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him, that in uttering that opinion he indulged | Tithe Bill was going on very well in the diocese in a peculiar latitude of expression to make a of Dublin. Previously to the passing of that show of liberality, he solemnly and unequivocally bill, the tithe system was productive of great reiterated the sentiment; and added, that hav- dissatisfaction in Ireland ; much of which, how. ing read his former evidence to other Roman ever, had been excited by speeches in ParliaCatholics, clergy as well as laity, he had never ment. Considerable dissatisfaction had been found one that expressed the least dissent produced in Ireland by the past state of the from it.
law with regard to burials as between Catholic RANDLE PATRICK MACDONNELL, Esq.- and Protestant; and he thought the best remedy Resided at Lancaster Park, near Ballinasloe. would be to have separate places of burial. It Had had daily opportunities of observing the was true that in former days the property of the system of taking distress, and the conduct of church in Ireland was divided into four parts, drivers, and conceived that the latter was con- and that with three of those parts the bishop trary to law in most instances. The tolls col. built and repaired the churches, supplied a prolected at fairs were also grievous and illegal. vision for the clergymen, and gave aid to the In Ballinasloe a board was set up enumerating poor ; but he rather thought that the quarla the various articles which were to pay toll, with pars episcopalis of those days was, at least, as an &c. at the end of them, thus, " for every great as the entire property of the church at the “ bag of oats, barley, wheat, meal, &c. so present moment. Although he thought every “ much ;" and complaint being made to the church was the only interpreter of its own magistrates that toll had been exacted on an words, yet it did not appear to him necessarily article not named on the board, viz. potatoes, to follow that the individual divines of the they determined that that article was compre- Roman Catholic Church were the best expositors hended in the &c. On many other articles, all of the doctrines of their own church ; because of which were supposed to be comprehended he thought those divines had deprived them. in the &c., toll was taken. At the town of selves of the liberty of exposition ; inasmuch as Westport there were various tolls and dues they had subjected themselves, and not only so, which were considered illegal. He detailed a but the church had subjected itself, to an estanumber of extraordinary circumstances con blished system of exposition which no individual nected with the administration of justice by the had a right to alter. The Church of England magistrates in the petty courts at Ballinasloe. left the matter, within a certain limit, to the A subscription was raising for the purpose of judgment of the individual. In one sense of prosecuting one of them, a Dr. Trench, for his the word, he admitted that the Roman Catholic conduct. He shewed the copy of a warrant, by Church of the present day was very different two magistrates, for levying by distress the sum from the Roman Catholic Church of the middle of 2 d. on the goods and chattels of an indi. ages ; - in the general prevailing opinions vidual for tithes. The fees on such a warrant amongst individuals there might be a consider. would exceed a shilling. Complaint was also able difference ;- but the principle, that the very general of the whole system of grand jury opinions of individuals were not to affect the presentments; more especially with reference meaning of the church, still remained ; and if a to roads and bridges ; and any appeal to the solemn demand were made for a formal declaralaw to correct the abuse, would inevitably bring tion, or recognition of the great leading opinions down the hostility of powerful persons on the of the Roman Catholic Church respecting its appellant.
