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the unguiculate limb such a modification in the size, shape, position, and direction of the innermost digit that it can be opposed, as a thumb, to the other digits, thus constituting what is properly termed a 'hand.' Those Unguiculates which have both fore and hind limbs so modified, form the order Quad

2 2 3 3

EUMANA. They have -—- incisors, and -—- broad tuber

M u O 'O

culate molars; perfect clavicles; pectoral mammae; vesicular and prostatic glands; a discoid, sometimes double, placenta. The Quadrumana have a well-marked threefold geographical as well as structural division.

The Strepsirhines are those with curved or twisted termi

3 3 nal nostrils, with much modified incisors, commonly ——-;


3 3 2 2

premolars -—- or -—- in number, and molars with sharp

tubercles: the second digit of the hind limb has a claw. This group includes the Galagos, Pottos, Loris, Aye-Ayes, Indris, and the true Lemurs; the three latter genera being restricted to Madagascar, whence the group diverges in one direction to the continent of Africa, in the other to the Indian Archipelago.

The Platyrhines are those with the nostrils subterminal 3 3

and wide apart; premolars -—- in number, the molars with

O' oblunt tubercles; the thumbs of the fore-hands not opposable or wanting; the tail in most prehensile; they are peculiar to South America.

The Catarhines have the nostrils oblique and approximated below, and opening above and behind the muzzle: the pre2 2

molars are -—- in number; the thumb of the fore-hand is 2. Z

opposable. They are restricted to the Old World, and, save a single species on the rock of Gibraltar, to Africa and Asia. The highest organized family of Catarhines is tailless, and offers in the Orang, Chimpanzee, and Gorilla, the nearest approach to the human type.

The Catarhine monkeys include the Macaques, most of which are Asiatic, a few are African, and one European; the Cercopitheques, most of which are African, and a few Asiatic; and other genera which characterize one or other continent exclusively. Thus the true Baboons (Papio) are African, as are the thumbless Monkeys (Colobus) and the Chimpanzees {Troglodytes). The Semnopitheques, Gibbons (Hylobates), and Orangs (Pithecus) are peculiarly Asiatic. Palaeontology has shown that a Macaque, a Gibbon and an Orang existed during the older tertiary times in Europe; and that a Semnopitheque existed in miocene times in India. But all the fossil remains of Quadrumana in the Old World belong to the family Catarhina, which is still exclusively confined to that great division of dry land. The tailless Macaque (Inuus sylvanus) of Gibraltar may have existed in that part of the Old World before Europe was separated by the Straits of Gibraltar from Africa. Fossil remains of Quadrumana have been discovered in South America; they indicate Platyrhine forms: a species, for example, allied to the Howlers (Mycetes), but larger than any now known to exist, has left its remains in Brazil.

Whilst adverting to the geographical distribution of Quadrumana, I would contrast the peculiarly limited range of the Orangs and Chimpanzees with the cosmopolitan powers of mankind. The two species of Orang (Pithecus) are confined to Borneo and Sumatra; the two species of Chimpanzee (Troglodytes) are limited to an intertropical tract of the western part of Africa. They appear to be inexorably bound to their localities by climatal influences regulating the assemblage of certain trees and the production of certain fruits. With all our care, in regard to choice of food, clothing, and contrivances for artificially maintaining the chief physical conditions of their existence, the healthiest specimens of Orang or Chimpanzee, brought over in the vigour of youth, perish within a period never exceeding three years, and usually much shorter, in our climate. By what metamorphoses, we may ask, has the alleged humanized Chimpanzee or Orang been brought to endure all climates? The advocates of 'transmutation' have failed to explain them. Certain it is that those physical differences in cerebral, dental, and osteological structure, which place, in my estimate of them, the genus Homo in a distinct group of the Mammalian class, zoologically of higher value than the 'order,' are associated with equally contrasted powers of endurance of different climates, whereby Man has become a denizen of every part of the globe from the torrid to the arctic zones.

