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manner as before, eacli preceded by a guide. We bad not gone far before the heat became excessive;—for my own part I found my breathing extremely difficult, my head began to ache most violently, and I had a most distressing scnsatiou of fuluess about the heart.
We felt we had gone too far, and yet were almost deprived of the power of returning. At this moment the torch of the first Arab went out: I was close to him, and saw him fall on his side; he uttered a groan—his legs were strongly convulsed, and I heard a rattling noise in his throat—he was dead. The Arab behind me, seeing the torch of his companion extinguished, and conceiving he had stumbled, past me, advanced to his assistance, and stooped, I observed him appear faint, totter, and fall in a moment—he also was dead. The third Arab came forward, and made an effort to approach the bodies, but stopped short. We looked at each other in silent horror. •The danger increased every instant; our torches burnt faintly; our breathing became more difficult; our knees tottered under us, and wo felt our strength nearly gone.
There was no time to be lost—the American, Barthow, cried to us to " take courage," and we began to move back as fast as we could. We heard the remaining Arab shouting after us, calling us Caffres, imploring our assistance, and upbraiding us with deserting him. But we were obliged to leave him to his fate, expecting every moment to share it with him. The windings of the, passages through which we had come increased the difficulty of our escape; we might take a wrong turn, and never reach the great chamber we had first entered. Even supposing we took the shortest road, it was but too probable our strength would fail us before we arrived. We had each of us separately and unknown to one another observed attentively the different shapes of the stones which projected into the galleries we had passed, so that each had an imperfect clue to the labyrinth we had now to retrace. We compared notes, and only on one occasion had a dispute, the American differing from my friend and myself; in this dilemma we were determined by the majority, and fortunately were right. Exhausted with fatigue and terror, we reached the edge of the deep trench which remained to be crossed before we got into the great chamber. Mustering all my strength, I leaped, and was followed by the American. Smelt stood on the brink, ready to drop with fatigue. He called to us " for God's sake to help him over the fosse, or at least to stop, if only for five minutes, to allow him time to recover hisstrength." It was impossible—to stay was death, and we could not resist the desire to push
on and reach the open air. We encouraged him to summon all his force, and he cleared the trench. When we reached the open air it was one o'clock, and the? heat in the sun about 160". Our sailors, who were waiting tor us, had luckily a bardak* full of water, which they sprinkled upon us, but though a little refreshed, it was not possible to climb the sides of the pit; they unfolded their turbans, and slinging them round our bodies, drew us to the top.
Onr appearance alone without our guides naturally astonished the Arab who had remained at the entrance of the cavern; and he anxiously inquired for his hahabebas, or friends. To have confessed they were dead would have excited suspicion, he would have supposed we had murdered them, and have alarmed the inhabitants of Auiabdi, to pursue us and revenge the death of their friends. We replied therefore they were comiug, and were employed in bringing out the mummies we had found, which was the cause of their delay.
During their residence at Mfniat, at which place they were detained, in consequence of suspicions of the plague being at Cairo ; they had an opportunity to see the method practised by the natives, when attacked with the opthalmia, which is simply as fol-* lows.
When an Arab feels the first approach of the symptoms of inflammation, he binds a handkerchief round his eyes a» tightly as possible, and endeavours to exclude the tight and air with the greatest caution. At the end of three days and nights, the bandage is removed, and frequent bathing with cold water is afterWards employed to complete the cure.
My servant suffered considerably from an attack of the opthalmia, and found great relief from a small quantity of ex* cessively fine powdered sugar being introduced every night between the eye-lids, a practice recommended to him by a Greek doctor, whom he had consulted at Siout.
In his case the inflammation was excessive, and he compared the great pain> he suffered to the pungent sensation occasioned by the eyes being filled with the smoke of burning wood. As I have mentioned one of the diseases of Egypt, I may add that the symptoms of syphilis are in this country extremely mild, and are generally cured by the simple use of the warm bath, and an attention to cleanliness, which is not at other times so striccly observed by the natives.
* The name of the jars, made at Ken ne, of po» roui earth, and used to cool water.
This is certainly a very simple, but we cannot imagine it to be a very successful mode of practice, and sufficiently proves the low state of medical and surgical knowledge in those countries; with respect to syphilis being cured simply by the warm' bath and attention to cleanliness, we are confident Mr. L. labours under a mistake, ana has been led into this error, not from any disregard to truth, or desire of deceiving others, but merely from not being well acquainted with the disease of which he is speaking; had he written gonorrhoea instead of syphilis, his statement would most likely have been correct. Instances are very frequent in this, and we believe in all other countries, of gonorhoea being cured by frequent washing and a strict attention to cleanliness; but we have never yet heard of a well authenticated case of syphilis being subdued without mercury. We have not been thus particular with any idea of undervaluing Mr. L.'s observations, which we believe, in most instances, are strictly correct, but merely to elucidate an error into which he had fallen. However, we are perfectly aware that "non omnes possumus omnia."
