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I HE Preface shews, first, how the Author, who had his education under men of the
Calvinifical perfuafion, came to doubt of, and afterwards to rejeet those doétrines, Section 1. The
affinity they bear to many doctrines of the Hereticks condemned by the church of God from the
Same principles and arguments here used against them, viz. the Herefics of the Valentinians, the
Marcionites, Bafilidians, the Cerdonians, the Manichees and the Priscillians, and the little difference
there is betwixt their sentiments, Section 2. That these opinions were derived, not from the
scriptures, or from the doctrine of antiquity, which is plainly contrary to them in every point,
but from St. Auflin and the schools, Se&ion 3. That they may be rejected without any contradic-
tion to the doétrine of the church of England, Section 4.

с н д р т E R II.

This doctrine is contrary to the perfections of the divine nature, viz. 11. to his natural delire,

that all men should love, fear and obcy him, Seftionu, edly. To the fincerity and wisdom of

God, Seation 2.


* What absolute eleâion doth import; and that the election mentioned in Scripture, y, is not of
particular persons, but of whole churches and nations, 2dly. That it imports rather an eleâion to
enjoy the means of grace tendered in the gospel, than to a certainty of salvation by those means,
3dly. That it is a conditional election to be made sure by good works, Section 1. This is proved,
11, from the import of the word throughout the wbole Old Tefament, Section 2. 3dly, From the
places where the word is used in the New Testament, Section 3. The import of the words † and
that they do not prove an absolute election, Section 4. An answer to all the other places produced
to prove it, as v.g. 1, all that the Father giveth me mall come to me, John vi. 37, 39. Section 5.
2dly. As many as were ordained to eternal life believed, Aas xiii. 48. Se&ion 6. 3dly. That all that
Love God are called according to his purpose, junified and glorified, Rom. viii. 28, 29, 30, Section 7.
Athly. That God knoweth who are his, Section 8.


The do&rine of absolute eleaion confuted, 11, From God's will, that all to whom the golpel is
revealed should repent and believe to the salvation of the soul, and yield sincere obedience to the
will of God, Section 1. The answer to this argument is confuted, ibid. edly, From the falsehood
of the foundation of it, viz. the imputation of the fin of Adam by God's arbitrary will to his pofter-
ity, Section 2. This imputation is not proved from those words, In whom all have finned, and by
the disobedience of one many were made finners, ibid. 3dly. From the falsehood of this decree, as to
the parts of it, abfolute ele&tion and reprobation, and as to the end of it, the manifestation of
God's glory in his acts of grace, mercy, and of justice, Section 3. The immanent acts of God's
will may have refpe&t unto the actions of men by way of motive or condition, ibid,

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be good or bad, vessels of honor or difonor, wrath or mercy, &c. Seâion 1. 2dly. From the ex. position they all gave before St. Auftin of the 8th and gth chapters of the Romans, Section 2.3dly, From their declarations that God predeftinates men to life or death from a prescience of what they would be, Section 3. 4thly, From the confeflion of Prosper, that all the ancient Fathers were against the doctrine of St. Aufin, Section 4. **

DISCOURSE II. Concerning the Extent of Christ's REDEMPTION.

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CH A P T E R 1 HE fcriptare frequently and expressly faith Chriß died for all, and never faith any thing to the contrary, not when it faith, He gave himself a ransom for many, and he laid down his life for his sheep, &c. Section 1. This is proved, in, From those words, As by the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation, so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men to juflification of life, Rom. v. 16. Section 2. edly. From these words, He died for all, that they who live might not henceforth live to themselves, 2 Cor. V. 15. Seation 3. 3dly. God would have all men to be faved, Christ gave himfelf a ransom for all, Sefion 4. 4thly. Froin those words, The saving grace of God hath appeared to all men, Tit. ii, 11, 12. Section 5. Sthly. From those words, Christ was made a little lower than the Angels, that by the grace of God he might tafte death for every man, Heb.ii.g. Section 6. 6thly. From these words, God is long suffering to ufward, not being willing that any should perih, &c, 2 Pct.iii. 10. where the usual answers to all those places are considered and confuted. Section . . . . . .

The second general argument for this extent of Chrif's falutary paffion is taken from all the
places where Christ is represented as the savior of the world, Seajon 1. The absurdity of the re-
Iridions commonly put upon those texts, Sedion 2- 5.

