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TEACHING PUPILS TO THINK-(Concluded)

Clear thinking and a good memory-An example of obscure
teaching—Attacking the problem in another way-An illustra-
tion from geography—The method in mathematical geography
-Teaching facts without binding them together in causal re-
lations—A plausible but erroneous principle of teaching-
Geography a good subject for effective teaching-Teaching
pupils to become self-helpful-An illustration of a failure to
observe the principle of self-activity—Making it unnecessary
for pupils to use their experience—Home study by pupils and
training in self-helpfulness—The typical parent's method of
"helping" the child-An illustration of bad methods in home
instruction—Teaching to satisfy formal requirements instead
of to train a pupil in self-helpfulness.

CHAPTER VII

TEACHING PUPILS TO EXECUTE-(Concluded)

An illustration from instruction in music-Execution in sing-
ingElementary facts of technique-Development of an ap-
preciation of rhythm-General motor before special vocal ex-
ecution-The child's interest in action songs-One reason why
singing is often formal and mechanical-First steps in teach-
ing a novice to read music-The relation between reading lin-
guistic as compared with musical symbols—We must begin
with the largest unities possible without going beyond the pu-
pil's ability to execute readily-Reading musical symbols at
sight-The value of the simplest musical elements-While em-
phasis is put upon the higher unities, the lower ones must not
be slighted-An illustration from the teaching of drawing-Re-
production vs. representation-Automatic facility in arithmetic
-Relation of reasoning to automatic facility-Applying princi-
ples until their right application becomes “second nature"-
Danger of over-emphasizing analysis.

CHAPTER VIII

TEACHING THE ARTS OF COMMUNICATION

How the child gets the meaning of words—The chief dis-
tinction between the child and the adult in attending to ob-
jects and situations-When true learning begins--Acquisition
of meanings by the learning of definitions Fundamental de-
fects in dictionary definitions—Words must be learned in their
contextual relations The social basis for language learning
-The motive for requiring the art of expression-A sugges-
tion for the teacher of language-Unconventional language-
What is objectionable in one section may be acceptable in an-
other-Specimen phrases trying to acquire respectability-Con-
servative people resist new styles in speech as in manners or
dress—The unconventional speech of to-day may become the
conventional speech of to-morrow—The attitude of the teacher
toward the use of slang—Naturalness in expression-Concern-
ing the teaching of expression-A typical instance of affecta-
tion in expression-An instance of naturalness in expression
-Waste in learning selections for recitation-Appreciation of
meaning as an aid to memory--An experiment in memorizing.

CHAPTER IX

TENDENCIES OF NOVICES IN TEACHING

Some typical defects in teaching-Special and technical work
too early—“Shooting over the heads” of pupils—Spiritless
teaching and the causes therefor-Vital vs. formal teaching-
Narrowness of view—Inaccurate knowledge-Failure to make
pupils self-active-Dynamic vs. static attitudes—Appropriate
reaction is the thing-The teacher must not be neutral in his
class-The need of effective lecturing—The quiz-master-
Making formal rules cover too many cases—The teacher who
lacks authority—The imperious teacher-Undue haste in the
class-room-Humor in the school-room-Cultivating an ap-
preciation of the humorous.

CHAPTER X

THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS

A new educational experiment station-A home-maker's
course -A home atmosphere-Education for training merely
-Vital studies arouse interest-Spread of the movement for
vital education–A serious defect in domestic science instruc-
tion-A curriculum based on discipline-Does algebra, as an
example, train the mind for all needs ?--Appreciation of
changing phenomena—The study of foreign languages-Train-
ing in the humanities—A course for the girl of to-morrow-
The value of history for the girl-The study of nature-Vo-
cational training.

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS

REFERENCES FOR READING

PREFACE

The character and purpose of this book may be best indicated by describing in a word or two how it has been developed. For a number of years I have been accustomed to write out a rather detailed account of examples of effective teaching or the reverse which I have observed in any department of education, from the kindergarten to the university. During this period I have had opportunity to inspect teaching in many sections of the country, and in a variety of schools, with the result that I have accumulated a considerable number of instances of actual school work, with comments thereupon; and I have been able to test the value of the methods employed by actual trial upon a group of children whose training has been committed to my care. This volume is composed mainly of the more typical and practical of these concrete examples of teaching, together with discussions of the principles involved. The treatment throughout is based almost wholly upon the description of typical lessons, given in sufficient detail to indicate the aim in each one, and the method of attaining it.

In respect to style, it has seemed to me desirable to use rather simple sentences for the most part. When one is elaborating theory without regard to immediate application, complex sentential construc

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