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tion will serve his purpose best. But when one is aiming to interest the practical teacher, his sentences will probably have the best effect if they are not very intricate. Involved sentence structure suggests absorption, with inhibition of action. But the teacher must have an active relation toward the problems of the school-room; and a style that will stimulate dynamic attitudes will undoubtedly achieve the best results. If one were writing for philosophic students he would, of course, employ a style different from the one adopted in this volume.

For the purpose of influencing practice most effectively, it seems to me one must make frequent pauses in the discussion of any theme, so that when the practitioner has appreciated a given point he may proceed at once to test it or to apply it. Then he may come back the following day or week without feeling that he must start at the beginning in order to comprehend the next point. The practical teacher ought not to have to go entirely through a book before he discovers what are the principles to be applied. This would be quite proper for a student who is interested in gaining only a theoretical view of a situation, which sometime later he may be able to work out in its concrete bearings. But in this book the needs of the philosophical student pure and simple have been taken account of only in indicating how a given theory of teaching may be applied in specific, concrete instances.

While a strictly theoretical treatment of teaching is not likely to be of interest to the practitioner, and not apt to influence his action, nevertheless concrete instances should be at least loosely unified under large principles of method. To illustrate: I have discussed a number of examples of teaching under the general heading, "Teaching Pupils to Think.” While it is not necessary for the reader to go entirely through this chapter in order to appreciate the point of view which is developed, and while he might stop in a dozen places and test the principles presented, still all the points made relate to the general problem of teaching so as to develop an original as contrasted with a mnemonic type of mind. And what is true of this chapter is true of most of the chapters in the book.

In this volume the point of view is maintained that effective method requires that the pupil work out problems for himself. I have endeavored to observe this doctrine by giving a number of Exercises and Problems requiring the testing of each principle developed, and the application of it in a variety of ways.

In the appropriate place I have given lists of references relating to the principles developed in each chapter. I have aimed in these lists to suggest books and articles easily accessible to most teachers, and written from the standpoint of contemporary educational thought. In the index I have sought to analyze the entire material of the book, and to indicate, either by direct or by cross reference, every point considered in any chapter.

It is a pleasure to be able to say that I have frequently discussed the various principles presented in this volume with my assistants in the University of Wisconsin, Charles D. Bohannon, William A. Cook, Edith E. Hoyt, and Guy F. Wells, all of whom are thorough students of modern education, and who have had extensive and varied experience in practical teaching. In many ways I have profited by their good judgment and assistance.

M. V. O'SHEA. The University of Wisconsin.

EVERYDAY PROBLEMS IN TEACHING

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