We will now accompany our author to Boulac, near Old Cairo, from which place he very shortly removed to Rosetta, where the party were obliged to shut themselves up, on account of the plague; and as the precautions taken on this occasion are particularly detailed, and may not be unacceptable to the reader, we shall transcribe them.
The house we occupied had double doors, and in the space between them We placed two very large jars filled with Water, which was changed once in the 24 hours; and having provided ourselves also with a fumigating box, to receive all our letters, we hired an Arab for a piastre a day, to station himself every morning under our windows, receive our or'dere, and purchase otar provisions.
With respect to our bread, we took the
precaution of never touching it till it was cool, as it is ascertained that in that state it does not communicate the plague. Even letters which have been fumigated must be allowed to cool before they are touched. ■ ■• • Our meat, whether beef or fowls, the latter being previously plucked, was all thrown into the water jars, from which, after a certain interval, it was cautiously taken out by one of Out1 servants,' Who opened the inner door for the purpose*; In this mahner'we lived for several weeks', witnessing the most distressing sights of death and disease under our Windows'; from wfiich we had frequent opportunities of observing atta<JI<sof the plague, a* it first seized upon its unfortunate victims. As far as we could judge from their gestures, they appeared to suffer most violent pains in the head, and were at the same time seized' with violent retchings, and black vomiting.
Having given this account of the measures taken in the countries of the Mediterranean, for arresting the progress of this horrid malady, Mr. L. gives us the following detail of the system pursued by the Board of Health in England, and for this we are certainly much indebted to him, and hope it will be a means of stimulating that body to adopt a more consistent plan; the accourit Mr; L. gives is as fojlows.
Such was the plan of life we adopted; and the success of our measures of pre*caution abundantly proves the utility and sufficiency-of the usual quarantine regulations established in the countries of the Mediterranean, which are frequently visited by the calamities of the plague. But on our return to England, it was impossible not to smile at the insufficiency, not to say absurdity, of the system adopted in this country. As we passed up the Channel, we were visited by the officers of the Board of Health, and one of them coming alongside our vessel, presented the captain with a Bible, requesting hid to swear to the truth of the answers he should make to his several questions. It was in vain we represented to him, that his taking the book again from our hands would be the surest' means of communicating to him whatever infection we might ourselves be labouring under ; he persist^ ed in demanding our compliance with & form which could not be dispensed With, and added, With an air of triumph,''that in the discharge of his duty, he had hftfo self been on board several plague ships, with impunity. On the same occasion, another officer produced a number of queries, to which the captain of our vessel was required to give written answers, and when told nothing was so infectious as paper, lie contented himself with replying, that the orders of the Privy Council were peremptory, and must be obeyed.
We shall now proceed to the Appendix, which is an itinerarythrough Syria by Shekh Ibrahim. This is merely a list of the different places visited by the shekh, and a few directions which may be
found serviceable to any future traveller; but the most curioua and interesting part is an account of some fragments of Thebaic manuscripts on leather, which consist entirely of legal instruments, deeds, and conveyances of different kinds of property; a fac-simile of part of these manuscripts is given at the commencement of the work, which will no doubt be particularly gratifying to the antiquarian.
DEBATE AT THE EAST INDIA HOUSE.
East India House, Dee, 11, 1816.
A General Court of Proprietors of East India Stock, was this day held at the Company's Kousc, in Lesdenhall Street, for the special purpose of laying, before the Proprietors, papers received from India, respecting the progress and termination of the war with Nepal, and resolutions of thanks adopted, in consequence, by the Court of Directors.
The minutes of the jlast court having, as usual, been read by the clerk—
The Chairman (Thos. Reid, Esq.) said, he had to inform the court, that it was assembled for a special purpose—namely, to have papers laid before it, relative to the commencement, progress, and termination, of the late war with the Nepalese government, and a series of resolutions founded thereon; which papers and resolutions had been for some time open to the inspection of the proprietors at the East India House. The dispatches were very numerous—still, however, if the proprietors had not perused the whole of them, it would be quite agreeable to the directors to have them read at length; but, as they had, for a very considerable period, been open to the examination of all those gentlemen who chose to look into them, perhaps the court would think that it was only necessary to have the concluding dispatches read, which were, undoubtedly, the most material. If gentlemen coincided in'this opinion, the three letters, Nos. 11, 12, and 13, should be read. They contained an account of the progress of the war, from February last, and detailed the circumstances which led to its conclusion.