| doctrines, he should not be quite sure that the His Grace the ARCHBISHOP of DUBLIN.- ancient received opinions of that church, which During his experience he had little doubt that might seem for a time to have been abandoned the real proportion of Roman Catholics to practically, might not then be, and ought not Protestants in Ireland had been increasing ; then to be, given as the rule of that church, although the ostensible number of Protestants and revived in all its force. In the education had increased. He thought that the number of of the people he was averse to a plan which Protestants in Dublin might be about 90,000. should comprehend both Catholics and ProThere had for some time been a sort of general testants, as that must inevitably tend to an indefinite alarm entertained by Protestants, interference with religious faith. The recent upon the subject of insurrection on the part of introduction of political considerations had the Roman Catholics. Several Catholic clergy. much strengthened the line of distinction bemen had recently offered to read their recanta-tween Protestants and Catholics. He admitted tion ; but circumstances had induced him to that any considerable body of people, who suffered suspect that they were either not sincere or not any political exclusion, would naturally feel sane. He had never been a member of the dissatisfied with the law; that if that exclusion Bible Society; and disapproved, not of their arose on the ground of religion, it would be object, but of their conduct, as tending to secta. likely to raise still more acrimonious feelings; rianism. He admitted that the existing Roman that the dissatisfaction would be more felt in Catholic chapels appeared to be insufficient for proportion as the class of the community to the members of that communion. The new which the exclusion applied advanced in wealth and power; that the Roman Catholics of Ireland against the Catholics ; nor did he think that if had advanced very much in those respects; those laws were all repealed, and the Catholics that in proportion as persons became educated put on an equal footing with the Protestants, and enlightened, and felt their capacity for civil there would be immediately a cessation of all and political privilege increase, their dissatis. dissensions, and an immediate amelioration in faction at exclusion from civil and political the condition of the people. The Roman Ca. privilege would increase also; that the progress tholics had become more discontented since they of education in Ireland had been considerable; had had an increase of privileges. From history that as long as the religious distinctions, and the it appeared abundantly that the Roman Catho. asperity of party which they produced, continued lic religion was a religion seeking supremacy; in Ireland, he did not anticipate any improve- and he did not think that a man could be a good ment in that country; that the agitation which Catholic, in the strict sense of the word, unless existed among the Roman Catholic part of the he availed himself of every means in his power community in Ireland had been, in a great to establish the supremacy of the Catholic reli. degree, produced by the speeches and acts of gion. Nothing that he could see had occurred, those who were their leaders in Dublin ; that within the last two or three centuries, to lessen those leaders were of a class of persons who felt, that feeling on the part of the Roman Catholics. practically, the civil disabilities to which they He conceived that it would be dangerous to were subject on account of their religion ; that admit into all the privileges of the Protestant it was likely that as long as they continued constitution persons who were in such comsubject to those civil disabilities their dissatis-plete subservience to the authority of a foreign faction would continue; and that their means power as was described in those decrees of general of agitating and disquieting the great mass of councils which regarded the excommunication the Catholic people would certainly continue as of heretics and the deprivation of heretical long; but he maintained, that if the persons sovereigns of their kingdoms, which decrees, he who were influential in the Catholic body were believed, had never been annulled by subsequent sincerely desirous of prosecuting only the fair decrees. He did not think that the line of disobjects of that body, and in a fair constitutional tinction between spiritual and temporal alleway, there would be but little dissension ; that giance, in the Catholic Church, was sufficiently that was not the case ; that there had been an marked. He was not of opinion that the esta eagerness of exertion connected with objects (as blishment of the college of Maynooth had been he believed) beyond those which were professed beneficial; and, on the whole, he thought it to be sought ; that that had produced a sort of would be safer to have a foreign education for character, and the exertions of a sort of cha- the Roman Catholic clergy, than the education racter, on behalf of the Roman Catholics, not to as it was now conducted at Maynooth. be justified by the real wants of that body; that John RAMSAY M'CULLOCH, Esq. Had the conduct pursued had been that which fairly devoted much time to the study of political subjected the leading persons to the description economy. Taking the population of Ireland in of demagogues,- of persons who were inflaming 1791 at 3,747,000, and its population in 1821 at the people in order that they might, by modes 6,801,000, it appeared that the population of not perfectly justifiable or allowed by the con- that country doubled in about thirty-three stitution, obtain an object in which they had years. In several of the states of America it themselves a peculiar interest ; that they had was proved that, after making every reasonable not declined drawing their religion itself into deduction for emigrants, the population had an association by which it ought never to be doubled in twenty-five years, or less ; but in influenced, confounding all distinctions, and England and Wales it took eighty years, and in making the religious part of their community Scotland a hundred and twenty years, to double altogether political; that the Protestant mind the population. The main cause of the great aught to be satisfied that the objections to the increase of population in Ireland was the small religious tenets of the Roman Catholics should quantity and the cheap quality of the food on be shewn not to be well founded, if in reality which the people consented to live ; and the they were not 30 ; and that the way to effect extreme facility of obtaining small portions of that was not by the violent conduct of the land enabled them to raise that food with little Roman Catholic leaders, but that the whole difficulty. The habit of early marriages, and should be a progress of mind.His own opinion the healthiness of the climate, undoubtedly con. was, that the object which the Roman Catholicstributed to increase the number of the people. had in view was the establishment of the Roman He had no doubt that the population of Ireland Catholic religion in Ireland, as the religion of was still increasing at the same rate; and if no the country, upon the ruins of the Protestant check were interposed to the practice of splitting Church; and that the Protestant Church was farms into small portions, he did not know at that moment in great danger from the Roman where population was to stop, until all the land Catholics. He could not allow that the mis. was parcelled out into mere potato gardens. fortunes of Ireland were entirely attributable From all that he had read and heard, he beto the present state of the disqualifying laws lieved that the condition of the Irish peasantry
