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FOREIGN DEPENDENCIES.

CANADA.

| reserves, which, on or before the first of March,

1824, were actually laid out in various townships Substance of the intended Arrangements for the

in the province of Upper Canada. That the New Canada Company..

lands will be conveyed to the company in feeThe merchants and others, who have united simple, to be held in free and common soccage. together to establish a company for purchasing, That five commissioners shall be appointed to improving, settling, and disposing of lands and proceed to Upper Canada to determine the price other property in Upper Canada, and especially to be paid by the company for the said reserved for purchasing and settling certain lands in the lands; two of them to be nominated by lord province of Upper Canada, which have been Bathurst, two by the directors of the proposed reserved for certain public purposes, and for the company; and the fifth to be selected by lord support of a Protestant clergy, and which are Bathurst from three persons proposed by the known by the name of " The Crown Reserves" directors, and to whom no objection is made by and “The Clergy Reserves," and which mer- the four first-named commissioners. That the chants and others, for that purpose, have sub-commissioners shall be guided, in fixing the price scribed a capital of one million sterling; to be paid by the company for the lands granted having applied to earl Bathurst, his majesty's to them, by certain principles, which are detailed principal secretary of state having the depart. at length. That during a period of fifteen years, ment of the colonies, to advise his majesty to after the 1st January, 1826, the company shall grant to them a charter of incorporation, and to annually enter into possession of so much land grant and convey to them, for certain valuable as shall be valued at 20,0001. sterling, or more considerations, the said reserved lands in the if they think proper ; for which they shall pay province of Upper Canada; - the following is quarterly. That the company will, in each of the substance of the arrangement that has been the above-mentioned fifteen years, place at least concluded between the committee, or court of one-half of the lands which may have been directors, appointed by those persons, and acting purchased by them in the possession of settlers, for the general body on the one part, and lord either as grantees or as lessees under them, Bathurst on the other part :

in the proportion of one head of a family or That lord Bathurst will, at an early period one adult unmarried settler for every 200 acres of the next session, introduce a bill for the pur- of land, &c. &c. pose; containing the necessary clauses for in. / Festing the proposed company with the powers

ers Substance of an Address to his Majesty from the and privileges which it may be expedient they

imey Legislative Council of Lower Canada, respect. should possess. That lord Bathurst will move

ing Canada Corn and Flour, the lords of the privy council to advise his majesty to issue, under the great seal, a royal | Ax address to his majesty, from the legis. charter for the incorporation of the proposed lative council of Lower Canada in provincial company. That when the company shall have parliament assembled, dated Quebec, 4th March, been actually incorporated, lord Bathurst will 1825, intreats his majesty's gracious considera. further advise his majesty to convey to them, tion of the peculiar circumstances which make upon the terms subsequently mentioned, the the corn laws inapplicable to the provinces of lands in Upper Canada subsequently described. Canada ; and expresses a hope, that when those That after deducting the portions which have laws shall come under parliamentary considerbeen granted or demised on lease, or occupied ation, grain and flour, the production of the on the license or promise of government, North American colonies, may at all times be or appropriated to public or clerical pur- made admissible for British consumption, duty poses, or occupied without disturbance for ten free;-or, if limited in quantity, that the limit. years, or which may be peculiarly convenient oration may be fixed at one million of bushels of necessary either for the public service or ecclesi. wheat annually; and if subject to any duty, that astical purposes, lord Bathurst will advise his that duty shall not exceed a fourth of the duty majesty to convey to the company the whole of to which foreign grain may at any time be the crown reserves, and one-half of the clergy liable.

SIERRA LEONE.

| according to the census last taken in 1822, is Substance of Accounts relating to the Duties,

15,081, of which little more than one-third Exports, Imports, Population, &c. of Sierra

belongs to Freetown. It is chiefly composed of Leone.

the following classes :-West Indians and Ame

ricans, 48 men, 19 women, 18 boys and girls. No duties were levied or received in this colony Of natives, 1,327 men, 977 women, and above prior to the month of August 1811, and for the 1,200 boys and girls. Liberated Africans, 3,312 latter half of that year the amount collected did men, 1,956 women, and between 2,000 and not exceed 1011. 58. ld. In the following year, 3,000 boys and girls. Discharged soldiers, however, they amounted to 2,1751. 198. 4d., but 1,103; and Kroomen (who appear to be a in the years 1813, 1814, and 1815, they do not migratory race, constantly moving to and from appear to have exceeded an average of 1,5001. the colony), 947. Between the census of 1817 In 1816 they amounted to 2,4471. 16s. 6d.; and and 1818 there appears to have been an increase in the ensuing years, until 1821, they arose to of population of 2,252 individuals, including 3, 4, 5, and 6,000l. In the year 1823 they are 1,190 captured negroes; and between the latter returned at 8,7301. 8s. from the collector's books. and that taken in 1822, there is an increase of

