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year and there never has been a reporter in the United States who received it. The maximum is $5,500. This matter was before the Committee on Supporting Personnel 2 years ago.

Mr. ROONEY. I believe we had inserted in the record a couple of years ago a statement with regard to the amount these court reporters

I was surprised to learn that most of them earned far less than I had thought.

Judge Biggs. Occasionally, you run into reporters who run into a great deal. New Jersey was high one year because daily copy or hourly copy was called for. But the reporters are not being overpaid Putting it plainly, they really consider themselves imposed on. I do not think they are, but they take that point of view and take it pretty vehemently.

This matter was before the Supporting Personnel Committee, and we recommended an over-all increase of 10 percent. The Conference rejected it and appointed a new committee to consider each phase separately and came out with the figures in this proposed budget

. It was subject to very careful consideration. I think the Judicial Conference spends a good deal of time in trying to figure out ways of reducing the overhead of the courts while trying to increase their efficiency.

This should be borne in mind: that the real trouble in handling the Federal courts at the present time is the shortage of judicial personnel. From 1900 to 1950---in that year the civil business of the court increased 3.16 times, and the number of judges a little bit more than doubled. At the same time, the type of case which has come in in that 50 years has greatly increased in length of record and intricacy. Actually, what the courts are suffering from now is a shortage of judicial personnel more than anything else.

This business of court reporters means, in effect, you have to have one reporter for each judge. They are allowed to take private business on the side and in some instances they make something. In most instances court reporters by circumstances are compelled to spend all their time on official duties. That is true in the southern district of California by rule of court, but they consider themselves greatly underpaid even with this proposed increase, and they were getting to the point where they would give up their positions and they have been doing private work which is more profitable.

Some of them make a good deal, but usually it is all overtime on extraordinary cases that happen, not very often in a reporter's lifetime.

Where a reporter has made too much, the Conference has directed Mr. Chandler to get some of it remitted, and it has been done in some instances usually over the protests of the reporter.

It is a highly nerve-racking business, as you gentlemen know. The reporter has to take down what is said correctly with two or three people talking at one time.

Mr. ROONEY. What is meant by the language on page 130 of the justifications?

The conference adopted the committee's recommendation with minor changes and approved the higher salaries for reporters to become effective October 1, 1951, subject to the appropriation by the Congress of the additional funds needed to implement the salary increases. A supplemental appropriation for the fiscal year 1952 for this purpose recently has been submitted to the Bureau of the Budget.

1. BROWN. That :: Rooney. Has this supplemental appropriation been approved ne Bureau of the Budget? r. BROWN. The budget before us has been approved. The lemental item has not cleared the Bureau of the Budget yet.

1 r. ROONEY. They have not signified one way or the other? r. BROWN. But we understand they are holding it for transmittal he Congress with the supplemental estimates for other pay inses authorized this year. r. ROONEY. If the Bureau of the Budget continues to hold it, would not expect us to allow this in the 1953 budget? (r. BROWN. Not unless they transmit it, Mr. Chairman. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES COURTS

Amounts available for obligation

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Total expenditures....-
Cxpenditures are distributed as follows:

Out of current authorizations..
Out of prior authorizations..
Out of anticipated 1952 supplemental for pay increases..

509, 288

575, 341

592, 650

488, 631
20, 657

511, 000
22, 941
41, 400

566, 650
24. 000
2,000

96641--52

Mr. Rooney. Are there any questions on salaries of court reporters? If there are not, the next item is “Salaries and expenses, Administrative Office of the United States Courts." This is Mr. Chandler's immediate area. This is to be found at page 39 of the committee print and at pages 131-2 of the justifications.

At this point we shall insert in the record page 131 and the so-called detailed justification beginning on page 136 and continuing to page 137.

(The pages referred to are as follows:)

Statement relating appropriation estimate to current appropriation 1052 appropriation in annual act. Proposed supplemental 1952 due to pay increases.

$535,000

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DETAILED JUSTIFICATION The following table shows a comparison of the cost of full-time and temporary employment, and other objects of expense for the fiscal years 1951, 1952, and 1953. The savings realized in 1951 are also shown in the table.

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Total appropriation or

estimate.

520,000

578, 400

The total amount of the appropriation requested for 1953 is $594,650, or $16,250 more than the amount required for 1952 of $578,400. The increase requested for 1953 provides for the cost of within-grade promotions amounting to $9,000, the additional cost in 1953 for salary increases authorized by Public Law 201 of $850, the sum of $1,800 to permit the rental of additional business machines, an addition of $2,000 to the allotment for purchases of supplies and materials, and an additionai amount of $2,600 for purchases of equipinent, making a total of $16,250.