was worse than that of any other peasantry in | be advantageously employed in Ireland, it would Europe ; and that it was hardly possible for go thither without any legislative measures to human beings to live, and be in a worse state than force it ; if not, it had better remain where it they were. He thought that the immediate cause was. It would be wise in the legislature, how. of this state of things was the excessive number ever, to give every facility (not every encou. of people in the country, compared with the ragement) to the tendency of capital to go to quantity of capital to employ them. Supposing Ireland, by removing all obstacles in the way of the present average rate of wages was four. its natural transfer. Want of security was one pence a day, if it were deemed desirable to raise of the most powerful of those obstacles. Every that rate to twelve-pence a day, then, taking thing that could be done to increase the security the existing population of Ireland at 7,500,000, of property in Ireland must be in the last degree of which there might be about 2,000,000 above advantageous. The unsettled state of a great sixteen years of age, including 500,000 females political question must undoubtedly detract from fit for labour, it would require an additional the security of property in Ireland. Any mea. capital of about 20,000,0001, for that purpose. sures that could be adopted to slacken the ratio It was quite impossible that the condition of the of the progress of population would also be ad. people could be improved until the ratio of ca vantageous ;—such as abolishing the practice of pital to population were increased. The efforts sub-letting, taking away all artificial or political of individuals, or even of companies, could effect inducements to the landlords to multiply their but little benefit. He was not aware that the tenants and subdivide their farms; and the return and the residence of the absentee land establishment of schools, in which the children lords of Ireland would be productive of any of the poor should be taught what were the cir. advantage to the lower orders of the people in cumstances on which their condition in life must the way of increasing the average rate of wages ever depend. A system of emigration, carried all over the country. The income of a landlord, on by Government, and coming in aid of those when he was an absentee, was just as much ex- measures, would operate beneficially. But emi. pended in Ireland as if he were living in it. gration would be useful only when combined When a landlord became an absentee, his rent with such other measures as might have an must be remitted to him either in money or in effect to prevent the vacuum that it would cause commodities. As it could not continue to be in the population from being filled up. The remitted to him in money, there being not suf. introduction of poor laws into Ireland would be ficient money to make such continued remit. productive of immediate advantage, but of ul. tance, it was clear that it must be remitted in timate ruin to the people of that country; as it commodities. This, he thought, would be the would at the same time destroy the capital and nature of the operation : when a landlord, increase the population. He had very serious having an estate in Ireland, went to live in apprehensions of the injurious operation, upon London or Paris, his agent got his rent, and the state of British labourers, of the competition went and bought a bill of exchange with it; of the great number of Irish labourers who now that bill of exchange was a draft drawn came over to England and Scotland to look for against equivalent commodities that were to be employment, and settle themselves. He did exported from Ireland; it was nothing more not believe that any such serious mischief ever than an order to receive an equivalent amount was inflicted on the west of Scotland as had in commodities which must be sent from Ire- been done to it by the Irish labourers that had land. The merchants who got 10,0001. or any come over within the last ten or fifteen years. other sum from the agent of an absentee land. If the population of Ireland went on increasing, lord, went into the Irish market and bought Great Britain would be the natural outlet for exactly the same amount of commodities as the the surplus. He did not conceive that bounties landlord would have bought had he been at on the linen manufacture of Ireland would have hove; the only difference being, that the land any beneficial effect. To lay the foundation of lord would eat them and wear them in London any effectual change in the condition of the or Paris, and not in Dublin or in his house in people of Ireland, Government should attempt Ireland Precisely, therefore, in proportion to i to remove the obstacles that prevented the nathe amount of rent remitted would be the cor. tural transfer of English capital to that coun. responding export of Irish commodities. If the try, and take away all the artificial incitements remittances to absentee landlords amounted to to the increase of population which now existed three millions a year, were they to return home in it. the foreign trade of Ireland would be dimi. Major WARBURTON.- Resided principally nished to that amount. Nor did he think, from at Ballinasloe. Defended the conduct of the all the information he had been able to obtain, police, and of the other authorities in that that in a moral point of view Ireland lost much neighbourhood ; and expressed his conviction by the want of the absentee landlords. Almost that the existence of the Catholic association all great improvements in every country had had been attended with great danger to the peace originated among merchants and manufacturers, of Ireland. rather than among landlords, If capital could
CALEDONIAN CANAL. | the shallows are so far diminished in extent, Substance of the Twenty-second Report of the
that the labour of the next three months will Commissioners appointed for carrying into pro
into produce a clear passage throughout the canal crecution the purposes of an Act, passed in
and lakes, no where less than fifteen feet deep. the 43rd Year of the Reign of his late Majesty
The passages of vessels from sea to sea have King George the Third, intituled, “ An Act
been 476 in number, shewing an increase as " for granting to his Majesty the Sum of
ten to six upon the amount of the preceding * Twenty Thousand Pounds, towards de.
