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is nende United Cofacts for ese people, & $5,207.29

A new study has been made by the Heller committee for research, using the year 1956, which shows that a family of four (home renting) needs a salary of at least $5,592.59 to get by. A salary of $5,849 is needed to support a home-owning family. (San Francisco.)

The United Community Services researchers have spent almost 2 years gathering facts for A Guide to Family Living Costs in the District. According to these people, a husband, wife, a boy of 13 and a girl of 8 would need a salary of $5,207.20 yearly to meet the living costs. This family would have a television set but no car and would have to do some scrimping around the edges to maintain living standards consistent with health, well-being and self respect.

I have tried to make a comparison of the job our mail handlers do in the postal service with outside industry and it is impossible. For your information, I would like to point out at this time what our people do in the postal service.

POSITION : MAIL HANDLER, LEVEL 3 Basic function.Loads, unloads, and moves bulk mail, and performs other duties incidental to the movement and processing of mail.

Duties and responsibilities.

and conveyors for subsequent dispatch to other conveying units, and separates and delivers working mails for delivery to distribution areas.

(6) Places empty sacks or pouches on racks, labels them where labels are prearranged or racks are plainly marked, dumps mail from sacks, cuts ties, faces letter mail, carries mail to distributors for processing, places processed mail into sacks, removes filled sacks and pouches from racks, closes and locks same. Picks up sacks, pouches, and outside pieces, separates outgoing bulk mails for dispatch and loads mail onto trucks.

(c) Handles and sacks empty equipment, inspects empty equipment for mail content, restrings sacks.

(d) Cancels stamps on parcel post, operates canceling machines, carries mail from canceling machine to distribution cases.

(e) Assists in supply and slip rooms and operates addressograph, mimeograph, and similar machines. (f) In addition, may perform any of the following duties :

(i) Acts as armed guard for valuable registry shipments and as watchman and guard around post-office building.

(ii) Makes occasional simple distribution of parcel-post mail requiring no scheme knowledge.

(iii) Operates electric fork-lift trucks.
(iv) Rewraps soiled or broken parcels.

(v) Performs other miscellaneous duties, such as stamping tickets, weighing incoming sacks, cleaning and sweeping in workrooms, offices, and trucks when such work is not performed by regular cleaners. Now with your permission I would like to compare the annual salaries of several industries. In 36 American industries the average worker now is paid at the rate of more than $5,000 per year. To name a few: 1 plumbing and heating, $6,001; machine tool part manufacturing, $5,984; computing-machine manufacturing, $5,245; telephone installation, $5,211; and lithographing, $5,034.

I am happy to say that they are least $1,000 ahead of our people, but it is hard to believe that our starting salary is $3,300 and after 7 years our people reach the maximum of $4,020.

As all involved in our job, day in and day out, know that over the last years we have increased productivity by 20 percent with less employees. Every day it becomes increasingly hard not only to hold the regular employees but to get new men to fill in for employees who retire or quit. It would be my guess that at least 80 percent of our employees have an outside job or that their wife is working to help carry the money burden.

1 Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor.

In closing my statement, Mr. Chairman and members of this committee, I appeal to you on behalf of our members in the field to give speedy and favorable consideration to S. 27, the pay bill which, if I may repeat, would give the postal employees a decent American standard of living salary increase.

Thank you.
Senator NEUBERGER. Thank you, Mr. McAvoy.

I do not want to jest about a serious situation, but that reminds me of a professor I once had at the University of Oregon who told me he was putting one of the star tackles on the football team last of all the flunks. (Laughter.]

Thank you very much, Mr. McAvoy.

Our next witness listed is Mr. Harry Rosenfield, representing the American Society of Safety Engineers. STATEMENT OF HARRY N. ROSENFIELD, AMERICAN SOCIETY OF

SAFETY ENGINEERS, ON S. 1326 Mr. ROSENFIELD. My name is Harry N. Rosenfield, and I am an attorney with offices at 1735 DeSales Street NW., Washington, D. C. I testify in behalf of the American Society of Safety Engineers, a national professional engineering society with headquarters in Chicago, Ill.

