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TABLE exhibiting the Amounts and Proportions of the Population professing different Religious Creeds in each Province in Ireland, with the Amounts and
Proportions thereof in a Course of Education, calculated from the Returns made by the Roman Catholic Clergy.
Protestants in Education,
taken from the last-mentioned Retums.
Numbers of the Protestant Popula
tion, obtained by saying, as Col. 2
Roman Catholics in Education, taken from the said Returns.
of other Denominations.
Children in Education, the Re
ligion of whom has not been stated by the Returns.
Total Protestant Population.
Roman Catholic Population,
obtained by a Process sitnilar to that of Col. 6, taking Col. 4 as the Third Proportional.
of other Denominations.
Population, the Religion of
whom cannot be ascertained from the Returns.
Proportion of the Protestant
Population to the Roman Catholic.
Total Population, taken from
the Census of 1821.
Total in Education, taken from
the Returns made to the Commissioners of Education Inquiry in 1824.
of the Established Church.
Proportion of Males in Educa
tion to the Total Male PopuJation.
Proportion of Females in Edu
cation to the total Female Population.
Proportion of the Population
(Male and Female taken together) in Education to the Total Population.
or the Established Church.
• The Returns from Connaught are less perfect than those from the other provinces, and the calculation founded on them may be proportionably inaccurute.
The Rev. THOMAS WILLIAM Dixon, consequence of the blows he received from the again examined. The students at Maynooth friends of the prisoners. were instructed to consider the Protestants as James REDMOND BARRY, Esq. - Was a separated from the pale of the church by their Roman Catholic magistrate, and an officer under heresy, and consequently as no sharers of the the Fishery Board, who had resided in the blessings which religion had brought into the barony of Ibawne and Barrygroe, in the county world. The priests considered the Protestant of Cork, from his birth. In 1820, the general hierarchy as having no claim whatever to apos- condition of the maritime population of Muntolic origin, and that the Protestant bishops i ster was very miserable, but he thought it had were intruders into the situations and offices of improved : 'it was still, however, capable of the Roman Catholics. The priests were much much further improvement. He recommended opposed to education, which, he was sure, was separating the occupations of fishery and farmbecause they were apprehensive that its effects ing upon the coast, by congregating the mari. on the human mind would be to counteract in time peasantry into small towns and villages a great measure the implicit belief that Roman upon the coast. He conceived the restora. Catholics were taught to repose in the tradi- tion of perfect tranquillity in the country one of tions of the church. It did not appear to him the strongest, and almost a sufficient inducethat the lower class of the Irish attached any ment to obtain the investment of capital in the great interest to the question of Roman Catholic Irish fisheries. Every possible means had been emancipation. The idea that the priests at adopted by the officers of the fisheries to afford tached to it was ascendancy in church and state. every possible information, and every induce. He did not think that the discontents which ment to persons to invest capital in the fisheries. had prevailed so much in Ireland were chiefly There was a ready market for all the fish caught; attributable to the want of what was called but as yet no exportation, the home consumpCatholic emancipation; but he thought that tion not being supplied. The town of Dunthe general distress which pervaded the country lgaryan had exceedingly improved of late, which subsequent to the peace was their main cause. he attributed to the fact, that the fisheries there If the mass of the people could obtain employ- were the exclusive pursuit of the working ment to detach them from contraband traffic classes. In his opinion, the two occupations of and other idle pursuits, it would have a most taking and curing fish ought to be divided. powerful effect in restoring the country to tran- Thanks to the late act, they had salt in abundquillity. When he was a Roman Catholic ance, of which the English market afforded the priest, he did not oppose the spread of educa- largest supply. The general conduct of the potion; but he alone was perhaps of that opinion pulation engaged in fishing along the coast of in the diocese in which he lived. When he was Ireland, during the late disturbances, was unina Roman Catholic priest, he had the same re- terruptedly tranquil and peaceable, under the spect for the sanctity of an oath as he had now; severest privations. Persons who embarked but he was satisfied, that if a Roman Catholic their capital in the Irish fisheries should look were confident he was acting under the express for their profit, not to any fishery exclusively, o implied command of the Pope, or of any but to all generally, and to the very large mi. power who he believed had power to absolve gratory shoals of fish that occasionally visited him from an oath, he would consider himself the coast; being principally herrings, mackarel, justified in carrying into effect what he would and a description of fish called scad. About six consider the interests of his religion or church, years ago, when the fishery commenced, the at the expense of the oath which he had before price of herrings per Scotch barrel was about taken. He had presented a petition to the 21.; the present price was about ll. 58. He House of Lords, stating his knowledge of the recommended a reduction of the duties on the dangerous principles of the Catholics, and his articles which were necessary for the outfit of conviction, that a departure from the restric- vessels ; namely, hemp, foreign timber, and tions at present attached by law to the profes- iron. The people in the district to which he sion of Popery within these realms must tend to alluded were intensely anxious for employment ; the downfall of the constitution. The petition and he was firmly convinced that there was at was read, and he now stated upon his oath that that moment as much security for the investhe believed all which it stated. If a Roman ment of capital there as in the city of London. Catholic were to assert the contrary upon his To insure the continuance, however, of the cath, he would not believe him.
