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ness and buoyancy in the teacher necessary to a healthy
tone in the school, 22; the critical season of the year for
school-room government, 22–25; irritating influences dur-
ing the first weeks of autumn, 23–24; the difficulty of re-
adjustment, 24–25; gradual introducti to school work in
the autumn, 25–26; problem of vacation, 26-29; a shorter
school-day but a longer school year, 27-28; physical de-
fects as causes of disorder, 29–34; the effect of decaying
teeth, 30-31; the effect of adenoids, 31-32; description of
concrete cases, 32–33; influence of visual and auditory de-

fects, 33–34.
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, in expression, 268-270. See Nat-

uralness.
SELF-HELPFULNESS. See Initiative.
SENTIMENTALITY, in dealing with the child, 49; elimina-

tion of masculinity in the training of children, 52; mas-
culine vs. feminine methods in training the young, 53;
hypertrophy of our sensibilities, 53–55; corporal punish-

ment, 55–58; soft methods in training, 56-58.
SINGING. See Music.
SLANG. See Unconventional Language.
SOCIAL BASIS, of language learning, 248–253; language as

a social instrument, 244-249; motive for acquiring expres-

sion, 251-253.
SONGS, action, 211; which children choose spontaneously,

211-212; portraying ethical and ideal feelings, 212-215.

See Music.
SPEAKING PIECES. See Naturalness.
SPELLING, the teaching of, 167; as a typical technical sub-

ject, 168; a practical test, 189; a true test of ability to
spell, 169-170; spelling lists, 171; choosing lists of words,
172–173; learning spelling for future needs, 172–174; read-
ing vs. spelling, 174; carrying drill too far in spelling,
174–176; a wasteful method of teaching spelling, 177–178;
waste in attacking too complex unities, 179-180; syllabica-
tion, 180–181; analyzing words, 182–183; spelling words as
unities, 183; wasteful habits of study, 184–187; too long

lessons, 187–188; the ear as an aid in spelling, 188–189.
SPIRITLESS TEACHING. See Novices.
SPOILED CHILD, 35-45; a concrete case, 35-38; how the

spoiled child is made unhappy, 36; development of a bully,
37; illustrations from the training of a dog or a horse, 37;
how an animal may be spoiled, 39; short-sightedness in
training a child, 41-43; danger of spoiling the “cunning"
child, 42; how insolence may be developed, 42; how bully-
ing is regarded at a later period, 43; "breaking" an animal,

43; letting the child alone, 44 45.
SPONTANEITY, in the use of language, 254. See Arts of

Communication, Unconventional Language.
SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITIES, necessary in the school-

room, 4. See School-room Government.
STUDY, evil habits in, 184–185; waste in preparing lessons,

185–187.
SUCCESS, establishing feelings of, 86; making school-room

correction individual and inconspicuous, 89–92; having the
tone of success rather than of failure dominate the school-

room, 90–92.
SYLLABICATION, in spelling, 180-181. See Spelling.
TEETH, decaying, as causes of distraction and disorder,

30-31.
THE FAVORITE PUPIL, 46-49; tragedy of a child being

favored for superficial reasons, 49; children of distin-

guished parents, 48-49. See Discipline, Spoiled Child.
THERAPEUTIC MEASURES, in the training of the young,

62-63.
THINKING ABILITY, development of in pupils, 104–165;

the chief topic in present-day educational discussions, 104;
the spur to clear thinking, 105–107; dynamic teaching
essential to, 106; the test of a good method, 107; under-
standing vs. reciting, 107–108; the test applied to a his-
tory lesson, 108-114; formal exactness vs. effective think-
ing, 109–110; dealing with facts that relate to every-day
life, 111-112; teaching heroes of peace as well as of war,
113; the test applied to teaching of civil government, 114
122; formal, remote treatment of vital affairs, 114-116; a
concrete case of a dynamic method, 116–118; thinking
straight on the subject of taxation, 118; tracing govern-
mental relations in social groups, 119–121; test applied to
teaching arithmetic, 122-138; failure of a typical pupil in
his arithmetic work, 122–123; mere verbal reading of prob-
lems, 123–124; an experiment in correcting defective rea-
soning, 124–126; verbal study of weights and measures,
126–127; dealing with actual units, 127–128; useful prob-
lems in relation to clear thinking, 128-130; problems
should relate to actual needs and experience, 131-133;
useful problems for the city pupil, 133–134; the cure for
inaccurate thinking, 135; self-correction of inaccurate
work, 137–138; the relation of clear thinking to a good
memory, 139–140; concrete instance of obscure teaching,
140–141; another method of procedure, 141-143; actual
execution essential to clear thinking, 143-144; test applied
in geography, 144–151; difficulties in mathematical geog-
raphy, 147–149; failure to bind facts in causal relations,
149–151; a good subject for effective teaching, 153–154;
teaching pupils to take the initiative, 154–155; concrete
illustration, 155-157; home study by pupils and training
in self-helpfulness, 158-163; the typical parent's method
of "helping” a child, 159–162; teaching to satisfy formal
requirements only, 162-164; guiding vs. helping pupils,

164-165.
UNCONVENTIONAL LANGUAGE, 255–267; tests regard-

ing unconventionality of special phrases, 255-258; varia-
tions in different localities, 257–258; phrases in process of
acquiring respectability, 258–260; attitude of conservative
people toward, 260–261; changes taking place among us,
261; how unconventional becomes conventional speech,
262–264; attitude of the teacher toward slang, 264–266;

giving youth its linguistic swing, 266-267.
UNITIES, relation of simple to more complex in teaching

spelling, 179–183; in the teaching of music, 217-219; im-
portance of the smaller unities, 222; confusion from at-

tacking too large unities, 222-224.
VACATION, problems of, 6–29; a shorter school-day but a

longer school year, 27-28. See Autumn, Readjustment.
VISUAL DEFECTS, as cause of dullness and disorder, 33–34.
"ITAL EDUCATION. See Arithmetic, Civil Government,

Drawing, Geography, Girls, History, Music, Spelling,
1 Thinking Ability.

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