I appear in connection with S. 1326, the Scientific and Professional Classification Act, to call this subcommittee's attention to what may well be an oversight that safety engineers have been omitted from the list of classification series covered on page 19 of the bill. My purpose is to request rectification of this error by the inclusion in the numerical listing on page 19, of the following: “GS-803-0—Safety Engineering Series."

This statement is limited in scope. It does not address itself to the merits of S. 1326, or to the pros and cons of a separate professional classification, or of an increase in salary. Nor does it address itself to any safety employees other than safety engineers classified by the Civil Service Commission in series 803. Our only purpose at this time is to request correction of an unjustified and unwarranted discrimination against safety engineers as an action contrary to the public interest.

The ASSE is a national professional engineering society concerned with the engineering aspects of the safety and accident-prevention movement. It has a current membership of 7,200 people, and a total of 64 local chapters located in 32 States. Members of this subcommittee will be interested to know that there are local ASSE chapters in, among other places, Portland, Oreg. ; in Louisville, Ky.; and seven chapters in Texas, in Beaumont, Borger, Corpus Christi, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio.

ASSE was organized in 1911 and is a nonprofit organization under the laws of New York. From 1925 to 1947 it was merged into the National Safety Council as its engineering section. Since 1947, it has been an autonomous organization affiliated with the National Safety Council in a variety of ways, including mutual representation on each other's board of directors.

ASSE's purpose is to promote the arts and sciences connected with engineering in its relation to safety and accident prevention. To further these objectives, it holds technical meetings; publishes a journal and other professional literature; cooperates with other engineering societies and with public agencies, helps in the formulation of safety codes and standards and accident-prevention programs.

ASSE uses as its membership criteria the standards promulgated by the Engineers' Council for Professional Development, and has accepted that council's Canons of Ethics for Engineers. ASSE's executive staff participates in the Council of Engineering Society Secretaries.

ASSE is nationally recognized as the professional engineering society in safety. It was officially represented in the Coordinating Committee of the President's Occupational Safety Conference; is a sponsor or cosponsor of 3 safety-code projects of the American Standards Association, and is represented on every active safety code committee of the ASA; has an officially established affiliation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science; has close professional and working relationships with engineering colleges throughout the Nation; and has been recognized by the United States Department of Commerce as a national society of engineers.is

What is a safety engineer? The United States Civil Service Commission's Position Classification Standards defines the position as follows:

The safety engineer is a specialist in accident prevention, and in order to effectuate an accident prevention program, he must apply' an understanding of the principles basic to the various engineering sciences * * * and must know some of the methods and techniques required in the various fields of engineering in order (1) to solve problems and render advice on technical matters in the accident prevention field, and (2) to recognize the point at which new methods, techniques, or operations should be instituted in order to reduce accident potentialities.

A safety engineer is a highly skilled and trained engineer concerned with the correction and control of unsafe conditions or practices; with designing safeguards and equipment or recommending other means of preventing or reducing accident and health hazards, and with the education of the public and the training of employees in safe prac, tices; with the study of accident records to determine accident causes and initiate prevention programs; and with the development and direction of accident preventive measures. His task is a basic scientific and technological one requiring engineering training and knowledge.

Safety engineers generally specialize principally along specific industry lines or Government programs in which they are emį loyed or are consulting engineers. They seek to control unsafe environment and unsafe personnel practices by the application of professional and scientific engineering knowledge and techniques.

Safety engineering is included in the curriculum of at least 47 engineering schools (including Oregon State College; University of Louisville; University of Houston; Texas Technological College; and Texas A. and M.). A substantial number of State boards for the registration of engineers register safety engineers as a distinct branch of engineering, in addition to the almost universal practice of recognizing safety engineering as a specialty within one of the major engineering groups.

The importance of the safety engineer in the safety movement has been recognized by leading safety organizations such as the National Safety Council.

Congress has repeatedly shown its desire to reduce accidents within the Federal establishment. The Federal Employees Compensation Act (8 U. S. C. 784), as amended, declares the congressional purpose to reduce the number of accidents and injuries among Federal employees and to encourage safe practices and eliminate work hazards and health risks. As amended by Reorganization Plan No. 19 of 1950 (15 F. R. 3178), the act directs the heads of Government agencies and departments to develop, support, and foster organized safety promotion.

