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ri* Zamorin was at some distance, which irri* Raja. But amongst these Rajas, was the reason of his not having a in point of dignity, power, and consider'country given to him. The Tamuri Raja ation in foreign countries, the Tamuri after this came back ; Perumal gave his was pre-eminent ; and amidst all the reseal and sword to him, telling the Tamu- maining Rajas in Malabar in honours and ri he must conquer countries, and retain diguities, the Tamuri stood first. The them by that sword. Accordingly in a reason of this was the gift of the seal and short time the Tamuri Raja employed sword by the Emperor Perumal, who himhimself diligently to do as Perumal order- self reposed confidence in the tribe of ed him, and he got the country of Kori- Islam ; after whose departure they came kotet. At this time the people of the and settled in the country, put trust in tribe of Islam came to see the Raja, took the Tamuri, and on account of this friendup their residence at Korikote, and from ship, strangers came from other countries, divers countries merchants and trades- with shipping people, whom the Raja repeople came; and by exercising their re ceived honourably, and sent them away spective callings, Korikote began to grow in a friendly manner. When the Raja a large place. Throughout the whole of went to any place, either for war or any Malabar, the city of Korikote was the first other affair of consequence, the sword was in rank. After this the tribe of Islam carried before him, as formerly before Pecame from several places, and assembled rumal. If any circumstance occasioned a together, by which the Tamuri became war between the Tamuri and any other the most powerful, and the principal of the Malabar Rajas, and they gave him among the Rajas of Malabar, of whom, either money or country, and sued for some were possessed of strength and some peace, then he retired quietly and left were not. In this period none of the them ; but if any of the Rajas neither Rajas passed each others boundaries, gave money or country, he then would which was agreeable to the orders of not cause his army to commit devastation, Perumal at his departure. Their king- but remained for a length of time upon doms extended some one kathumi, and the borders of that country, till he was some more. Some of them had 100 men, satisfied :-such was the ancient custom, some 200, some 300, some 1000, some nor could he act in any other manger. 5000, some 10,000, some 100,000, and But if quarrels and wars arose among the some had still more. In some countries Other Rajas of Malabar, they slaughtered there were two Rajas, in some three, and each other, and ruined each others country. in others even more. In the countries that
The History of the Fringist coming into had two Rajas, if one was more powerful
Malabar. than the other, he would not quarrel with and trespass in the others boundaries. If sixth of Karkadom 6729, three of the
In the year of the Taliha 9041, or the ảny did quarrel, he would get no one to
Fringis' ships came to Pandaranykolassist him. Amongst these Rajas, the one
lamll. It being in the monsoon, they who had most men governed the country anchored there, and came on shore. They from Teke$ Kollam || to Kaniakumarit: at
went to Korikote, where they learnt all this time his name was Tripathi**. The next Raja reigned over Madi Walaput- did not trade, but returned again to their
the news of Malabar. At this time they nam, around Kannanur, Edèkaat, and Dhurmapuram ; he was called the Kola- the motive of their coming was for pepper,
own country, Portugal :-it is supposed
Two years afterwards they returned from • The mode in which the Malabare write the official title of their Raja, which Europeans spell Zamorin.
Kolatirri is called by Europeans Kolastry.
The word is derived from Kola, a thin piece of † Spelt and called by Europeans Calicut.
stick, and Tirri, cotton, when wound round it to 7. Commonly spelt Coss, a distance of four
form the wick of a lamp. miles.
† Pringi, a vulgar name for a European, chiefly Teké is South. | Kollam, the name of a confined to the Portuguese, place, called by Europeans Quilon, to the north.
• The term by which the Musulmans of Malaward of Cochin.
bar signify the Hegira. Kaniakumary is Cape Comorin.
$ 672, Malabar style, of which the year 980 • The official name of the Travancore Raja's commenced :be 14th Scpt. 1804. Sircar is Tirnpasaaron, taken, probably, from 1l A place two miles south of Koilandi, and Tirnpathy.
thirteen worth of Calicut.