The exports, which are from the years 1817 2,956 persons, including 943 liberated Africans to 1823 inclusive, are in bulk, but not in value, and 1,030 discharged soldiers from West Indian and consist of the produce of Africa in its various and African corps. states of preparation. Hides, mats, tiger skins, The returns of schools shew within the last gold dust, monkey skins, stuffed birds, honey, three or four years a very considerable increase nuts, oils, and wax, wood of various kinds, of numbers. In 1817, the number of men, indigo, coffee, rice, lime-juice, and African curi. women, and children in course of education did osities, principally compose the list.

not much exceed 400. On the 31st of December, The imports are also given, but they are in 1823, there were_children, 2,172; adults, 287; value (not in quality), during the same period, making a total of 2,460. and are chiefly conveyed in ships from London, In the account of the number of churches and Liverpool, and Bristol; and the invoice value chapels, with an estimate of the persons attendduring the year 1817 was 72,5161. 7s. 2 d.; in ing, we have 24 chapels described, in ne.urly half 1818, 94,7991. 14s. 54d. ; but in the following of which service is performed by coloured pas. year, 1819, it fell to 80,8631. 6s. 113d. ; and intors. The number of persons usually attending 1820, it was only 66,7252. 98. 4fd. In 1821, is 5,818, of whom between 500 and 690 are however, the invoice value is quoted at 105,0601. Wesleyan Methodists, above 200 of lady Iunt. 15s. 10 d. ; in 1822, at 85,3501. 148. 8d.; in ingdon's sect, and about half that number Bap1823, at 121,4421. 188. 11 d.; and in 1824, at tists. A detailed account of births in the colony 80,9171. 128. 8d.

was ordered, but no general record appears to A census of the population of the colony is have been kept. And in answer to the order for also given for the years 1818, 1820, and 1822. an account of fit persons liable to serve on juries No census of the colony appears to have been in the colony of Sierra Leone, it is said that this taken at the time of its transfer to the crown, cannot be correctly ascertained, but that the neither was any taken in 1817. The order number must be very considerable, for that 42 transmitted from the colonial office required petit, and from 8 to 10 grand jurors are usually up to the latest time a complete census of the summoned every sessions from the coloured population, exclusive of the military; distin- inhabitants. guishing the European, Nova Scotians, dis- The usual rate of wages paid is to labourers banded African soldiers, Kroomen, other African 9d. or 10d. per day, and from 28. 6d. to 78. per emigrants, and liberated Africans ; distinguish- day to artificers, according to their skill. It is ing also the sexes, the number of persons mar- added, however, that these rates of payment are ried, who have learned to read and write, and on the decline. In ships and fishing-boats, exthe number actually enjoying the means of clusive of a small number belonging to natives, Christian education This last order has not the property of the inhabitants of the colony is yet been complied with, so far as the completion small, and does not exceed a small tonnage of the census, but it will be finished when the There are about thirty-five vessels, from 10 to governor (general Turner) returns from the 88 tons burden, besides fourteen boats employed Gold Coast. The grand total of population, I by fishermen.

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An Account of the total Grants of Money | mends their claims to the consideration of his

for the Civil Establishment of Sierra Leone, majesty's government.
from 1808 to 1824; also, an Account of the
total Amount of all Bills drawn upon the
Treasury from thence, for Military Expendi-

SLAVE TRADE. ture, and paid during the same period.

Correspondence with the British Commissioners

of Sierra Leone, the Havannah, Rio de Janeiro, Grants of Money Total Amount of for the Civil Esta- Bills of Exchange

and Surinam, relating to the Slave Trade. blishment of Sierra paid for the Service

SIERRA LEONE.
Leone.
of Sierra Leone.

