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were not able to take the men; they all escaped, being able to climb the precipices, and defended themselves with pieces of rock. But three females, who bit and scratched those who led them, were not willing to follow. However, having killed them, we flayed them, and conveyed the skins to Carthage. For we did not sail any further, as provisions began to fail.' This encounter indicates, therefore, the southernmost point on the west coast of Africa reached by the Carthaginian navigator.
To an inquiry by an eminent Greek scholar, how far the newly-discovered great ape of Africa bore upon the question of the authenticity of the Periplus? I have replied:—' The size and form of the great ape, now called "gorilla," would suggest to Hanno and his crew no other idea of its nature than that of a kind of human being; but the climbing faculty, the hairy body, and the skinning of the dead specimens, strongly suggest that they were large anthropoid apes. The fact that such apes, having the closest observed resemblance to the negro, being of human stature and with hairy bodies, do still exist on the west coast of Africa, renders it highly probable that such were the creatures which Hanno saw, captured, and called "Gorullai."'
The brief observation made by Battell in West tropical Africa, 1590, recorded in Purchas's Pilgrimages, or Relations of the World, 1748, of the nature and habits of the large human-like ape which he calls 'pongo,' more decidedly refers to the gorilla. Other notices, as by Nieremberg and Bosman, applied by Buffon to Battell's pongo, were deemed valueless by Cuvier, who altogether rejected the conclusions of his great predecessor as to the existence of any such ape. 'This name of pongo or boggo, given in Africa to the chimpanzee or to the mandril, has been applied,' writes Cuvier, 'by Buffon to a pretended great species of ourang-utan, which was nothing more than the imaginary product of his combinations.' After the publication of Cuvier's Regne Animal, the supposed species was, by the high authority of its author, banished from natural history; it has only been authentically reintroduced since the intelligent attention of Dr Savage was directed to the skull, which he first saw at the Gaboon in 1847, and took my opinion upon.
Having premised the foregoing account of the mature characters of the different species of orangs and chimpanzees, in regard to their relative proximity to the human species, I next proceed to shew how their structure contrasts with that of man. With regard to the dentition of these anthropoid apes, the number and kinds of the teeth, like those of all the quadrumana of the old world, correspond with those in the human subject j but all these apes differ in the larger proportionate size of the canine teeth, which necessitates a certain break in the series, in order that the prolonged points of the canine teeth may pass into their place when the mouth is completely closed. In addition to the larger proportionate size of the incisors and canines, the bicuspids in both jaws are implanted by three distinct fangs—two external and one internal: in the human species, the bicuspids are implanted by one external and one internal fang: in the highest races of man these two fangs are often connate; very rarely is the external fang divided, as it constantly is in all the species of the orang and the chimpanzee.
With regard to the catarrhine, or old-world quadrumana, the number of milk teeth is twenty, as in the human subject. But both chimpanzees and orangs differ from man in the order of development of the permanent series of teeth: the second true molar comes into place before either of the bicuspids have cut the gum, and the last molar is acquired before the permanent canine. We may well suppose that the larger grinders are earlier required by the frugivorous apes than by the omnivorous human race; and one condition of the earlier development of the canines and bicuspids in man, may be their smaller relative size as compared with the apes. The great difference is the predominant development of the permanent canine teeth, at least in the males of the orangs and chimpanzees; for this is a sexual distinction, the canines in the females never presenting the same large proportion. In man, the dental system, although the formula is the same as in the apes, is peculiar for the equal length of the teeth, arranged in an uninterrupted series, and shews no sexual distinctions. The characteristics of man are exhibited in a still more important degree in the parts of the skeleton. His whole framework proclaims his destiny to carry himself erect; the anterior extremities are liberated from any service in the mere act of locomotion.
With regard to the foot, I have shewn in my work On the Nature of Limbs, that in tracing the manifold and progressive changes of the feet in the mammalian series, in those forms where it is normally composed of five digits, the middle is usually the largest; and this is the most constant one. The modifications in the hind foot, in reference to the number of digits, are, first, the reduction and then the removal, of the innermost one; then the corresponding reduction and removal of the outer one; next, of the second and fourth digits, until it is reduced to the middle digit, as in the horse.
The innermost toe, the first to dwindle and disappear in the brute series, is, in Man, developed to a maximum size, becoming emphatically the 'great toe,' one of the most essential characteristics of the human frame. It is made the powerful fulcrum for that lever of the second kind, which has its resistance in the tibio-astragalar joint, and the power applied to the projecting heelbone: the superincumbent weight is carried further forward upon the foot, by the more advanced position of the astragalus, than in the ape tribe; and the heel-bone is much stronger, and projects more backwards.