tranquillity that at present existed, he was perJosep. MORGAN Daly, Esq._Resided on suaded that the removal of the disqualifications his own property in Westmeath. Had been a under which so large a portion of the people magistrate for nineteen years. Detailed various laboured was essential. He should.consider the cases of great outrage, in which the persons destitute poor to form about one-third of the tried were acquitted in consequence of the in-population in the district of which he had been timidation under which the witnesses laboured, speaking. There was a very kindly feeling toand which prevented their giving evidence. In wards them on the part of their poor neighone instance, a witness died before the trial, in bours; and although they were a burden upon the latter, he should view with great apprehen. Roman Catholies to civil offices, and to the sion the introduction of any compulsory mea. houses of parliament, would endanger the exist. sures for their relief. Enforced charity might ing establishment in church and state. He was destroy the real feelings of charity, and hold persuaded that the Catholics would feel bound forth an inducement to mendicancy.
by their oaths not to endanger that establish. The Honourable ROBERT Day._Was one ment. The crown, however, ought, in his opi. of the Puisne Judges of the Court of King's nion, to be invested with a controlling power in Bench in Ireland for twenty-one years, and the nomination of the Roman Catholic digni. had travelled every circuit. His confident opi. taries. A veto would answer every desirable nion was, that it was expedient to separate the purpose. He had not the remotest idea that different functions now carried on by the Irish the appointment of a Roman Catholic to be a grand juries, and he detailed various improve- judge would afford any just apprehension to the ments that he thought might be made with Protestant that the law would not be impartially reference to grand jury presentments. He administered. The recent disturbances in Irethought that the tenant should have credit land had nothing to do with religion; they against his landlord for every charge upon the originated in the poverty of the people, which land liquidated by the tenant. The power of exposed them to the seduction of every felonious laying on the assessments, and auditing the or turbulent leader ; the want of employment; accounts, he would have transferred from the the non-residence of landlords; the want of grand juries to the magistrates assembled in education ; and the unconscionable rents (the quarter session. It would be an inducement to offspring of subfeudation, thank God, diminishthe gentlemen of the country to accept the com- ing) that were too often exacted from the pea. mission of the peace. Most disgusting jobbing santry. The Tithe Composition Act was a had, to his knowledge, taken place in money. measure which had proved beneficial in the matters on the grand juries, which, he thought, highest degree. He recommended a moderate would be prevented by removing the power of provision for the Roman Catholie clergy, theretaxing to the quarter sessions. The survey of by relieving the peasantry from the priest's land was at present very unequal, and required dues. He recommended also a limitation of the amendment. The magistracy in towns corpo. legal right of distraining under all future leases rate was certainly inferior to the magistracy of to the head-landlord, and a discontinuance of a the county. He recommended an enlargement practice, common in Munster, of advertising of the number of magistrates in towns corpo- lands to be let to the highest bidder, the conserate, by giving the crown a power of appointing quence of which was a competition productive of co-ordinate magistrates, which had been done in the most mischievous effects. Raising the the city of Limerick with the best effect imagin- qualifications of the freeholds from 40s. to 20%. able. He thought it would be very advan- would also, in his opinion, be very beneficial. tageous if the business of each county in Ireland ROBERT DE LA COUR, Esq._ Was a banker was in the hands of one lord-lieutenant, rather at Mallow, and had been high sheriff for the than, as at present, in the hands of several county of Cork. He attributed the disturbgovernors ; although it might be difficult in ances that took place two years ago, not to any some counties to find a person qualified for the political or religious cause, but to distress. situation. The sub-sheriffs ought, in his opi. When he left Ireland (the 20th of April) it nion, to be appointed otherwise than at present. was as tranquil as he had ever known it; and Let the sheriff nominate three individuals to although the rejection of the bill for the relief of the judge of assize, and the judge select one of the Catholics would, he had no doubt, be severely the three for sub-sheriff. He thought it would felt by Roman Catholics of all denominations be extremely desirable that the assistant bar- and ranks, he hoped that the present good prices risters should have an opportunity of selecting, and agricultural prosperity in Ireland would at some period of the year, the county they prevent the peace of the country from being diswould choose to go to, according to seniority, as turbed. The present condition of the labouring the judges did their circuits. In his opinion, poor of the south of Ireland was very miserable, the assistant barristers ought not to be the chair- arising from want of permanent employment. men of the quarter sessions. The mingling of In his opinion, there was sufficient security for the criminal and the civil business was very the investment of capital in that country. Sub improper. The criminal business ought to be letting was one of the greatest evils affecting first disposed of. It had been his constant per- Ireland; but the landlords were doing all in suasion that Catholic emancipation, or rather their power to abate it. The law, as it now equalisation, as it ought to be called, would stood, between landlord and tenant, was more have the best effect in securing Irish tranquil. than equitably favourable to the former : and lity. In the abstract, no one could deny that especially in the process called Civil Bill the Catholics were entitled to it. It would be Ejectments, there were defects which he an act of justice, and his maxim was, " Be just, thought ought to be remedied. The grand