THE commissioners, in a despatch to Mr. £ s. d. £ 8. d. Secretary Canning, dated Sierra Leone, May 15, Year 1808 .. 16,310 0 0 12,568 9 11 1824, make their annual report upon the state

1809 17,360 0 0 25,853 4 31 of the slave-trade on the western coast of Africa. 1810 15,710 00 36,291 13 31 1811 14,495 ll 6 41,549 91

The arrival of a new governor-general from 1812 14,020 0 0 55,330 3 4 Portugal at the Cape de Verd islands, with a 1813 14,102 00 66,968 6 5 body of European soldiers, about the commence1814 14,102 00 51,820 15 11tment of 1823, had given hopes that a system of 1815 15,760 0 0 58,951 15 2

restraint would be commenced in those islands 1816 15,660 0 0 89,919 17 6 1817 15,814 0

| by the government against the illicit traders in

0 60,525 2 8 1 1818 15.450 0 Ö 164.793 93 slaves. Those hopes had been disappointed. 1819

| The conveyance of slaves in small vessels from 1820 22,358 1 0 56,340 11 67 the Portuguese settlements of Bissao and

1821 22,444 3 0 | 69,394 0 94 | Cacheo, and from the river Caramanza to the ... 1822 22,176 12 10 34,291 10 7

22,816 17 0 ... 1823

islands of the Cape de Verd, still continued to 35,826 13 5

exist. The slaves were kept in depôt until an In addition to which, the several sums under

opportunity occurred for their being taken off mentioned have been paid out of the grant of

the islands by slave-ships; and the practice could army extraordinaries for dollars forwarded by

not fail of being known to the government. order of the lords commissioners of his majesty's

There were reports, which appeared to be well treasury for the service of the colony of Sierra

founded, that during the year 1823 vessels had Leone :

sailed from Bissao with slaves directly to the £ 8. d.

Brazils. It was matter of great indignation 1812 ...

15,000 0 0

that, in the seventh year after the conclusion of 1820. ........... 10,915 4 2

the convention to prevent illicit traffic in slaves, 1821...

21,110 17 0

a people owing obedience to the laws of Portu. .......... 10,013 3 4

gal should pursue the slave-trade in the very

worst of its abominable ways. It was con. There was no sum voted specifically for the fidently asserted, that it was the practice of the military establishment of Sierra Leone in any of people at Bissao to send armed boats about the the above years. The expenditure actually de- coasts and islands in their vicinity to surprise frayed in the colony, in respect of the military their inhabitants and to carry them off to force stationed there, was from about the year supply the wants of the slave-market. Besides 1812 paid out of the bills of exchange drawn the barbarity of the practice, its consequence upon the treasury.

was that the natives within the reach of such

kidnapping expeditions were rendered savage MAURITIUS.

and untractable, and disposed to deal harshly

with any Europeans that might fall into their Abstract of Petitions from the Inhabitants of the

hands; of which a recent example had been Mauritius.

afforded in their treatment of a boat's crew 1. Petitions from the inhabitants of Mau. belonging to a Spanish schooner. It was evi. ritius, in 1816, against being subjected to the dent that the influence of the Portuguese autho. regulations of colonial trade.

rities at Bissao and Cacheo was exerted to 2. Petitions from the inhabitants of Mau- encourage, and not to discountenance the trade. ritius, in 1817 and 1823, praying to be relieved in the Rio Nunex, which was formerly frefrom the duty existing on the importation of quented by slave-ships from the Havannah and their sugar into Great Britain for consumption, other places, there had not been any slave-ship which was ten shillings per hundred weight for a considerable time past ; and the natives more than that imposed upon sugars imported there were beginning to turn their attention to from any other British colony.

a better sort of commerce. No slave-ship had 3. A despatch from lieutenant-general sir been in the Rio Pongos since January 1822. G. L. Cole to earl Bathurst, dated Mauritius, Most of the old slave-traders there were now 25th May, 1824, encloses a petition from the employed in collecting the produce of the sur. planters to the same effect; and strongly recom, rounding country, to dispose of it to the British

1822 ...