Portugal with six ships, and came to Kori- took in their lading of goods at Cochin, kote. They landed; and while they were and went away; the other three remained trading in a merchant-like manner, the there. On hearing this, the Tampri Raja Fringis said to the Tamuri's Karjakars*, set off to Cochin with 100,000 Nayrs*, • If you will put a stop to the trade of the and several Mapillas, for the purpose of Arabs and Mapillast, we will give more seizing these ships ; but a very great money to the Sircar1 than they do. Du- firing was kept up, and at that time they ring this time the Mapillas and Fringis could not get into Cochin. · After, this the quarrelled, and came to blows. The Raja Ponanywaikel Mapillas fitted out three ordered some of his people to go and put vessels, embarked on them, and sailed to a stop to it; the Fringis quarrelled with where the three ships were; a battle took them too, and seventy of their people were place between them, and many of the Mapkilled in the affray. All the rest went on illas having been killed, they retreated. board their ships, and fired their large The next day the Ponanywaikel people guns at those assembled on the shore ; and the Baligàt people together fitted they in return fired at them. It continued out four vessels ; the people of Kapata for a short time, and the whole of the and those of Kollam fitted out three, toships then sailed for Cochin, where they gether seven vessels, on which the Ma. landed, saw the Raja of the country, built pillas embarked, and had a severe engagea fort there : this was the first Fringi fort ment with the Fringis, in which they that was built in Malabar. There was at suffered no defeat ; but as the rains were the time a Pallys there,' which the Fringis near, the Tamuri withdrew his people to pulled down and destroyed. These people Calicut. remained at Cochin, and carried on the On Thursday the 22d of the month business of merchants in a proper man. Metha, in the year of the Taliha 915, or ner. They then went to Kananur, lived 683 Malabar style, the Fringis came to among the people there in a peaceable Korikote, entered the town, burnt the manner, and built a fort ; they carried on Miskala Pally, got into the Tamuri's divers kinds of merchandize, bought pep- Kowlgum, and there took up their abode. per; some of them went to Portugal. At this time the Tamuri Raja was absent The cause of their coming from and re on a war against a distant country; the turning to such a distance, was supposed whole of the Nayrs about Korikote ass to be for pepper. A year after this, four sembled together, attacked the Fringis, ships came from Portugal ; they landed and drove them from the Kowlgum, at Cochin and Kananur, where they in which action the latter lost 500 men bought pepper and ginger ; again they killed, the rest of them embarked on their went home. At the expiration of two vessels and went away. Once before the years, twenty-eight ships came from Por- above date, the Fringis disembarked from tugal ; they again returned with pepper, their ships at Ponanit ; and of the vese ginger, and divers other goods. At this sels laid up there they burnt about fifty, period the 'Tamuri Raja went against the and killed seventy Mapillas. After this Cochin Raja, and captured the others the Fringis sailed for Teke Kollam, had Kowlguml. During the war, three of the
an interview with the Raja, addressed him Cochin Rajas were killed ; and the Ta- respectfully, and built a fort there ; nor muri having conquered the Cochin coun did they procure any where so much peptry, went to Korikote. A year after this per as at Cochin and Teke Kollam, which period, ten ships came, seven of them fresh
was the reason of their erecting the fort, ships, and three of them belonging to the After this the Fringis went to Goa, and former twenty-eight, which, after setting captured it, at which period Goa belonged off, put back again. The seven fresh ships to Adil Shah Sultan." The Fringis then
made it the principal place of their resie * Karyakar is a Malabar term for a Minister of dence for the transaction of all affairs in Government.
Malabar. Adil Shah Sultan attacked + Mapilla is the name given to those Musalmans' descendants of Arabs who are settled in
the Fringis, and retook Goa ; but they Malabar.
* Nayrs are the hereditary soldiery of Malabar. Pally is the name for the Mapilla place of † Ponani, a large Mapilla town on the sea worship.
coast, so called from Pon or Poon, guld, and Ane, | Kowlgum means palace.
Sircar means Government.
