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Notes from Blodgett's Climatology-Its Great Value—Lake Superior Compared with

North-West-Summer Heat Decisive of Climate-Thermal Lines Curve Northward-

Spring opens Simultaneously on a Northwest line Between St. Paul's and Mackenzie

Rivers-Deserts not Found North of Lat. 47°-Rain Sufficient on the Northern

Plain-Buffalo more Abundant in the North—Peace River Compared with Germany

and Russia-Canadian North-West the Better-A Prophecy Thirty Years Ago-Size

of our North-West-Lord Selkirk's Opinions Seventy Years Ago—500,000 Square

Miles with a Mild Climate.

CHAPTER X.

Practical Remarks on Climate.

Mr. Anderson, of Listowel, Ireland, on Climate-Great Heat Causes no Inconvenience-

Intense Cold Hardly Felt- Manitoba Winter Climate Better than that of Ontario,

Snow Seldom over Twenty Inches in Depth-Seasons in Manitoba—Manitoba in the

Middle of the Continent-Long Days of Summer-Autumn Weather -Snowfall-Heat

and Humidity-Comparison of Summer Temperatures—Warm Summers and Dry Cold

Winters—Table of Mean Temperatures-Summer Temperatures Compared—Peace

River Climate-Manitoba Climate-Hardness of Wheat-Grains in the Cluster-Min.

nesota Nowhere- Peace River Wheat-Isothermal Lines-Corn and Wheat Zones-

Temperature Necessary for Successful Wheat Culture, The Wheat Zones-- Probably

Three-fourths of the Wheat Lands of America in the New North-West—200,000,000

Acres—Extent of the Territory-Lord Selkirk's Opinions Seventy Years Ago_Great

American Desert-- Its Effect on Climate-Changes Observed Passing North—How the

Isothermal Lines Curve-Where the Heated Air comes From-Two Currents passing

North - Summer Temperature the same over 300,000 Square Miles— Moisture in Sum-

mer, its Absence in Winter-Rainfall of the Year-Progress of the Seasons-Fall

Frosts not Injurious, Climate Unsurpassed for Farmers—Its Possibilities Unlimited-

Depth of Winter Frost-Its Beneficial Effects on Soil—Table of Rainfalls for 1879 and

1880— Rainfall and Cloudlessness-Testimony of Settlers Regarding the Healthiness

of the Climate.

Red River Prairie, Description of its Soil-An Old Countryman's Views-Extent of the

Wheat Lands~150,000,000 Acres of Wheat Lands—Manitoba Excluded from the

Calculation-Good Land Continues for 100 Miles at a Time-Fixed Laws Regarding

the Growth of Wheat-Northern Limits of Wheat Zone-Northern Wheat more Pro-

lific—The Cause Explained—How Wheat Grows in Spring and Summer-Why Mani-

toba Wheat is Hard-Roots Penetrate to a Great Depth-Analysis of Soil, far Supe.

rior to the Best Wheat Land in Europe-Best Soil in the World in the North-West-

Manitoba Formerly an old Lake Bottom-Soil of the Second Prairie Steppe-Soil of

the Third Plateau-Gypsum very Abundant-Cactus no Proof of Aridity--Setter's

Farm Described—Wheat Growing amongst Cactus-Appearance of the Land-Results

of 1880_of 1881-Seed Bought in Minnesota in 1876—Progress since Then-Mani-

toba Wheat Admitted Duty Free into Minnesota—Opinions of Pioneer Press of St.

Paul's, Minnesota, regarding North-West Wheat-Statements of Residents—Average

Crop for Four Years-Average Yield of Canadian North-West Compared with the best

States in the Union-Great Weight of the Grain-Qu'Appelle Region as a Wheat

District-Prince Albert and Edmonton as Wheat Districts—Description of Edmon-

ton-Cust's Farm at Edmonton-Country on Peace River-Excellent Wheat Lands

far to the North-Cucumbers Ripen in Lat. 60°- Wheat in Lat. 61° First-class-

Spring Frosts not Hurtful-Fall Wheat not Suited for the North-West-Fall Sowing

Recomnended-No Doubt of its Success—Instances of Fall Sowing-Fall Sowing the

True Policy of Settlers on the Prairie-Wheat Production of the Future beyond Cal.

culation, England should Realise that we have the Greater part of the Wheat Lands

of America-England's True Policy–Farmers Testimony Regarding the Soil.