The arrangement of the powerfully-developed tarsal and metatarsal bones is such as to form, in Man, a bony arch, of which the two piers rest upon the proximal joint of the great toe and the end of the heel. Well-developed cuneiform bones combine with the cuboid to form a second arch, transverse to the first. There are no such modifications in the gorilla or orang, in which the arch, or rather the bend of the long and narrow sole, extends to the extreme end of the long and curved digits, indicating a capacity for grasping. Upon these two arches the superincumbent weight of man is solidly and sufficiently maintained, as upon a low dome, with this further advantage, that the different joints, cartilages, coverings, and synovial membranes, give a certain elasticity to the dome, so that in leaping, running, or dropping from a height, the jar is diffused and broken before it can be transmitted to affect the enormous brain-expanded cranium. The lower limbs in man are longer in proportion to the trunk than in any other known mammalian animal. The kangaroo might seem to be an exception, but if the hind limbs of the kangaroo are measured in relation to the trunk, they are shorter than in the human subject In no animal is the femur so long in proportion to the leg as in man. In none does the tibia expand so much at its upper end. Here it presents two broad, shallow cavities, for the reception of the condyles of the femur. Of these condyles, in man only is the innermost longer than the outermost; so that the shaft of the bone inclines a little outwards to its upper end, and joins a 'neck' longer than in other animals, and set on at a very open angle. The weight of the body, received by the round heads of the thigh bones, is thus transferred to a broader base, and its support in the upright posture facilitated. There is also the collateral advantage of giving more space to those powerful adductor muscles that assist in fixing the pelvis and trunk upon the hind limbs. With regard to the form of the pelvis, the iliac bones, compared with those in the gorilla, are short and broad: they are more bent forwards, the better to receive and sustain the abdominal viscera, and are more expanded behind to give adequate attachment to the powerful glutei muscles, which are developed to a maximum in the human species, in order to give a firm hold of the trunk upon the limbs, and a corresponding power of moving the limbs upon the trunk. The tuberosities of the ischium are rounded, not angular, and not inclined outwards, as in the gorilla and the rest of the ape tribe. The symphysis pubis is shorter than in the apes. The tail is reduced to three or four stunted vertebrae, anchylosed to form the bone called 'os coccygis.' The true vertebrae, as they are called in human anatomy, correspond in number with those of the chimpanzee and the orang, and in their divisions with the latter species, there being twelve thoracic, five lumbar, and seven cervical. This movable part of the column is distinguished by a beautiful series of sigmoid curves, convex forwards in the loins, concave in the back, and again slightly convex forwards in the neck. The cervical vertebrae, instead of having long spinous processes, have short processes, usually more or less bifurcated. The bodies of the true vertebrae increase in size from the upper dorsal to the last lumbar, which rests upon the base of the broad wedge-shaped sacrum, fixed obliquely between the sacro-iliac articulations. All these curves of the vertebral column, and the interposed elastic cushions, have relation to the libration of the head and upper limbs, and the diffusion and the prevention of the ill effects from shocks in many modes of locomotion which man, thus organised for an erect position, is capable of performing. The arms of man are brought into more symmetrical proportions with the lower limbs; and their bony framework shews all the perfections that have been superinduced upon it in the mammalian series, viz., a complete clavicle, the antibrachial bones so adjusted as to permit the rotary movements of pronation and supination, as well as of flexion and extension; manifesting those characters which adapt them for the manifold application of that most perfect and beautiful of prehensile instruments, the hand. The scapula is broad, with the glenoid articulation turned outwards; the clavicles are bent in a slight sigmoid flexure; the humerus exceeds in length the bones of the fore-arm. The carpal bones are eight in number. The thumb is developed far beyond any degree exhibited by the highest quadrumana, and is the most perfect opposing digit in the animal creation.
The skull is distinguished by the enormous expansion of the brain-case; by the restricted growth of the bones of the face, especially of the jaws, in relation to the small, equally-developed teeth; and by the early obliteration of the maxillo-intermaxillary suture. To balance the head upon the neck-bone, we find the condyles of the occiput brought forward almost to the centre of the base of the skull, resting upon the two cups of the atlas, so that there is but a slight tendency to incline forwards when the balancing action of the muscle ceases, as when the head nods during sleep, in an upright posture. Instead of the strongly developed occipital crest, we find a great development of true mastoid processes advanced nearer to the middle of the sides of the basis cranii, and of which there is only the rudiment in the gorilla. The upper convexity of the cranium is not interrupted by any sagittal or parietal cristas. The departure from the archetype, in the human skull, is most conspicuous, in the vast expanse of the neural spines of the three chief cranial vertebrae, viz. occipital, parietal, and frontal.
'To what extent,' it may next be asked, 'does man depart from the typical character of his species V With regard to the kind and amount of variety in mankind, we find, propagable and characteristic of race, a difference of stature, a difference in regard to colour of skin, difference in both colour and texture of the hair, and certain differences in the osseous framework.
As to stature, the Bushmen of South Africa and the natives of Lapland exhibit the extreme of diminution, ranging from four to five feet. Some of the Germanic races and the Patagonian Indians exhibit the opposite extreme, ranging from six to seven feet. The medium size prevails generally throughout the races of mankind.
With reference to the characteristics of colour, which are extreme, we have now opportunities of knowing how much that character is the result of the influence of climate. We know it more particularly by that most valuable mode of testing such influences which we derive from the peculiarity of the Jewish race. For 1800 years that race has been dispersed in different latitudes and climates, and they have preserved themselves distinct from intermixture with other races of mankind. There are some Jews still lingering in the valleys of the Jordan, having been oppressed by the