This suggestion being approved of, the clerk proceeded to read the documents. The first, which was dated Fort William the 21st February, 1816, was addressed by the Governor General in coun
cil, to the honourable the secret com-' mittee. It adverted to a former dispatch, in which the necessity of resuming, hostilities against the st;ite of Ncpaul, hi consequence of that government having1 refused to ratify the treaty which had been entered into with colonel Bradshaw, was stated. It then went on to detail the successes of the force employed by Major-general Sir David Ochterlony, up to the date of the dispatch, in this second campaign against the Goorkahs—animadverted on the conduct of one of the officers engaged in the expedition—and related certain political negotiations which the prosperous state of the war had produced.
Mr. Dixon inquired, whether, in this dispatch, a strong observation was not thrown out against an officer in the Company's service?
The Chairman answered, that certainly something was said against a particular individual.
The second dispatch was dated, Fort William, the 11th of March, 1816. It detailed the successful progress of the war up to the second of that month, and stated the effects which the superiority of the British arms had at that time produced on the Nepalese government.
The third dispatch was dated Fort William, March 30, 1816. It set forth, that, in consequence of the signal successes obtained by the Company's forces over those of the enemy, it was deemed expedient to transmit an account of them by the ship Malabar, without delay. It then went into a minute history of those successes, winch the courage and perseverance of the British and native troops, directed by the genius of Sir David Ochterlony, had achieved. The victories over the enemy on the 28th of February and the 1st of March, had a powerful effect on the conduct of the Nepalese government. They found it vain to contend against British skill and valour—and they sued for an accommodation. After some negotiation, Sir David Ochterlony agreed to grant tliein peace on the terms contained in the treaty that had been previously concluded with Lieutenant Colonel Bradshaw, and ratified by the Vakeels. This treaty, without any relaxation of its previsions, was now ratified by the rajah of Nepaul. The dispatch then took a succinct view of the circumstances that led to this event. In the last battle, it stated, the enemy brought three thousand men into the field, of whom eight hundred were known to be killed and wounded ; amongst whom were many officers. This campaign, though short, was completely decisive; and, on no occasion had the perseverance, fortitude, and bravery of the British soldier, appeared to greater advantage. It had been deemed advisable to treat the Nepal government leniently, for two reasons— first, because if they were too much humiliated, their feelings might be roused to a pitch of desperation, that might be productive of disastrous consequences— and next, because if the war had been continued, an enormous expense would have been incurred, without any commensurate benefit. The council, therefore, expressed their perfect concurrence in the decision, come to by Sir David Ochterlony, in preferring peace to the farther continuance of the war. The dispatch theu referred to a general order, which promulgated.to the army at large, the high sense entertained by the Commander-iu-chief, of the merits by which the career of Sir Darid Ochterlony was distinguished, and of the discipline and courage manifested by the European and native troops throughout the contest;— and suggested the propriety of rewarding their exertions, by giving silver medals to the officers, aud such of the privates as were recommended for their particular gallantry. '1 he humiliation and discomfiture (observed the council) of a proud and high-minded people, like the Goorkahs, would doubtless, for a time, fill them with angry feelings, and render them desirous of recovering what they bad lost, yet they saw no reason to believe, but that a firm and conciliatory line of conduct, on the part of the British, would effectually prevent the existing amicable relations between the Company and the Nepal government, from being disturbed. Before they closed this dispatch, they were anxious to call the attention of the Company to the system of economy which had been adhered to during the war. This would be evident, by contrasting the two campaigns against the Nepalese, with those carried on in
the Mysore territory in 1803-4 and 1804-5. A very superior degree of economy was manifested in the proceedings during the Nepal war; although, from the mountainous nature of the country, every article was obliged to be carried at a great expense, and the coldness of the climate rendered it necessary to supply the sepoys with warm clothing. Notwithstanding these disadvantages, it would appear from the documents accompanying this dispatch, that the Nepalese campaigns cost less, by five and a half lack of rupees, than that of 1803-4, and, by twenty-six aud a half lack of rupees, than that of 1804-5."
The dispatches having been gone through—
The Chairman rose and said, that his powers were not adequate to express the sentiments he entertained of the glorious work which had been achieved, and th» high opinion he cherished of the Governor-general, and of the various individuals engaged under him on this most important occasion. He should therefore, refrain from a task, which, he was convinced, he could not execute successfully —and he should merely refer to the motions of thanks which he should have the honour of proposing, to the Governor-general and all those who had contributed to the glorious termination of an arduous contest. He trusted, however, he might be permitted to say, that, in his opinion, the abilities displayed by those who had been employed on this occasion, from the Governor-general, downwards, were of so transcendant a nature, that no terms of praise could reach them.— (Hear J hear 1)
The clerk then read the following resolution :—
"At a Court of Directors, held on Wednesday, the 20th November, 1816, it was, on several motions,
"Resolved unanimously, That the thanks of this court be given to the Earl of Moira, K. G., Governor-General and Commander-in-chief, for the prudence, energy, and ability, combined with a judicious application of the resources of the Company, displayed by his lordship in planning and directing the operations of the late war against the NepaleW, uudertakeu in consequence of a persevering system of encroachment and insult on their part; and also for his wisdom and moderation, iu availing himself of the successes obtained by the army, for concluding a peace with the Ghorka power, on terms both honorable and advantageous.