and leave the rest to Providence." He could jury system was also, in his opinion, suscepti. not conceive it possible that the admissibility of ble of much improvement; but he did not think that the power of assessing for public county | taken, generally speaking, from the lower or. purposes could be placed in better hands. (The ders. They exercised great influence over their witness delivered in several papers, containing flocks, and estranged them from Protestants by detailed plans and suggestions for the amend- exciting in their minds a horror of what they ment of the laws respecting presentments, the called heresy. They frequently inflicted very allotments, and collections of county levies, severe personal chastisement on their parish&c.) It had long been his opinion, that it would ioners. They regarded Rome as the place where tend to the improvement of moral order and the their religion was triumphant; and looked upon state of society in the country, if the right of their body in Ireland as forming a part of a qualification for freeholds were raised. He universal community, with the Pope as its head; thought it ought not to be less than 201. a year. and their conversations with the people were It was also a very decided opinion of his, that calculated to inspire them with the same feel. the removal of Roman Catholic disabilities ings. It appeared to him, that the system of would be of advantage to Ireland ; and that auricular confession rendered the obtaining of Ireland would not see peace until it was effected. evidence, and the discovery of crimes in Ireland He had no apprehension that such a mea- much more difficult. In his opinion, the priests sure would endanger the interests of the Pro- had great power in exciting disorder, but very testant establishment, or he would be the last little in allaying it. Having been treated almost man to advocate it. Itinerant mendicancy in with disdain by the gentry, the priests had Ireland went to an enormous and lamentable united with the people, and formed a party that extent; and he thought some establishment for defied the power of the gentry. He by no means the relief of the destitute, old, and infirm, would thought that the cause of the disturbances which be very desirable.
bad taken place would be removed by political The Rev. WILLIAM PHELÅN. Was a concession. The interference of the legislature dergyman of the Established Church, who had in granting concessions had invariably been been resident in the counties of Armagh and productive of increased misery to the poorer Tyrone. Adverting to the oath of the Roman classes. The worst effect of the Roman Catholic Catholic priest, he thought there were two Association was, that it had brought into poli. declarations in it ; the one a declaration that the tical consequence a number of persons who Pope was the vicar or vicegerent of Christ; the were not, from their property or habits, of any other, a pledge that the priest would maintain, consequence before, and that had strengthened and cause to be maintained, all the canons, con. the party of which he had before spoken. In taining matter objectionable, perhaps to, all many cases the payment of the Catholic rent states, but more especially to Protestant states. had been occasioned by terror. It appeared to With regard to the former, in early times, under him that the hostility of the Roman Catholics the title of " vicar of Christ," a regal, as well as to the Established Church was greater than it a sacerdotal power, had been expressly claimed. used to be ; which he attributed in a great meaWith regard to the latter, the temporal power sure to the influence of the Jesuit schools. The of the Pope, the claim of ecclesiastics to be ex. recent disturbances and outrages in Ireland he empted from lay jurisdiction, and intolerance attributed principally to distress, proceeding towards those who differed from them in reli. from want of employment. gion, were all distinctly and broadly asserted in JAMES REDMOND BARRY, Esq., again exathe canons. Instances had occurred, in the mined.- Described the nature and extent of reigns of Elizabeth and Charles I., of the eccle- the encouragement at present afforded to the siastics of Ireland having shewn a determined | Irish fisheries. He certainly did not think it disposition to maintain their right of exemption either necessary or reasonable that the bounty from lay jurisdiction. In every reign since that system should be perpetuated, or even conti. of Elizabeth, there had been some negotiation nued longer than the period fixed by the existabout taking the oath of allegiance: the Roman ing acts ; although he did not think that the Catholic laity were in general well disposed to fisheries of Ireland were in a condition suf. the measure, but some opposition always arose ficiently well established to subsist and improve from the priesthood. The witness here detailed without some system of legislative regulation. the various occurrences on which his last state He had no doubt that the fisheries would afford dient was founded. He considered the answer ample employment for the whole of the mariof the six universities to Mr. Pitt's questions time population, if the means could be created ak by no means making a full and absolute dis- of enabling the people to avail themselves of the claimer of the doctrines which it was professed advantage. He regretted to say, that he had to disclaim ; and described his reasons for so not observed a disposition generally, on the
part of the landed proprietors and others, to The Rev. MORTIMER O'SULLIVAN.-Was cherish and encourage the fisheries. With a clergyman of the Established Church, who had reference to the opinion which he had given on had a great deal of intercourse with the Roman his former examination, that the removal of Catholics in Ireland, principally in the county the disqualifications under which a large pro
Tipperary. The Roman Catholic priests were portion of the community laboured was essen
tial to the re-establishment of the prosperity of are unable, at this advanced period of the Ses. the country, he repeated that opinion, and dission, to accompany it with such observations in claimed on oath, for himself, as a Catholic, and detail as they might l-ave been desirous of sub. for his countrymen of the same persuasion, mitting, if their examination of the numerous any design of desiring emancipation from civil witnesses whom they have called had closed at disabilities principally with a view to ulterior an earlier time. objects, affecting the Protestant establishment Their inquiries have been continued up to in church and state.