INCREASES REQUESTED

r. ROONEY. Included in the request for $594,650 is the salary ase authorized by Public Law 201 of $850. r. CHANDLER. The increase in the estimate is not all for salary

Part of it is for additional equipment. (r. ROONEY. Where is that to be found? Ir. CHANDLER. On page 137 of the justifications. Ir. ROONEY. $1,800 for rents of business machines; $2,000 for plies and materials, and $2,600 for equipment.

RENTAL OF OFFICE MACHINES

Ar. CHANDLER. We have certain machines for tabulating purposes d in compiling the very extensive and detailed statistics of the ited States courts which save time, of course, in computation and ke it possible to give information to the Congress when bills are ding for additional judges, when questions are involved with respect litigation arising from particular laws, and to give to the judges and

members of the judicial councils of the circuits accurate infortion. For effective operation we need some expansion in the count allowed for rental of equipment and hence request the increase $1,800. Mr. ROONEY. $1,800 for the purpose of leasing additional equipment? Mr. CHANDLER. Yes. That is right.

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Mr. ROONEY. What about the request for $2,000 additional sup. ies and materials? Mr. CHANDLER. That is due to the general increase in prices of all nds of supplies and materials to which I have referred. Mr. ROONEY. That would mean a 40-percent increase. Would it? Mr. CHANDLER. Yes. It would be a 40-percent increase over the lowance for 1952. But that allowance Mr. Chairman, is not really ufficient. We used to make an allotment of around $7,000 for upplies and materials. What is asked now is a restoration of the ormer amount without any added provision for the increase in price. Ve did request an increase of $2,000 over $5,000. Mr. Rooney. How long ago was it that you had $5,000? Mr. DRAKE. There was a $2,900 reduction in expense allotments in he current fiscal year and $1,700 in new costs for unforeseen price ncreases and the employees' taxes, social security, which had to be ibsorbed and the only place we could absorb that was in these two llotments.

Mr. ROONEY. Everybody manages to absorb where they should east absorb cuts, it seems to me. Couldn't you find any other place to take the cut other than in supplies and materials?

Mr. CHANDLER. One thing we have tried to do with our funds, and I believe it results in an efficient office. We have tried to recognize the services of personnel and give them a reasonable assurance of permanent tenure and of compensation which is commensurate with their ability because personnel is important. Machinery is important in an office, and supplies. But personnel in my judgment--if I am wrong I have been wrong from the beginning-efficient and loyal

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personnel are the most important desideratum for an efficient office

. We have tried to promote that in the personnel of the office. If we have to reduce our inventory in a year because we do not see a sufficient allotment for supplies and materials, we will reduce it; and if the condition is explained to you, you may permit us to replenish it in another year.

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Mr. ROONEY. Unfortunately, annual leave was reduced from 26 days to 13 days. Would that have any effect on this very thing we are talking about?

Mr. CHANDLER. Can you answer, Mr. Brown?

Mr. Brown. Of course, Mr. Chairman, you do get more work and more employee-days with a group of employees of a hundred or more under the new leave system. But the fact we are faced with now is to keep employees to keep the positions we have filled. I have had a vacancy for 9 months in my office that I cannot fill.

Mr. ROONEY. What sort of position is it?

Mr. BROWN. A file clerk-typist position and it is a grade 2. We cannot even get new high-school graduates to become interested in it.

Mr. ROONEY. Are there any questions with regard to this?

EQUIPMENT

What about the $2,600 requested for equipment?

Mr. CHANDLER. The amount available for the purchase of equipment for the current year is only $3,400. Our annual requirements for purchase of equipment have normally been about $6,000 and we really believe that this is not an unreasonable amount.

Mr. Rooney. How is it you pick out two such compelling items as supplies and materials and equipment and do not specifically request any cut with regard to them?

Mr. CHANDLER. The only thing I can say is that it seemed to us that in this year that was the best place to take the cut.

Mr. ROONEY. Why don't you cut the travel, for instance?
Mr. CHANDLER. Very well.

Mr. Brown. That was a question of judgment. It was decided that the service would suffer less by taking it out of supplies and materials than from travel. You have fixed costs each year. For example: the cost of telephone service must be met, and the rental of equipment, which is a contract that runs for the entire year must be paid. When you pass these items you get down to such items as: printing and reproduction which is more or less a fixed item and

Other contractual services" which is a catch-all item covering the repairs of machinery and equipment the cost of which cannot be substantially reduced.

TRAVEL

Mr. WHITEHURST. Our travel allotment is small when it is considered that our work is with courts located in every State in the Union.

Judge Biggs. I think the administrative office has just about reduced its travel to a minimum. Indeed, if a problem arises in New

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