This do&trine is Farther proved. it. Because he died for them that perish, Section 1, edly. Por
them who being fanclined by the blood of the new covenant, did after count it as au unholy thing,
and did despite to the spirit of grace, Scaion e. 3dly. Because he bought them who denied hiny

Section 3.

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C'H A P T E R IV. This do&rine is confirmed, 11, From the obligation of all to whom the gospel was preached to believe in Chrift. Sention. All the places produced by the Syncd of Dort against this doctrine are plain confirmations of it. . . . . . .

C H A P T E R V. This chapter contains an an: wer to the arguments produced from scripture to prove Christ died not for all, ift. Because they for whom Chrift died inay fay, who shall condemn us! Rom. viii. 34. which yet all men cannot do, Seation 1. edly. Because to all for whom God delivered up his Son he will.freely give all things, Rom. viii. 32. which yet he will not give to all, Section 2. 3dly.. Because they who hy Chrif's death are reconciled to God, Mall be saved by his life, Rom. v.9. which yet all men shall not be, Section 3. 4thly. Because thofe for whom Chrift died, he loved with the greates love, John xv. 13, but so he loved not all aren, Section 4. , . . . . . .

CH A P I E R VI. This Se&tion offers arguments from reason for the aniverfality of Christ's redemption, ift, Be. cause otherwise he never intended salvation to atiy by the gospel dispensation but the eleâ, the abfurdities of which affertion are discovered, Section i. 2dly, Hence it follows that Christ never Cied with an intention to do any gond to the souls of others, which contradiets his own frequent words, Section 2. 3dly. That note bat the elect are obliged to believe in Chrift, Sea ion 3. And 4thly. That none can be at last condemned for unbelief and impenitency, Seaion 4. 5thly. That neither the elect, or noneled can be exhorted to beheve, othly, That inany who live under the preaching of the Gospel have not means fufficient to obtain salvation, the manifold absurdities of that affertion fhewed, Section 6. The absurdity of that evafion, That we had length sufficient given us in Adam to helieve and repent; largely thewed, Section. And is farther evident from our Lord's words and actions, Seation 8. The unworthy refle&tions which this doctrine makes upon our gracious God and merciful Redeemer, is demonftrated in five particulars, Section 9. It also is obstructive of chriftian prety and virtue, Section 10. Ohjettions answered, Section 11. Two corollaries. hence, if, God cannot have made a peremptory decree of any absolnte election of fome few to falvation. . And, edly, cannot be wanting to afford grace sufficient to salvation to any; for then Chrif, as to them, must be dead in vain, Section 12. The doarine of univerlal redemption hath the suffrage of all antiquity. . . . . . .

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C H A P T E R VII. pogonal de Ceaion contains an answer to fix objections from reason against the doctrine of universal

Vig. ift, That it is not reasonable to conceive that Chrift should die in vain with refo!

pea to any, Section 1. 2dly. That a general will that all men mould be saved, carries fome marks orimperfection in it as representing God wishing somewhat, which he would not accomplish, Sec. tione adly, That if Cbrift died for all, and all are not saved, the wisdom of God must be defect. ive aud imperfc&t; for to fall fhort of our intentions thews a deficiency in point of wisdom, Sec. tion 3. 4thly. That then God is not omnipotent, Section 4. 5thly. That then the great love of God in sending his Son thus to die, is useless and unprofitable to many, Se&ion 5. 6thly. That then Chrift paid a price of redemption for them who will never better for it, Section 6. Ali which obje&iops are fully answered in the said feqions.