Barley-Its great Weight in the North-Bay of Quinte Barley—Additional 100,000,-

000 Acres Suited to Barley North of the Wheat Belt-Uses of Barley in the West-

Testimony Regarding its Culture in Manitoba—Average Yield for Four Years—Com.

pared with the United States—Enormous Yield of Oats Testimony of Residents in

Manitoba- Average sixty Bushels per Acre-Nearly Three Times Greater than Ohio

-100 Bushels per Acre often Raised-Potatoes a sure Crop to the Arctic Circle-

Rotten ones Unknown-Chipweyans as Potato Cultivators-Remarkable size of

Potatoes at Hay Lakes-Late Growth of Potatoes-Feeding Stock an Easy Matter-

Pumpkins, Melons, and Cucumbers in the North— Melons Grow and Ripen North of

St. Petersburg, or 1,200 Miles Northwest of Winnipeg and 900 Miles North of the

Boundary-Extent and Capacity of the Country Beyond the Range of Average Com-

prehension—Testimony of Residents Regarding the Productive Powers of the Soil-

Timothy an Excellent Crop—Good Fall Pasture— Wild Hops-Clover-Flax-Hemp

- Why all Crops Succeed so Well-Southern Russia a Parallel Case-Commencement

of Spring-Setting in of Winter-Seed-time in the North-West-Varies in Certain

Localities—Harvest Time-Earliest in the Qu'Appelle Valley-Always Free from

Frost-Qu'Appelle Valley Compared with Saskatchewan-Time for Taking up Roots

–Testimony ling Seed Time and Harvest-Roads of the West merely Cart

Trails—No real Roads other than Railways in the Country—Description of Leading

Trails—How Trails are Formed—Where they Lead to-No Attempts made to

Improve them—Travellers Tell of their Own Incapacity-Experienced men Never get

“Stuck”-How to Cross a “slew" with Loaded Carts-Trails or Roads of Ten

Years Since-How they were formed-Indian Trails-Roads of the Future.

Pastures of the Prairies—Their Value in Various Sections—Design of the Chapter-List

of Grasses, their Habitats—List of Cyperaceæ, their Habitats—List of Rushes-List

of Leguminosæ (Pea Family)—Why Certain Grasses have Various Names—Effects of

Burning the Grass—“Wild Oat” of Southwestern Manitoba a Bugbear-Sheep

Killing by its Awns a Myth—Description of the Grass—How it Injures Man or

Beast-Hay made of this Grass-Its Effects on Horses-Really the best Grass on the

Plains-Hay Grasses-Manitoba Hay-Practical Remarks Manitoba Hay–Testi-

mony of Residents Regarding the Hay Crop-Sand Hill Grasses—Bunch Grasses-

Buffalo Grasses—“Grama-grass "--Grasses of the Alkali Lands—Valuable Grasses-

Grasses of the Bow River Country-Spring Food of Horses-Summer Food—Winter

Grass of the Prairie-Winter Pasture in the Forest—Only one Poor Grass in Ninety-

six-Value of the Pea Family-Artemisia Frigida as a Forage Plant-Eurota lanata -

Analyses of Grasses.

Method of the Chapter-Cypress Hills General Description, Altitude, Wood, Water,

Grass—Value for Summer Pasture-Winter Pasture North of the Hills-Shel.

ter in the Coulées-Plain North of the Hills—Its Description and Character

Bow River and Cypress Hills Compared-Summer Pasture Everywhere-Enumera-

tion of Localities-All Equally Valuable-Ponies can Winter Anywhere—The Reason

of This-Prairie Grass real Hay in Winter-Why Canadian Horses Die-How to

Remedy This-Mr. Mackenzie's Opinion-Canadian Horses must be Fed—Cattle

Saeceed Well as they are always Grass Fed— Ponies use the Hoof; Cattle the Nose

to Procure their Food in Winter-When Cattle must be Fed—Incidents on the

Prairie in Winter-Mr. Selwyn's Testimony—Dr. Dawson's TestimonyWild Cattle

Winter out-Winter Shelter a Necessity-Other Locations as Good as Bow

River-Country West of Cypress Hills—Hand Hills as They are Now-Descrip

tion of the Hills—The “Store"-Country West of Sounding Lake-Tail Creek-

Remains of Former Fights-Bow River Country- Natural Hay-Country Better

Suited for Pasture than Farming-Description of the District-Root Crops casily

Raised for Cattle Feed-Winter Storms Never do Harm if Food is Abundant-Sheep

Raising—Keeping Hogs, easily Fattened—Animals easily Fattened in the North

Illustrations of this Fact-Riga Exports Hides and Tallow-Our Plains of same

Character as Russian Ones-Food Abundant Everywhere—An Irish Delegate's Views

on Stock Raising-Mr. Spence's Opinions Regarding the same Matter—Testimony of

Settlers Regarding Cold.

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