"Resolved .matiimously, That ths thanks of this court be given to Major General Sir David Ochterlony, Bart, aud K. C. 11., for the vigor, judgment, aud effect, with which he personally couductK ed the operations of the force under his command on all occasions, and particularly, in the last campaign, the management of which, and of the subsequent negotiation, was with great propriety entrusted to him, in testimony of the confidence due to his experienced merits and well acquired distinction.
"Resolved unanimously, That the thanks of this court be given to all the officers, both European and native, belonging to the army which served in the Nepal war, for their gallant and meritorious service during the last war.—Alio that the court doth highly approve and acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and private soldiers, both European and native, who were employed in the late war; and that the thanks of the court be signified to them by the officers of their respective corps, as well for their patience under unusual fatigues, and their cheerful endurance of privations, as for their valor and intrepidity lu preseuce of the enemy."
The Chairman—" Gentlemen what has been read, just now, is the resolution of the court of directors ; but it becomes necessary that this court should express its opinion of the merits of the Governorgeneral—I beg leave, therefore, to move, 'that the resolution be approved of by this court.'"
Mr. Hume observed, that the Governor-general had recently been created a Marquis ; and he suggested, whether, in point of form, it would not be proper to stile him Marquis of Hastings instead of Earl of Moira?
The Chairman—" I am much obliged to the hon. proprietor for his suggestion. The alteration shall be made."
The motion, which was seconded by the Deputy-Chairman, having been put in due form—
Mr. Hume rose and said, he hoped the court would allow him a few minutes to State his sentiments shortly on this question. .He had not intended to have offered himself so early to the notice of the proprietors, ifanyothergentlemanhad shewn a disposition to address the court. He certainly had expected and wished that a business of this nature should not pass the court, as a mere matter of course, without any observation whatever from either the mover or seconder of the resolution, on its merits ; and yet he felt a difficulty, in rising on this occasion, to determine what observations he should offer—what topics he should select—in speaking on a subject that appeared to him to comprehend a variety of points extremely interesting. His ideas were more extended ■—they embraced a greater variety of matter than the resolution which the Chairman had just moved, would, with propriety, permit him to state. One thing,
however, he must particularly observe,— that, according to all former proceedings of this nature, as far as ever he recollected, or his research had gone, the proprietors never before had been called on at the conclusion of a war to agree to so dry, naked, and circumscribed a resolution, as that now submitted by the Directors to thecourt. It had been customary to state the general line of policy and conduct of the individual praised, instead of selecting a single insulated act of his government, as calling for their thanks and approbation. In the case of Warren Hastings, the Marquis Wellesley, Lord Hobart, and various other Governors-general, a decided sentiment appeared to have prevailed in this court, that an enlarged view of the policy and conduct of the individual should be brought before the court, in order to iufluence them in coming to a particular vote on his merits. The vote proposed thanks for planning and conducting the war, without adverting to its justice or policy. He, for one, candidly avowed, whatever his opinions otherwise of the Marquis of Hastings had been, and now were, that, in his view of the subject this resolution did not go to the extent, which, if the court agreed to any resolution, he should be disposed to proceed. It was a matter of great consequence to every servant in India, and particularly when placed in the high situation which he filled, and acting zealously and to the best of his abilities, that the whole of his conduct should be fairly viewed. The noble Marquis in his dispatches, fully justified the policy and necessity of the war, and he had anxiously entreated the Court of Directors' opinion and approbation of his conduct. It appeared, in every line of the noble Marquis's dispatches, that he felt the strongest desire to carry into effect every thing that he thought could be conducive to the interest of the Company; and, when this disposition was manifest, they ought, in justice, to take a general view of what his conduct had been; not only in conducting, but in beginning the war; and afterwards judge favourably, or otherwise, of his proceeding in general, as well as, in this particular instance. He, along with many other members of the court, always felt a high degree of pleasure in being able to stand forward to praise the officers of the Company for their exertions abroad, and to confer oil them such approbation, as they might fairly deserve; but, with that favourable disposition, he could not help feeling, that 011 this occasion, the achievements in Nepal seemed to be rated too highly by the noble Marquis. There was; in his opinion, throughout the whole of the correspondence, an evident attempt te magnify the proceedings against Nepal,