twelvemonth ; of these, 218 have been from the " fraying the Expense of making an Inland
west to the east, 258 from east to west, and 517 “ Navigation from the Eastern to the West
vessels have entered the canal without passing ** ern Sea, by Inverness and Fort William,
through it. Steam-boat passages (to the amount " and for taking the necessary steps towards
of 149) are not included in these numbers ; but “ executing the same;"_and also, for the
in future they will form part of the account, as purposes of an Act, passed in the 44th Year
the indulgence hitherto shewn towards them in of his said late Majesty, intituled, “ An Act
the non-payment of tonnage rates will hence
forth be discontinued. ** for making further Provision for making
The tonnage rates on
other vessels, at one farthing per mile per ton, " and maintaining an Inland Navigation,
with five shillings on every steam-boat passage, “ commonly called The Caledonian Canal, * from the Eastern to the Western Sea, by
have produced £2,160 from 1st May, 1824, to
Ist May, 1825; and directions will be given to * Inverness and Fort William, in Scotland."
the Collectors to charge one halfpenny per ton The attainment of the full depth of the Ca per mile, from and after the end of June, 1825 ; ledonian Canal is an operation which it is in not only because the rates are unreasonably low, vain to attempt to expedite, without incurring as compared with the accommodation afforded, the expense of additional dredging machines ; but also with regard to the interest of the Forth an expense which would be incompatible with and Clyde Canal Company, who might reason. prudence, inasmuch as canals in general do not ably complain of injustice, if a very low tonnage come into full use till the course of trade has rate continued to be charged on a rival mode of accommodated itself to the new channel prepared conveyance, created and maintained, not at the for it: and this kind of delay is the more to be expense of individuals, but of the public. anticipated in a canal of an unusual kind, and The Commissioners proceed to describe in unexampled in its dimensions. Ship-masters detail the present state of the works along the are prudently unwilling to rely on a passage un- whole line of the canal. They further state, explored by vessels not quite so large as their that the number of persons employed in the own; and this sort of caution has really pre- canal operations has been on an average 287; venated disappointment in the case of the Cale- an increase of 122 upon the number stated in donian Canal, the navigable depth of which, their last report : the lining of the canal near from sea to sea, is not very much increased since Fort-Augustus, and afterwards in the Clachna. the date of the Commissioners' last report. At charry district, and the rock-cutting at Mucomer, four places in the summit level, it is not yet having required many labourers, of whom a fifteen feet deep, and the same deficiency exists larger proportion than usual were of necessity across the Dunainchroy Moor, near Inverness, employed in day-work. as also in the short space connecting the foot of The expenditure of the last twelvemonth has Loch Lochie with the regulating loch near not varied perceptibly from the amount stated Macomer.
in their last report, as the expenditure of the The unusual hardness of the clay at Bona preceding twelvemonth, considering, that, for (foot of Loch Ness), and the necessity of em. the reasons therein specified, that payment ploying a dredging machine at Dunainchroy, arose from fourteen pay days ; thirteen only have produced unexpected delay; but all ob- (the usual number) are now included ; and the stacles have been nearly overcome by slow de- expenditure in fifty-two weeks has been nearly grees, and the Commissioners are assured, that £22,000.