returned in great force, and a second time the deception intended. Immediately on carried it. They then built several forts hearing this, the Raja said; “I am going in that country, collected their forces, and to the Tank, and will return again immethe power of the Fringis from that time diately ;' by which means he effected his increased daily, at which period they and escape. The Fringy who had given this the 'l amuri Raja had some friendly con information to the Raja, was sent by his ferences together, and made peace. The comrades to Kananur. The Fringis now cause of this was, that from the time of began to kill the Nayrs, and to force the the former quarrel, the trade of the Ma- Mapillas from their abodes; on which all pillas decreased ; and the person who the latter withdrew from the coast, and was then Tamuri had been some time assembled together to the eastward, among dead, and the Elia* Raja had succeeded, the Mapillas living in Cochin. Of the who considered that it might be good Mupanmar*, Ahumatha Marca, Kuahaly policy to be at peace with the Fringis, Marca, and Aly Marca, these three men that it would cause both his city and the set off from Cochin, together with their trade of the Mapillas to flourish in the followers. They came to Koricote, had same way that the traffic of Cochin and an interview with the Raja; on which the Kananur did ; that on these conditions, Fringis considered them as intending to if their differences were made up, it act inimically against them. They colwould be beneficial to Korikote. In this lected warlike stores, set off from Cochin, treaty an article was inserted by the Ta came to Ponanywaikel ; they landed there, muri, that the Mapillas in his domin- destroyed the houses, burnt some of the ions should every year load four vessels Pally ; they cut down the cocoa-nut trees with ginger and pepper, and sail for Mecca, growing by the sea side, and killed some of without any hindrance given by the Frin- the people. They staid there one day gis, to which the latter assented. And after this, and the next night they sailed when the Fringis began the building of for Pandrany Kollem, where they seized the fort, the Mapillas, commenced their all who had come to trade, and forty of voyage for Arabia with the four ships ; their vessels ; some of the people there they sailed under the flag and passport of were also killed. In this manner did they the Fringis :--this was in the year of the devastate the country, and rendered it -Taliha 921, or 689 Malabar style, The impossible for the inhabitants to reside in above vessels disposed of their cargoes, their abodes ; on which the Tamuri preand returned again to Korikote, at which pared to go to war with them ; but as he time the Fringis had finished the fort ; was himself absent at the time from after which they would not permit the Korikote, he sent his royal writing to his ginger and pepper to be carried to Mecca, Karyakar Eliathat to get ready. On seebut prevented every other power from ing the royal writing, he immediately -trading in these or any other articles, ex began to collect warlike stores ; and the cept themselves. And they declared that Mapillas from several countries assemif they saw .a root of ginger or a grain of bled, and came to Koricote, by which pepper embarked on any other person's time the Tamuri Raja also arrived. Imvessel, they would seize and detain such mediately the war began. Many days vessel with all its cargo. They then began having expired, and the provisions in the - to consider how to seize and carry off the fort being expended, and not having it in Tamuri Raja, but their deceit did not their power to get a supply, they embarked succeed. This was the manner of plan- all thieir property on their ships, destroyed ning it :-after they had finished the fort, the fort, and, unknown to those on the i and rendered it strong, they built a house ontside, they got to their ships and went wear it for the residence of the Raja. Some away. This was on the 16th day of the of the Fringis waited on the Tamuri, and month Mahasanam, in the year of the
told him, that the king of Portugal had Taliha 933, or 701 Malabar style. In sent him a present, and that he must this war two thousand Nayrs and Mapil. come there to receive it. He accordingly las died. In consequence of this, the Tawent, and while residing there, one of the Fringis came, and informed him of
Moopa signifies a head or principal person. Moopanmaris plural.
† Eliatha is second, bis second minister in Elia means second.
point of rank,
muri and the Fringis were much exas- it was considered as giving trouble to the perated against each other ; and in a short lading of goods on vessels for Arabia ; still time, the Mapillas liaving repaired their leave was given to build it at Chaliut. vessels, they began to embark ginger, pep- The Fringis began to collect materials for per, and other articles of trade, for Guz- constructing their fort, and brought them zerat and other countries. They vow into the river ; this was in the year of sailed without either flag or passport, the Taliha 938, or the 5th of Wrischigom, Some of their vessels the Fringis seized, 707 Malabar style. The Fringis then some they drove ashore by means of firing finished the fort at Chaliut; it was a at them, and others arrived at their des- very large one, and remarkably handsome, tined ports, and traded without molesta- During the building of the fort, a Fringi tion. After the monsoon of the above having taken a stone from the Pally built year, the Mapillas of Dhurmapatam and by Mallikadeen*, the whole of the Matheir friends made peace with the Fringis, pillas of the place went to the captain of sailed under their flag and passport. The