Climate rigidly limits the range of the Quadrumana in latitude: creational and geographical causes limit their range in longitude. Distinct genera represent each other in the same latitudes of the New and Old Worlds; and also, in a great degree, in Africa and Asia. But the development of an Orang out of a Chimpanzee, or reciprocally, is physiologically inconceivable. (Appendix B).

The sole representative of the Archencephala, is the genus Homo. His structural modifications, more especially of the lower limb, by which the erect stature and bipedal gait are maintained, are such as to claim for Man ordinal distinction on merely external zoological characters. But, as I have already argued, his mental powers, in association with his extraordinarily developed brain, entitle the group which he represents to equivalent rank with the other primary divisions of the class Mammalia founded on cerebral characters. In this primary group Man forms but one genus, Homo, and that genus but one order, called Bimana, on account of the opposable thumb being restricted to the upper pair of limbs. The mammae are pectoral. The placenta is a single, subcircular, cellulo-vascular, discoid body.

Man has only a partial covering of hair, which is not merely protective of the head, but is ornamental and distinctive of sex. The dentition of the genus Homo is reduced to thirty-two teeth by the suppression of the outer incisor and


the first two premolars of the typical series on each side of both jaws, the dental formula being:—

.2 — 2 1—1 2 — 2 3 — 3 oo1
••2=2' C-T=i> W-3^3=32-

All the teeth are of equal length, and there is no break in the series; they are subservient in Man not only to alimentation, but to beauty and to speech.

The human foot is broad, plantigrade, with the sole, not inverted as in Quadrumana, but applied flat to the ground; the leg bears vertically on the foot; the heel is expanded beneath; the toes are short, but with the innermost longer and much larger than the rest, forming a ' hallux' or great toe, which is placed on the same line with, and cannot be opposed to, the other toes; the pelvis is short, broad, and wide, keeping the thighs well apart; and the neck of the femur is long, and forms an open angle with the shaft, increasing the basis of support for the trunk. The whole vertebral column, with its slight alternate curves, and the well-poised, short, but capacious subglobular skull, are in like harmony with the requirements of the erect position. The widely-separated shoulders, with broad scapula? and complete clavicles, give a favourable position to the upper limbs, now liberated from the service of locomotion, with complex joints for rotatory as well as flexile movements, and terminated by a hand of matchless perfection of structure, the fit instrument for executing the behests of a rational intelligence and a free will. Hereby, though naked, Man can clothe himself, and rival all natural vestments in warmth and beauty; though defenceless, Man can arm himself with every variety of weapon, and become the most terribly destructive of animals. Thus he fulfils his destiny as the master of this earth, and of the lower Creation. Such are the dominating powers with which we, and we alone, are gifted! I say gifted, for the surpassing organisation was no work of ours. It is He that hath made us; not

1 Vid. p. 19, for the type-formula and explanation of its symbols.

we ourselves. This frame is a temporary trust, for the uses of which we are responsible to the Maker.

Oh! you who possess it in all the supple vigour of lusty youth, think well what it is that He has committed to your keeping. Waste not its energies; dull them not by sloth: spoil them not by pleasures! The supreme work of Creation has been accomplished that you might possess a body—the sole erect—of all animal bodies the most free—and for what? for the service of the soul.

Strive to realise the conditions of the possession of this wondrous structure. Think what it may become—the Temple of the Holy Spirit! Defile it not. Seek, rather, to adorn it with all meet and becoming gifts, with that fair furniture, moral and intellectual, which it is your inestimable privilege to acquire through the teachings and examples and ministrations of this Seat of Sound Learning and Religious Education.

Such, Sir, are the sentiments that have naturally flowed from the contemplation of the highest of the gradations of Mammalian structure of which we have now completed the ascensive survey: and I know of no topic more fitting to the words in which, with a grateful sense of the most kind reception and attention accorded to me, I conclude the duty of this Chair.

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