On December 19, 1950, President Truman issued Executive Order 10194, establishing a Federal Safety Council, to serve in an advisory capacity to the Secretary of Labor on matters relating to the safety of civilian Federal employees and in furtherance of the general Federal safety program. And on October 11, 1954, President Eisenhower wrote to the heads of all Federal departments and independent agencies as follows, in part:

I am very much concerned with the problem of injuries to Federal workers. * * * This administration is determined to do everything possible to reduce the rate of such accidents * * * I am, therefore, requesting the head of each Government department and agency to review the accident experience and safety program of his organization and to take all necessary steps to reduce accidents.

This committee will no doubt be interested to know what has happened in this field since 1950, when the Federal Safety Council was established. According to the Bureau of Employees' Compensation, between 1949 and 1956 there was a 49.1 percent reduction in the fatality rate of Federal civil employees. In the 5-year period 1951-56 there was also an overall reduction of 7.5 percent in disabling nonfatal injuries.

The Bureau of Employees Compensation also indicates that between 1951 and 1956, the incurred liabbility for injuries and deaths of Federal Employees was reduced from 30 cents per $100 of payroll to 25 cents, with a resulting saving to the Federal Government of $23.8 million in appropriated funds.

In commenting on these figures, a BEC official said: significant improvement from here forward will probably depend increasingly upon expanded and intensified programs.

It is clear, therefore, that internal safety and accident prevention within the Federal establishment is an "essential program of Government,” to the language of Section 101 (1) of S. 1326, approved by Congress and the President. I believe it needs no further proof that its effecutation rests with the safety engineers in the various departments.

Safety engineering in the Federal Government centers largely in positions involving responsibiilty for internal accident prevention within the various Government agencies and departments. According to the Civil Service Commission's Position Classification Standards—

the position of a safety engineer in charge of a safety program is essentially that a staff adviser to top management in various units of Government.

Since the 1923 Classification Act, the Civil Service Commission has always classified "safety engineering” as a recognized branch of engineering, on the same plane as all other branches of engineering. Prior to 1949, when there was a separate “P” or professional classification, safety engineers were listed in the P-882 series.

The Civil Service Commission's current Position Classification Standards include a GS-800 series for "professional and scientific” work in engineering. Within this series of professional and scientific engineers the Civil Service Commission has designated GS-803 as “Safety Engineering Series,” which it describes as follows:

This series includes all classes of positions the duties of which are to be advise on, administer, supervise, or perform professional and scientific work which requires the application of the basic scientific principles, particularly those of higher mathematics, physics, and chemistry, and engineering concepts and techniques in controlling physical conditions and operating practices with the objective of eliminating the factors tending to result in injury to persons and damage to property.” [Emphasis supplied.]

The United States Civil Service Commission regards—and has always regarded-safety engineers as professional engineers in precisely the same classification of scientific and professional standing as all other major branches of engineering. The Standards say:

Safety engineering requires a knowledge comprised of a basic foundation in the scientific principles of mathematics, physical, and engineering sciences, and safety engineering techniques and concepts, * * *.

Other Federal agencies have likewise classified safety engineers within the professional engineering category. Such was the case in the Wartime National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel. And the United States Department of Labor's definitive Dictionary of Occupational Titles also includes safety engineering within the field of professional engineering.

The latest official information available from Civil Service Commission shows that on August 31, 1954, there were 595 safety engineers in the GS-803 series in the Federal departmental and field service, and that their average compensation (prior to the last salary raise authorized by the Congress) was $6,689 per year. According to this survey, 14 agencies had 2 or more safety engineers on their payrolls.

The efficient and economical operation of the Federal Government is in the public interest. The facts here outlined demonstrate that adequate safety programs save millions of dollars for the Federal Government and the taxpayer. To accomplish this result, safety engineers are necessary.

Safety in the operation of the Federal establishment also has enormously important effects on the safety and health of the American people as a whole. One need cite but a few examples: The Atomic Energy Commission and nuclear energy developments; the CAA and civilian aviation; the Veterans Administration and veterans hospitals; the National Park Service and recreational activities; and the activities of the field councils of the Federal Safety Iouncil, in participating in local safety activities of all kinds. Here, too, the safety engineer is the essential cog for program success.

The growing complexity of modern life portends further extensive need for safety and accident-prevention programs. The develop


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