the fort, and having made their comTamuri, his subjects, and the Fringis, plaint, the captain himself and his people had now been long at variance, when in took stone and chunam, went to the the year of the Taliha 935, or 703 Mala- Pally, and had it repaired ; this pleased bar style, the Friogis went in a ship to the Mapillas very much. The next day Tanore, and having landed there, had an several of the Fringis went to the Pally, interview with the Raja. The Tamuri, pulled down all the stones of it, and carried on hearing this, sent his royal commands them away. The whole of the Mapillas to the T'anore Raja, to send him all the went a second time, and laid their commen and property belonging to the ship, plaint before the captain. He told them, with which, however, he did not comply, that their Raja had given both the Pally but cultivated great friendship with the and the ground to him, therefore he had Fringis. They consulted together to over- pulled it down. On this the Mapillas power the Tamuri, plunder the Mapil- retired overwhelmed with grief; and at a las, destroy Ponaniwaikel, and build a little distance from thence they built fort on the left side of the river at that another. After this the Fringis carried place ; for which purpose stones, chu- away the stones from the Mapilla burynam, and other requisite articles, were ing ground for their fort. The Elia Raja embarked in vessels, and when arrived having been installed Tamuri, a war close to Ponaniwaikel, a violent storm began with the Chaliut Raja to destroy arose, and all of them, except a small dow, his country; but the fatter having laid were wrecked on the shore. Some of the his grief submissively before the former, crews were drowned, and those who got on he withdrew his army, and then turned shore were made prisoners. The cannon his forces against the Raja of Tanore. that were in these ships the Tamuri got. While he was meditating an attack, the Their scheme of building a fort at Ponan Tanore Raja surrendered Karakatirutty was now rendered abortive. After this, and New Ponani to him, on which they it is said, that the Fringis built a fort at made peace, and the Tamuri retired. In Chaliut. A captain came to Ponani- the year of the Taliha 963, or 726 Malawaikel, in order to make peace with the bar style, the Fringis burnt and destroyed Tamuri ; he was a person who was ac- Tricodi, Pandrani Kallom, and Ponaniquainted with all that had passed at Kori- waikel. In the year of the Taliha 963, or kote and Ponaniwaikel. The Tanore 732 Malabar style, the Fringis and the Raja exerted himself greatly to bring Raja made peace; they again quarrelled about a peace between the Tamuri and
in 970. T. or 736 M. S. The Fringis the Fringis : the present 'Tamuri was the built forts at Maugalore and Pekanur. same who reigned when the fort at In 970 T. or 739 M. S. a Napilla, Korikote was taken from the Fringis. called Katy Poker Marcart, captured a The Tapore Raja came to Korikote,
The name of an Arab who is said to have settled all disputes between the Tamuri
converted the Emperor Perumal, and whose me. and the Fringis ; the latter were then mory is held in great veneration by the Mapil as. permitted to build a fort at Chaliut. The
† A descendant of this Mapilla, by name Kun.
haly Marcar, is now (1800) living at Cota. The spot assigned for building the fort was on
fact of taking the vessel is still preserved in the dhe public highway, which being known, family, and they pride themselves much on it.
ship belonging to the Fringis. In 974 T. have seized the Tamuri. In 979 T. or or 743 M. S. the Tamuri set off to wage 747 M. S. the Tamuri took the fort at war with Cochin, and having tarried two Chaliut from the Fringis.
In 992 T. or months on the road, he lost 2000 men by 760 M. S. the Tamuri agreeing to their the water being poisoned, which obliged building a fort at Ponapiwaikel, the Frinhim to retire to Paloly ; and having gis and him made peace. In 998 T. or placed the Tanore Raja in the place he 766 M. S. the Fringis seized a vessel of resided, the Tamuri went secretly away. the Raja's at sea,
in consequence of which The Fringis came to seize him, and did they again quarrelled. This is the Hist, carry off the Tanore Raja, so that had the tory of the Fringis and the Rajar latter pot been placed there, they would
IMITATION OF AN ODE OF HAFIZ.
TO A. I. L.
Dec. 8th, 1816.
My heart's blood issuing from my veins,
To Celia too unkind;
When God shall judge mankind.
The griefs which in my bosom roll,
Marks with a thousand hues;
A tear my cheek bedews.
Experience warns to future rest,
And tasted ills reclaim ;
May well deserve his shame.
PARAPHRASE OF AN ODE OF HAFIZ.
By a Lady.
From a tall cypress that o'erlooked a rose,
Did his soft passion in these strains disclose : “ Let no one on this flower cast evil eyes,
Praise Alla, Rose, who made thee beauty's queen; Yet not with coldness thy fond bard despise, Whose passion blazed when first thy charms
Those cruel words of which I might complain ;
Obedient at her call through pleasures rove;
No pleasure else is worth the pains of love. « The beauteous Houri and the stately dome,
The anchoret's fond hope reward his prayer ; To me thy shadow is a nobler home,
And thou, my Houri, fairer far than theirs.
Dispel the cloud of anger from his brow;
And Alla, called on, has absolved the vow.
The hope of meeting lives in absence born; As from the darkness of the stormy night,
Aurora's splendour brings a brighter morn,
One deeply skilled in Galen's art,
When thus the Sage replied:
Thy choice let prudence guide."
If near my fair one's gate 1 stray,
What laughter will arise :
And I their spleen despise.
Deny me not a suppliant's due,
By every oath conjure;
By love his life secure,