traders of the isles of Los and of Sierra Leone. zilian flag, by his majesty's ship Bann, captain Along the coast from the Rio Pangos to Sierra Courtenay, which vessels were afterwards alLeone the foreign slave-trade had ceased, and lowed to depart; the adjudication of a brig, the natives were in constant and beneficial under the Brazilian flag, named the Bom Ca. intercourse with Sierra Leone; the trade of minho, taken on the 10th of March, 1824, by which colony had increased since the last Report his majesty's ship Bann, captain Woolcombe, of the commissioners. This increase was attri- with 334 slaves on board, whilst proceeding on butable to the great influx of native traders her voyage to Bahia ; and the condemnation of from the interior, and to the demand for Afri- a schooner, named the Maria Piguera, with 17 can timber. The Gallinas river was the only slaves, captured, on the 8th of May, 1824, off notorious haunt of slave-ships betwixt Sierra Prince's Island (whither she was returning Leone and Cape Coast ; and it was in vain to from the river Gaboon) by his majesty's ship expect that that haunt should be destroyed so Victor, captain John Scott. long as a French character should protect a A letter from G. Rendall, esq., to James slave-ship from molestation. French vessels, or Bandinell, esq., dated Court of Mixed Com. vessels well protected by a French mask, were mission, Sierra Leone, July 5, 1824, contains almost the only vessels which frequented that the names and particulars of the emancipation place. During the greater part of the last and registry of 327 slaves, emancipated by de. year very little slave-trade was carried on at cree of the courts of mixed commission, estathe usual slave-haunts in the Bights of Benin blished at Sierra Leone for the prevention of and Biafra. From the date of the last Report, illicit traffic in slaves, during the period comonly seven slave-vessels had been taken in those mencing 5th January, and ending 4th July, Bights. It was probable that the disturbances 1824. in the Brazils, but more particularly at Bahia,

HAVANNAH. had prevented the Brazilians from actively en- Despatches of various dates from H. T. Kilbee, gaging in the trade; for after the surrender of esq., to Mr. Secretary Canning, state the names Bahia to the Brazilian forces, and the restora- of a number of vessels which from time to time tion of tranquillity there, the slave-ships again sailed from the Havannah to the coast of Africa. made their appearance in the Bight of Benin. On the arrival at the Havannah, from the coast

There had been no proof, since the date of the of Africa, of French and Spanish vessels, some last Report, that the slave-trade had been car- of which were notoriously engaged in the slaveried on betwixt Prince's Island and the African trade, Mr. Kilbee made strong representations rivers in its neighbourhood ; but the commis- to the captain-general as to the importance of sioners were informed that it was still kept their undergoing a strict investigation, but was up by small boats belonging to Prince's Island. constantly told that there existed no circum. The commissioners were not able to give any stances of just suspicion against them. The particular information of the state of the legiti-captain-general, Mr. Kilbee observes, was inate commerce on the Gold Coast ; but they placed in a very delicate situation. All who apprehended that it could not have been pro- surrounded him daily represented to him that mising of late, on account of the Ashantee war. the prosperity of the island depended on the con. Below the Gold Coast they hoped that legiti. tinuance of the traffic, and that any attempt to mate commerce had improved during the last suppress it, besides that it would be probably year in proportion as the slave-trade had de- unsuccessful, would bring upon his government clined. From the foregoing statements it would the most general unpopularity and odium, appear, that since the date of the last Report of which ought particularly to be avoided in the the commissioners the slave-trade had existed present critical circumstances and unsettled only at the Cape de Verd islands, and at Bissao state of the Spanish monarchy, the government and Cacheo, to the northward of Sierra Leone ; of which too, there was reason to believe, was that betwixt Sierra Leone and Cape Coast the very indifferent about the matter. In consetrade had been carried on only at the Gallinas quence, the increase of illicit slave-trade at the and some places in its vicinity; and that to the Havannah had latterly been very considerable. southward of Cape Coast a decrease of the trade On the 17th June, 1824, the Spanish brig of had occurred. The recent addition to the Slave- war, Marte, brought in to the Havannah a slave. trade Restriction Treaty with the Netherlands, ship, with upwards of 400 negroes on board, declaring the condemnation of ships if fitted | called the Maria de la Gloria, which she had out for the slave-trade, must be beneficial to the detained a little to the westward of that port. cause of the abolition of that trade. When the The court of admiralty immediately assumed same addition should be made to the treaties the cognizance of the case, but the mixed comwith Spain and Portugal, the commissioners would mission claimed it, and the question came before hope to see the Spanish and Portuguese slave- the governor. After considerable discussion, traders swept from the coast, and not till then. the governor decided in favour of the mixed