DISCOURS E III. OF SUFFICIENT and ErfectųAL, Common and Spa,

...ns. CIAŁ GRACE,

The State of the Questions


CHĄ P T E R 1 HE true import of the word grace in fcripture, Se@ion 1. edly. That besides the vouchsafement of the gospel as a rule of life, it seems neceflary to assert that God vouchfafes some inward operations and assistances of his Holy Spirit to incline us to what is good, and to work converfion id us ; this is proved by many arguments, Section e. 3dly. The manner in which God's grace or fpirit works upon the heart and mind of man for producing the fruits of the good {pirit, or the preparatory difpofitions towards them, is suitable to the reason and the faculties of man, his understanding and his will, SeAion 3. This is farther evident from the method all men use to persuade others and to all God's dispensations towards them, Section 4. The operation of the Holy Spirit on us in this case, seems to coufilt in these two things, viz, iit, the representing di. yine trucbs more clearly to our understandings, edly. In bringing the divine motives to our remembrance, that they may be prerent to our minds when this is necessary to engage us to the performance of our duty, Sellion 5. In what fenfe a phyfical operation of the Holy Spirit on us may be allowed, how they are exciting, reitraining, preventing, affitting and subsequent grace, and of the diftinction of grace into sufficient and efficacious, common and fpecial grace, Section 6. NO Heceffity of supernatural infused habits, Section 7.

fed habits, Seation nous, common and {pecial grace, Section, and of

с н А Р Т Е Р ІІ. This chapter contains arguments against the neceffity of an irrefiftible and unfrustrable operation in order to the conversion of a finger, ift, From the concellions of our adversaries, Section 1. 2dly. From God's declaration that he had done all that was sufficient, and could be reasonably expected in order to that end, when that effect did not follow, Sccion 2. 3dly, From his earneft defires of the obedience and reformation of his people, Se&ioni 3. 4thly. Because this renders vain (11) All the commands and exhortations directed to the wicked to turn from the evil of their ways. (2dly) All the threats denounced againft them who go on in them. And, (3dly) All the promises of pardon and life to them who turn from them, Scaion 4. 5thly. Because then it could not be rightcous to punish them with eternal mifery for their disability to do what Cod requires, nor could that dif. ability be their fa, Se&ion 5. The answer that this disability is contracted by our own fin, because et came upon us by the fin of our first parents, is largely confuted, Section 6. 7thly. Because such a divine, unfruftrable operation rendeis the word no instrument or means for the conversion of a finner, Seaion 7. 8thly. Because then no sufficient motive can be offered to induce any person to enter upon a change of life till he feel this divine impulse come upon him, Section 8. Sthly. Because then nothing can be required of us as a prerequisite, or a preparatory condition of our con. version, Scaion 9. :othly. Because then no man could be cotiverted sooner or later than he is, Section 10. 11thly. Because God chargeth the wickedness of men not upon their impotency or dirability, but upon their wilfulness, Section 1. Lastly, our opinion terdeth most to the glory of the divine attributes, Se&tion 12. And is molt consonant to the judgment of antiquity, Scórion 13.

C H A P T E R II. This chapter contains an answer to the arguments produced to prove that man is purely paffive in the whole work of his conversion, that being wrought by God alone without his cooperation, Some general observations are premised as a foundation of an answer to these arguments, Section 1. Which arise, ift, from the representation of this work, as a resurrection, a creation, a new birth, Section 2. edly. From those fcriptures which represent the unregenerate as dead in fine, and unable to discern the thing, of God, to think any thing as of themselves, to do any thing till they be in Chrift, to come to him till they be drawn, to bring forth good fruit, or to be subject to the law of God, Section 3. 3dly, From those scriptures which say, That God gives faith and repentance, and openeth the heart, Sedion 4. 4thly. From those which say God circumcifes, gives a new heart and spirit that we may fear him, and writes his law in our hearts, Se&ion 5. Schly, That He worketh in us to will and to do, Se&ion 6. 6thly. That according to this doctrine, ift, one man makes himself to differ from another, Se&ion 7. edly, Man will have cause of hoatting, Section 8. 3dly. The glory of our conversion will not be of God alone, ibid. 4thly !t will be uncertain whether any one will be converted or riot

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DISCOURSE Iy.... of the FREEDOM of the Will of Man. The State of the Question, ?

, CH A P I E R I.