the present moment. The voluminous and imHis Grace the ARCHBISHOP of DUBLIN portant evidence received by them comprehends again examined. Explained the reasons which a very wide range ; and much of that evidence had induced him to correct, in the printed evi. has not yet been delivered to them in print. dence, several answers which he had given in a The operation and tendency of the laws which former examination respecting the Athanasian affect his Majesty's Roman Catholic subjects Creed and the Articles of the Church.
formed, as might have been expected, the lead. DOMINICK BROWNE, Esq. M. P. — Re. ing topic of examination ; but the great question sided in the south-eastern part of the county of to which these inquiries referred having been Mayo. Had not observed during the last twenty repeatedly subjected to the judgment of the years any material improvement in the con- House, your Committee think, that they have dition of the peasantry. Among the principal pursued the most useful and fitting course, by causes which, in his opinion, continued to keep collecting full information upon every branch of the lower orders in their present miserable that subject, and by submitting that information situation, were,—the excessive and increasing for the consideration of the House. population, the insufficient supply of employ- / Your Committee have acted upon the same ment, the creation, for the sake of political principle with respect to the creation and influence, of 40s. leasehold freeholders, the registry of freeholds for the purpose of exer. low state of the temporalities of the Roman cising the elective franchise ; and with respect Catholic church, the dissatisfaction of the lower to the expediency and practicability of allotting orders in consequence of paying out of the three a provision from the public funds for the main. taxes to which they were subject (the county tenance of the Roman Catholic priesthood. cess, the parish cess, and the tithes) two for the Another subject of urgent and pressing immaintenance of a church of a small minority, portance, from its high concern to the state, is protesting against their own, for which there that of the education of the people ; but in con. was no legal provision ; and other causes, pro- sequence of an address of the House to his ducing a sense of their own degradation and Majesty, this subject has been specially referred want of importànce in the community, and con- to the consideration of Commissioners, and those sequent despondency and want of exertion. Commissioners having made considerable proThe Tithe Composition Act, and the Act to gress in their inquiry, and their power of local limit the voting for joint freeholds at elec- inspection affording them superior means of tions, had been beneficial, although the latter information, your Committee limited their own had been much evaded. The laxity with re-examinations into this subject, and consequently spect to oaths occasioned by the present law, are not prepared to offer to the House any ob. produced the very worst effects on the morals servations with respect to it. of the population. He believed that forty-nine For similar reasons, your Committee forbore fiftieths of the fee-simple property of the county from undertaking any detailed investigation of Mayo belonged to Protestants, but be be into the subject of the revenue, or into those lieved that forty-nine fiftieths of the people matters connected with the superior courts of were Roman Catholics. An extremely good justice, which either have been tbe subject of effect had, in his opinion, arisen from the esta. the former Reports of the Commissioners of blishment of petty sessions ; but the greatest judicial inquiry, or are now under their condefects existed in the quarter sessions system, sideration. as far as the recovery of small debts was con. The inquiries which are still pending with cerned. The greatest difficulty also existed in respect to the office of sheriff, and which Par. trying the validity of wills in the case of the liament has recently been called upon to assist lower orders, where small properties were con- in forwarding, induce your Committee to suscerned.
pend any observations upon that office, although
a subject of the deepest interest, as it relates to Rerort from the Select Committee of the the administration of the law.
House of Commons appointed to inquire into The evidence, however, which your Comthe State of Ireland, more particularly with mittee have taken upon other subjects presents Reference to the Circumstances which may much valuable information, affecting many of have led to Disturbances in that part of the the most important interests of Ireland : and United Kingdom.
although, even with respect to some of these In presenting to the House the last portion of matters, measures have already been taken by the evidence taken by them, your Committee Parliament, or the Government, which appear