man.
to the end of the kingdom, and by the ner of building unheard of till that day, time they could be well settled in those he did not cement stones and bricks toge- parts, the Portingals that came into Inther with lime and loam, por compact dia under Vasco in the year 1497, about the roof with rafters, but hollowed out
two hundred and sixteeu years ago (1712), whole solid rocks, leaving pillars for or
might drive them there, as is easy to do nament where requisite, the arches and
to a people that dare not kill even a beast the walls being throughout all of the same
in their own defence. The Banians say, one stone, of which the Ethiopian poet that all the people who did live in these zingeth thus :
islands are gone into the Raja's countries To mighty Lalibala peace,
where they are defended in the exercise Who stately structures reared ; of their religion. And to adorn the pompous piles,
The famous Linschoten in his East InFor no expenses spared.
dia Voyages mentions this pagoda, which By vast expense and toilsome pains,
in his time was esteemed the high and The rock a church became,
chief temple. Page 81, he says, that the The roof, the floor, and squared sides,
true name of this island is Pory, but callAll one continued frame.
ed by the Portuguese Eleplanta. He comNo stones in blended mortar laid,
mends greatly the workmanship exhibitThe solid parts divide;
ed there, which he says was thought to Nature has carved all without,
be the performance of the Chinese, when Within the workmau's pride. they used to traffic in the country. When Alvarez gives an account of ten temples the Portuguese settled in Malacca, they all formed after this wonderful manner in prohibited the China vessels from passing Ethiopia, which were twenty-four years further; and about the same time they finishing ; he saw them all, and gives a took possession of these islands, I must draught of them in picture, in his history of acknowledge that a great portion of the
its southern side stood a chapel full of site to this is another temple of the same fine imagery; and concerning one of those size, without images ; a spring has filled figures, a man's body with an elephant's it with water, and in the middle is a head, they tell this fable, that a cruel and temple of Mahadeva, twenty-four feet. tyrannical raja (for all the deities they square, encircled by an island about pine feign to have been so at first) had a son feet wide; in front of the entrance is au in whom the people delighted for the armed woman with six hands, whose title mildness of his temper and other virtues ; we know not. On the south of the great but one day as this son was asleep he cut temple also is a large tank, then a pagoda off his head, and threw it into the sea, similar to the last, but not above ten feet when a great prophet coming by denounc- high; the colonnade is fifty feet long, with ed great calamities and afflictions on the a chapel of Mahadeva, and a dark room bloodtbirsty monarch for taking away the twenty-seven feet square, each with a life of one born to be a god and immortal, naked figure of a woman with six hands, The mother of the young prince prayed him and in each' a different weapon. The to restore her son's life, who ordered that principal figure in the middle of the east they should cut off the head of some noble side (the Trimurti) is set out with much beast and place it on the young king's carved work, and is very large, measurshoulders, when there happened to be no ing from the top of the crown to the waist noble creature near but a young ele- eighteen feet. Having thus taken a view phant; they applied its head, when the of this great pagoda we left it, and, have graft succeeded. The young prince lived ing refreshed ourselves at the tent, emand became very famous, governing the barked in our boats and steered for Bomkingdom of his cruel father; when he bay, where we arrived that night, after grew up he married : his wife bore a
spending two days with an industry about white elephant, of which they tell miracu- trifles, which if I had rightly applied to lous things. The imagery of this place the art of getting money, would have seems not so antique as the rest. Oppo- tended to a better purpose.
CULTURE OF THE WHITE POPPY AND PREPARATION OF OPIUM,
AS PRACTISED IN THE PROVINCE OF BAHAR,
The soil of Bahar consists of clay, and The seeds are sown in October and Noa large proportion of crystalline and cal-' vember; the plants are allowed to grow careous sands ; in many places white mica six or ten inches from each other, and are abounds, in others calcareous grits, which plentifully supplied with water. the natives buru into lime ; on the sur When the young plants are six or eight face, natron, nitrous and alimentary salts inches high, they are watered more sparfrequently vegetate, and a selenitic salt is ingly; but the cultivator strews over the often found. The earth is of a pale colour, areas a nutritient compost of ashes, cowreadily diffusing in the mouth.' It effer- dung, and a large portion of nitrous earth vesces violently, with nitrous acid, which scraped from the highways and old mud quickly dissolves the calcareous particles. walls.