in addition to the testimony in favour of the
consolidation arising from the absence of all The Eleventh Report, to the Right Honourable
complaint of inconvenience or delay, after notice the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's
had been given to the commercial bodies in the Treasury, of the Commissioners appointed by
district, of our readiness to receive any reprethe Acts of the 1st and 2d Geo. 4th, c. 90, and
sentations on the subject, we had the satisfac3d Geo. 4th, c. 37; for inquiring into the
tion of obtaining some positive evidence as to Collection and Management of the Public
the advantages of the change, in the examinaRevenue arising in Ireland, and into cerlain
tion of the Lord Provost of Glasgow; Mr. Ro. Departments of the Public Revenue arising in
bert Findlay, a member of the chamber of comGreat Britain.
merce, and lately chairman of that body; Mr. The former inquiries of this commission in Ewing, also a member of the chamber of comScotland having been in a great measure con merce, and at present chairman of the West fined, in the Excise Department, to the opera- India Association of Glasgow; and Mr. M.Call, tion of the distillery laws, and in the customs, a general merchant; evidence to which we can to the subordinate establishments and conduct with confidence refer your Lordships, as concluof the business at the out-ports, it became neces- sive on this point. sary to assemble again in Scotland, as well for 2dly. With regard to the changes which have the purpose of concluding our inquiries with taken place in the regulations affecting the trade regard to the customs and excise, as to examine between Ireland and Scotland, we examined the into the several offices of stamps, assessed taxes, collectors and comptrollers of the customs at and post-office, in that part of the United Greenock and Glasgow, and several of the mer. Kingdom.
chants whom we had reason to suppose most Upon these several objects the commission conversant with that branch of commerce, as was occupied in Glasgow and Edinburgh from well as the several gentlemen to whose evi. the beginning of the month of September till dence we have already alluded ; and in addition nearly the close of the year. In the present to their testimony, we received much valuable Report, it is our intention to bring before your
information from Mr. Peter Hutchinson, who is Lordships the result of our further examinations
extensively concerned as a merchant and manu. into the department of the customs. The ex- facturer, and who appears to have been amongst cise department will form the subject of a sepa- the foremost to avail himself of the repeal of the rate report; and our observations on the stamps, union duties, and the removal of the revenue taxes, and post-office, will be incorporated in the restrictions, to commence an intercourse between general reports on those branches of the revenue, Scotland and Ireland in regard to the manufac. when these offices in England shall have been ture of cotton goods, which promises to be alike fully investigated.
beneficial to both countries. As the most considerable proportion of the Mr. M‘Murdo, the collector, brought before trading and manufacturing interests of Scotland us the striking increase which has taken place are concentrated in Glasgow and its neighbour- within the last three years, in the quantities of hood, it appeared to us a matter of importance cotton goods imported from and exported to Ire. to ascertain the effect that has been produced on land, at the port of Glasgow alone; the detail is those interests by the several alterations re- as follows, viz. cently made, in conformity with the suggestions
IMPORTS. in our former reports, with respect to the laws
Cottons, 1 Cottons, and general system under which the duties of
Printed. customs are collected: We determined, there FOR THE YEAR fore, to assemble in the first instance in that
65 202 city; a determination that was confirmed by a
1823 ...... 48,100 884 memorial addressed to us on the part of the
1824 ...... | 508,504 7,143 magistrates and merchants resident in the neigh. bourhood, requesting a conference on several
EXPORTS. material points connected with their commercial interests.
Plain. | The alterations in the laws and practice of FOR THE YEAR
Yards. Yards. me Customs to WHICH We particularly inuut, | Ended 5th July, 1822 ....... 146,875 69,955 are,
105,995 28,100 Ist. The consolidation of the revenue boards,
1824 ...... 288,043 | 252,165 and consequent assimilation of the practice throughout the United Kingdom.
| A reference to the evidence of this officer, and 2dly. The abolition of the union duties, and to the accounts annexed to it, will shew a cor the regulations by which the trade between responding increase in other important articles, Scotland and Ireland has been placed on the and it appears obvious, that this interchange is, footing of the coasting trade.
' as Mr. Findlay justly observes, at present only Ist. With regard to the first of these measures, in its infancy. This gentleman further states :