I HAT the state of man in this world is a ftate of Trial and Probation, is proved by five arguments, Seation 1. And bence it follows, that the liberty belonging to this quedion is only that of a lapsed man in the Atate of trial, probation and temptation; so that all the arguments ta. ken from the freedom of God, of good or evil angels, or of Chrift, to prove that liberty of freedon may confilt with a neceflity, or a determination to good or evil must be impertinent, they being not in a state of Trial, Section 2. This freedom of the will, in a state of trial, cannot confift with a determination to one, whether it be to good or evil, Section 3. The free will of man being a Saculty or power, which hath for its object in moral actions something morally, in spiritual acions Something spiritually good or evil to be chosen or avoided : that which disables a man from choora ing what is morally or spiritually good, or refusing what is thus evil, must also take away his liber. ty to choose the good or refore the evil aâion, Section 4. It is absurd to say that men thus disabled may deserve punishment for what they do, though they cannot do otherwite, because they disobey willingly, and choose to do so, Section 5. Or to say that men under an unfruftrable operation are Atill free, because what they are moved thus to do they will to do, and do it with complacency, Section 6. That opinion which teacheth that man by the fall hath contracted such disability, that he not only can do nothing which is truly good, but also lies under that servitude to fin which makes it neceffary for him to be fill doing evil, hath no foundation in the holy scriptures, with an an. swer to all the scriptures aliedged to that purpose, Se&ion 7. That these new notions of liberty are repugnant to the sense and common reason of mankind, Section 8.

C H A P T E R II. The holy fcripture declares that the liberty of the will even in chriftian virtues of the higher nature is opposite not only to coaction, but neceffity, Section 1. Hence appears the falschood and hypocrify of all the tenders of the gospel to their suppored reprobates, as they are expounded by men of the contrary perfuafion, Section 2. Five farther arguments from scripture to prove the lib. erty contended for, Section 3. These arguments strongly confirmed from the concurrent fuftrags, and the express and frequent declarations of the ancient fathers, Section 4.

с н д р т E R II. The freedom of the will in a state of trial from neceflity is argued, if, From God's method in dealing with men bv persuasions and moral inducements, Section i. 2dly. From the received no. tion of the words liberty and freedom, Section 2. 3dly. Because otherwise man in his lapsed state could not be fulicet to a command or prohibition, Section 3. 4thly. Because then the sins of wicked men, whether of omillion or commiflion, would not deserve that name, Section 4

. C H A P T E R IV. Where it is manifested, ift, That there is a clear agreement of those men who place the liberty of the willin a freedorn not from neceffity, but only from coaction, with the doctrine of Mr. Hobbs, Sealion 1. 2dly. With the doctrine of Fate, And that the difference betwixt them and the fatal iis, is not material, Se&tion 2, 3dly. That the same reasons which induced the philosophers, from the light of reason to condemn tnis fate in those heathens who maintained it, induced the christians to rejea it when it was taught by the Colobarkans, Priscillianills, and other hereticks, Sec.

tion 3.

C H A P T E R V. The judgment of all antiquity for that freedom of the will we contend for is evinced from there confiderations : it. That they place the frecdom of the will from neceflity among the doctrines delivered to the church by the preaching of the apostles, and by ecclefiaftical tradition, Section 1.adly. From what St. Aufin lays down in confutation of the Manichees, viz. (ift) That no man is blameworthy for doing that evil which he was not able to refift. 2dly. That no fouls offend in not

cing such as they can not be 3dly. That no man is worthy of difpraise or púnilbinent for not doing that which he cannot do. 4thly. That no man is guilty for not having that which he hath not received. 5thly. That this is the true definition of fin, that it is the will to do that from which we havc the liberty to abstain. 6thly. That it is folly to command him who hath not the power to obey, 7thly. That it is not the duty of him to repent who cannot do good. 8thly. That the de. nial of this liberty is contrary to scripture and destroys the equity of divine judgments ; in all which thina's he hath the general suffrage of the Greek and Latin fathers, Section 2. The arguiments by which the fathers do confute the doctrine of Origen are as frong again this opinion, Sc&tion 3. The replies which dufin makes to some of his own arguments are insufficient, Sec. tion 4.

· Concerning the PERSEVERANCE of Saints.

The State of the Question.

i .

W E own (14) that they who are preserved from falling are lo preferved by the power of God through faith ; but know of no promile that all true believers thall be so preserved.edly. That God hath engaged to preserve them who do not wickedly depart from him, from being forced from him by the malice, subtilty or power of their adversaries; but not from falling from their own sted fatness. 3dly. That he hath promised perseverance to all that use the means, but not that all thall do so who were once true believers, Se&ion 1. What our adversaries grant destroys most of their arguments, Sealjon 2.