The field being well prepared by the When the plants are near flowering, plough and harrow, and reduced to an
they are watered profusely to increase the exactly level superficies, is divided into quantity of juice. When the capsules are quadrangular areas, seven feet long and half grown, no more water is given, and five broad, with intervals of two feet, they begin to collect the opium. which are raised five or six inches, and
At sunset two longitudinal double inexcavated so as to form aqueducts for con cisions* are made upon each half ripe capveying water to each area, for which pur
* The instrument with which this operation is. pose a well is provided in every field. efected, consists simply of two thin plates of steel,
sule, passing upwards, care being taken sold at from two to six Spanish dollars not to penetrate the internal cavity of the per pound. capsule. The incisions are repeated every The good and bad uses of opium are evening until each capsule has received six well known and described in European or eight wounds; they are then allowed books. The natives apply it to nearly the to ripen their seeds. The ripe capsules same purposes, only making a bolder use afford little or no juice. Were the wound of it. They take it as a cordial internally, made in the heat of the day, a cicatrix by which they are agreeably inebriated at would be too soon formed; whilst the a small expence. It is supposed to give might dews, by their moisture, favour the vigour and courage, and is taken previonsextillation of the juice. Early in the ly to all daring and arduous attempts ; morning old women, boys, and girls, col but by too frequent use it emaciates the Ject the juice by scraping it off the wounds person, and a languid stupefaction apwith a sinall iron scoop, and deposit it in pears in the countenance. 'an earthen pot, where it is worked by the In the late famine of 1770, it was purhand in the open sunshine until it becomes chased by the unhappy sufferers at exorbi. of considerable spissitude. It is then form tant prices, to allay the cravings of hunger, ed into globular cakes of four pounds and to banish the dreadful prospect of weight, and placed in little earthen basins death. to be exsicated : the cakes are covered over
Opium is beat up with a few cooling with poppy or tobacco leaves, and dried
seeds in form of a cataplasm, spread upon until fit for sale. Opium is frequently a leaf of the ricinus, and applied to tumi. adulterated with cow-dungt, and the ex
fied glands, particularly to discuss syphilitract of the poppy plant obtained by buil. tic swellings, for which purpose it is not 'ing, and by various other substances, inferior to any European prescription. which are kept secret. The seeds are sold in the markets, and
The Chinese smoke opium with their are reckoned delicious eating. They are
tobacco as the greatest delicacy. After used in emulsions, and enter into the cool
the ceremony of salutation, it is the first ing prescriptions of the Hindustani phy- The Malays both smoke and chew opium
compliment paid to a stranger or visitor. sicians. Opium is here a considerable
to excess. 'branch of trade. About 600,000 pounds
I have omitted the description of the weight are annually exported from the Ganges, most of which goes to China and plant, as it is to be found in every botani. the Eastern Islands, where it is usually
cal writer. It is the Papaver Somuiferum of Linnæus.
It grows in Britain about an inch and a half long, and one third of an without care to be a much statelier plant inch bread, which are placed parallel, and bound to each other with a thread, the points being kept
than in this country with the utmost art. separate by one turn of the ligature, each piece. Opium may probably be produced in Brihaving two sharpened points ; four separate lines tain or America, upou grounds of little are marked on the plant. . A thread noose is value, and give employment to the aged placed on the forefinger. † Sometimes to su great an amount, that it may
and young who are unfit for laborious be doubted whether the consumer eat more of the work. One acre yields here sixty pounds adulteration than of the drug ; a circumstance
of opium, which, valued at only nine which shews the necessity which existed of the Company's taking the trade of this article into
shillings per pound, gives twenty-seven Sheir own hands.
pounds per acre produce.
HISTORY OF THE PORTUGUESE LANDING IN INDIA,
Written on Leaves of the Brab Tree, or Ola, in the Malabar Language. (The original was obtained from the Vencaticota Raja who is of the Tamuri family.)
When the Emperor Perumal was about country of Malabar in shares to the difto depart for Mecca, he gave the whole ferent Rajas ; at which period the Tamp