Subsequent communications from the com-commission. That court accordingly sat upon missioners announce the detention, on the 30th the case for five days without intermission; January, 1824, of three vessels under the Bra. when it appearing that the Maria de la Gloria was really the property of Portuguese subjects " mixed commission, composed as it now is, of Brazil, and had been captured by the Spanish “ fuller powers, and to make it the exclusive privateer Romano before she had been detained“ tribuinal for hearing all causes connected with by the Spanish brig of war Marte; the court“ illicit slave-trade, would, in my opinion, be (not being authorised to try the cases of Portu-" the most effectual remedy ; but there are so guese vessels) declared that the detention of the “ many insurmountable objections to this arsaid vessel by the Marte was legal; but ab.“ rangement, that it would be useless to pursue stained from pronouncing upon any other point * the subject. The Spanish law, of which, lest connected with the case. The result, however, " you should wish to refer to it, I have the of the decision of the governor respecting the “ honour to enclose a printed copy, is now, the powers of the mixed commission was important, “ trade being entirely abolished, reduced to a as it established that the mixed commission at the “ general prohibition of all Spanish subjects to Havannah and the mixed commission at Sierra" purchase negroes on the coast of Africa, under Leone were the only competent tribunals to hear the penalties of the confiscation of vessel and the causes of Spanish slave-ships, even when " cargo (the negroes being declared free), and detained by vessels of war of their own nation. “ ten years' hard labour at the public works in On the 18th December, 1824, his majesty's “ the Philippine islands to the purchaser, capschooner Lion, lieutenant Liardet, brought into tain, supercargo, and mate. This law was the Havannah the Spanish schooner Relam. “ published when the trade to the south of the pago, which she had detained on the 14th, with “ line was permitted ; and in the 'contemplation 139 negroes on board. Proceedings were com. “ of such trade, the fifth article declares, that menced without delay in the mixed commission, the foreign vessels which may convey slaves and the case presenting no difficulties whatever, “ to any port of my dominions, must do so on the 23d, sentence of condemnation was pro- “ subject to the rules laid down in this my royal nounced. The slaves were emancipated, and " cedula ; and in case of contravention shall be every precaution was taken so to place them “ punished with the same penalties herein spethat they should not be again reduced to slavery. “ cified.' This law, you will perceive, is con. Throughout the whole of the proceedings in “ ceived in very general and very loose terms. this case the most perfect unanimity prevailed “ The prohibition extends only to purchasing amongst the members of the mixed commission; " slaves on the coast of Africa ; so that it might and Mr. Kilhee adds, that it was peculiarly gra- “ be argued, that to bring them from any other tifying to him to observe, that on the part of place is permitted. Who the purchaser is his colleagues, as well as on that of the captain. “ does not clearly appear ; here he is generally general, he met with not merely a disposition to held to be the person who actually pays the obey the letter of the treaty, but a warm and money for the slaves in Africa, and not the anxious desire to act up to its true spirit. In a | “ share-holders in such adventures, who consedespatch, dated January 1, 1825, Mr. Kilbee“ quently run no danger but that of losing encloses a document, shewing at one view the “ their money. The petty officers and sailors progress of illicit slave-trade from the close of " are not liable to any punishment whatever ; 1821, when orders were received at the Ha-“ and as high wages are given, there is no difvannah from Spain to carry strictly into ef- ficulty ever found in obtaining men for slavefect the stipulations of the treaty, up to the “ ships. The article which applies to foreign moment of his writing, when it had reached“ vessels ought certainly to be adapted to the so extraordinary an extent that not less than |“ present circumstances, the trade being totally forty-four vessels had sailed for the coast of “ abolished; and it being very likely that, if Africa, and seventeen arrived from thence in “ many more Spanish slave-vessels are capthe course of the year 1824. “ The very " tured by his majesty's cruisers, the traffic * smallest vessels," Mr. Kilbee observes, “ cost“ will be entirely carried on with this island by

in fitting out from twenty to thirty thousand" means of French vessels. That this law, * dollars; and larger ones, of course, much " therefore, should be new-modelled, or rather * more. One with another they may be safely “ that another should be framed in its stead, * valued at forty thousand dollars each; so that “ appears to be a measure absolutely necessary. * the capital employed in the trade last year was " Any opinion of mine respecting the pro“ upwards of two millions and a half of dollars. " visions of the new law would be presump* These speculations are generally undertaken " tuous, this being a subject which, as regarding * by a number of individuals, who take shares our own colonies, has been so often under the # of one thousand dollars each ; which shares “ consideration of his majesty's government. * are again not unfrequently subdivided : you “ But knowing by experience with what facility * may, therefore, imagine the number of persons“ laws may be evaded in this country, I would is direetly concerned in the traffic. The evil “ still venture to urge the expediency of the 4 having become of such magnitude, and the “ adoption of a clause for granting a liberal * present system having been found utterly in.“ reward to those who sball denounce illicit * effectual for its suppression, some alteration - traffic. But, above all things, it will be ne* would appear to be unavoidable. To give the " cessary to correct the public opinion of this

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