сн А Р Т Е Р ІІ. The arguments againft the doctrine of perseverance of all true believers to the end are taken, 11. From God's express declarations to the contrary, Ez. xviii, 24, 26. xxxiii. 13. Section 1, edly. From these words, Heb. vi. 4. 5, 6, it is impoffible-and yet fall away to renew them to repentance, Section 2. 3dly. From these words, Heb. X. 26, 29. To him that accounteth the blood of the covenant u herewith he was fan&ified an unholy thing, there remaineth no more facrifice for fin, Scaion 3. 4thly. From these, ver. 38. If the juff man, who lives by faith, di aw back, my soul fall have no pleafure in hin, Se&tion 4. 5thly. From those, if after they have escaped the pollutions which are in the world through lur, they are again entangled and overcome, 2 Pet, ii, 18. Section 5. 6thly. From many instances of such men who have actually fallen away, especially in the Jewish nation, Seaion 6. This argu. ment is confirmed from many places of the Epistle to the Hebrews, ibid. 7thly. From the commands and exhortations directed to true believers to continue to the end, and to fear left they should fall away, and the cautions to prevent their doing so, the promises made to them if they continue Redfast, the threats against them who did not so ; of which in general, Seation 7. In particular this is proved, ift. From the commands, Section 8. The exhortations to persevere, Section g. And to fear left they should fall away, Seaion 1.. Particularly from the fears of the apostles let it should be ro, Section 11. The promises made to them that do not, Section 12. The threats against them that do thus fall away, Section 13. Laftly, This is proved from many places which suppose that true believers may thus fall, Section 14.

C H A P T E R III. In this chapter is contained an answer to the arguments produced from scripture to prove the perseverance of saints to the end, as v. 8. aft, From Mat. xxiv. 24. They jka u deceive, if it were poffible, the very cle&t, Section 1. 2dly. From John vi. 39, 46. It is the will of the father that every one who is given to Christ and believeth in him should not perish but have everlasting life, Section 2. 3dly, Because the Lord hath not caft off his people whom he forek new, Rom. xi. 2. Section 3. 4thly. Because whom God juftifies them he also glorifies, and none can separate them from the love of God, Rom. viii. 29, 35. Section 4. 5thly. Because true believers have that fpirit of God who seals them up to the day of redemption, and is the earnest of their future inheritance. Eph. i. 13. iv. 30. Section 5. 6thly. Because the Lord knoweth who are bis, 2 Tim. ii. 18. 10 Section 6. 7thly. Because they are kept by the power of God through faith to salvation, Section 2. 8thly. Because they who go out from true believers were not of them, i John ii. 10. Section 8. gthly. Because he that is born of God cannot fin, 1 John iii. 9. Section g.

CH A P T E R IV. This chapter answers the texts produced to prove that God Aands engaged by promises to preServe true believers ftedfast to the end. (ift.) I will give them one heart, and one way that they may fear me forever: I will put my fear into their hearts that they shall not de part from me, Jer. xxxii. 38, 39, 40. Section 1. 2dly. Chrift faith he that comes to me shall never hunger, he that drinketh of the water that I fall give him shall never thirtt, Jo, vi. 35. iv.14. Section 2. div. Chrift promileth that his sheep thall never perifh; none shall pluck them out of his hands, John X. 28, Section 3. 4thly. God hath engaged to confirm them unblameable to the end, 1 Cor. i. g, 10. To perfect the good work begun in them to the day of the Lord, Philip. i. 6. To fanctify them whom he hath called in body, foul and spirit, : Theft, v. 23. To establish them, and keep them from evil, « Theff. ii. 3. Section 4.

C H A P T E R V. A comparison betwixt the two doctrines (ift) as to the comfort of believers, where it is proy. ed, (int) from many instances that a doctrine is not therefore true becaule it is comfortable to them that believe it. (2dly) That a poflibility of falling into a great evil is no juft cause of trouble or anxiety, when I am assured I cannot do so unlels I will and choose to do so, and cannot do lo but by acting against the cleareft rules of reason and discretion, and the highest motivesto the contrary. 3dly. That the doctrine of the saint's perseverance cannot be truly comfortable, or give any advantage above the oth in the point of comfort, Section i. 2dly. As to their tendency to pre. mote holiness, where it is the wed that our doctrine hath the advantage on several accounts, Section 2. adly, That it hath the suffrage of all the ancients, and was the doctrine of the whole Church of Chris for many ages, Section 31 ,

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