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name, first used by the cunning part of the fair vals; love is a method of protracting our greatest sex, and admitted by the silly part of ours, there- pleasure; and surely that gamester, who plays the fore no way more natural than taking snuff, or greatest stake to the best advantage, will, at the end chewing opium.

of lise, rise victorious. This was the opinion of “How is it possible,” cried I, "that such a pas. Vanini, who affirmed, that every hour was lost sion can be natural, when our opinions even of which was not spent in lore. His accusers were beauty, which inspires it, are entirely the result of unable to comprehend his meaning; and the poor fashion and caprice? The ancients, who pretended advocate for love was burned in flames, alas! no to be connoisseurs in the art, have praised narrow way metaphorical. But whatever advantages the foreheads, red hair, and eyebrows that joined each individual may reap from this passion, society will other above the nose. Such was the charms that certainly be refined and improved by its introduccaptivated Catullus, Ovid, and Anacreon. Ladies tion; all laws calculated to discourage it, tend to would at present be out of humour, if their lovers imbrute the species, and weaken the state. Though praised them for such graces; and should an an- it can not plant morals in the human breast, it cul. tique beauty now revive, her face would certainly tivates them when there; pity, generosity, and be put under the discipline of the tweezer, fore-honour, receive a brighter polish from its assisthead-cloth, and lead comb, before it could be seen ance; and a single amour is sufficient entirely to in public company.

brush off the clown. “But the difference between the ancient and “But it is an exotic of the most delicate constimoderns is not so great as between the different tution ; it requires the greatest art to introduce it countries of the present world. A lover of Gon- into a state, and the smallest discouragement is sufgora, for instance, sighs 'for thick lips; a Chinese ficient to repress it again. Let us only consider lover is poetical in praise of thin. In Circassia, a with what ease it was formerly extinguished in straight nose is thought most consistent with beau- Rome, and with what difficulty it was lately rety: cross but a mountain which separates it from vived in Europe: it seemed to sleep for ages, and the Tartars, and there flat noses, tawny skins, and at last fought its way among us through tilts, eyes three inches asunder, are all the fashion. In tournaments, dragons, and all the dreams of chiPersia, and some other countries, a man, when he valry. The rest of the world, China only excepted, marries, chooses to have his bride a maid; in the are, and have ever been utter strangers to its de. Philippine Islands, if a bridegroom happens to per- lights and advantages. In other countries, as men ceive, on the first night, that he is put off with a find themselves stronger than women, they lay a virgin, the marriage is declared void to all intents claim to a rigorous superiority: this is natural, and and purposes, and the bride sent back with dis- love, which gives up this natural advantage, must grace. In some parts of the East, a woman of certainly be the effect of art, -an art calculated to beauty, properly fed up for sale, often amounts to lengthen out our happier moments, and add new one hundred crowns: in the kingdom of Loango, graces to society." ladies of the very best fashion are sold for a pig; “I entirely acquiesce in your sentiments," says queens, however, sell better, and sometimes amount the lady, " with regard to the advantages of this

In short, turn even to England, don't passion, but can not avoid giving it a nobler origin I there see the beautiful part of the sex neglected; than you have been pleased to assign. I must and none now marrying or making love, but old think, that those countries, where it is rejected, are men and old women that have saved money? Don't obliged to have recourse to art to stifle so natural a I see beauty from fifteen to twenty-one, rendered production, and those nations, where it is cultivatnull and void to all intents and purposes, and those ed, only make nearer advances to nature. The same six precious years of womanhood put under a stat. efforts that are used in some places to suppress ute of virginity? What! shall I call that rancid pas- pity, and other natural passions, may have been sion love, which passes between an old bachelor of employed to extinguish love. No nation, however fifty-six and a widow lady of forty-nine? Never! unpolished, is remarkable for innocence that is not never! what advantage is society to reap from an famous for passion; it has flourished in the coldest, intercourse where the big belly is oftenest on the as well as in the warmest regions. Even in the man's side? Would any persuade me that such a sultry wilds of Southern America, the lover is not passion was natural, unless the human race were satisfied with possessing his mistress's person with more fit for love as they approached the decline, out having her mind : and, like silk worms, became breeders just before

"In all my Enna's beauties bless'd, they expired." “Whether love be natural or no," replied my

Amidst profusion still I pine;

For though she gives me up her breast, friend, gravely, “it contributes to the happiness of

Its panting tenant is not mine." every society into which it is introduced. All our pleasures are short, and can only charm at inter- • Translation of a South American Ode.

to a cow.

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“But the effects of love are too violent to be the and not on useful members of society. Their riches result of an artificial passion. Nor is it in the and opulence invited the invaders, who, though at power of fashion to force the constitution into those first repulsed, returned again, conquered by persechanges which we every day observe. Several verance, and at last swept the defendants into unhave died of it. Few lovers are unacquainted with distinguished destruction." the fate of the two Italian lovers, Da Corsin and How few

appear

in those streets which but some Julia Bellamano, who, after a long separation, ex- few hours ago were crowded! and those who appired with pleasure in each other's arms. Such pear, now no longer wear their daily mask, nor alinstances are too strong confirmations of the reality tempt to hide their lewdness or their misery. of the passion, and serve to show, that suppressing But who are those who make the streets their it is but opposing the natural dictates of the heart." couch, and find a short repose from wretchedness Adieu.

at the doors of the opulent? These are strangers,

wanderers, and orphans, whose circumstances are too humble to expect redress, and whose distresses

are too great even for pity. Their wretchedness LETTER CXVII.

excites rather horror than pity. Some are without From the Same.

the covering even of rags, and others emaciated

with disease: the world has disclaimed them; soThe clock just struck two, the expiring taper ciety turns its back upon their distress, and has rises and sinks in the socket, the watchman forgets given them up to nakedness and hunger. These the hour in slumber, the laborious and the happy poor shivering females have once seen happier are at rest, and nothing wakes but meditation, days, and been flattered into beauty. They have guilt, revelry, and despair. The drunkard once been prostituted to the gay luxurious villain, and more fills the destroying bowl, the robber walks are now turned out to meet the severity of winter. his midnight round, and the suicide lifts his guilty Perhaps, now lying at the doors of their betrayers, armi against his own sacred person.

they sue to wretches whose hearts are insensible, Let me no longer waste the night over the page or debauchees who may curse but will not relieve of antiquity, or the sallies of contemporary genius, them. but pursue the solitary walk, where Vanity, ever

Why, why was I born a man, and yet see the changing, but a few hours past walked before me, sufferings of wretches I can not relieve! Poor where she kept up the pageant, and now, like a houseless creatures! the world will give you refroward child, seems hushed with her own impor- proaches, but will not give you relief. The slighttunities.

est misfortunes of the great, the most imaginary What a gloom hangs all around! The dying uneasiness of the rich, are aggravated with all the lamp feebly emits a yellow gleam; no sound is heard but of the chiming clock, or the distant power of eloquence, and held up to engage our atwatch-dog. All the bustle of human pride is for.tention and sympathetic sorrow. The poor weep gotten, an hour like this may well display the unheeded, persecuted by every subordinate species

of tyranny; and every law which gives others seemptiness of human vanity.

curity becomes an enemy to them. There will come a time, when this temporary solitude may be made continual

, and the city itself

, much sensibility? or why was not my fortune

Why was this heart of mine formed with so like its inhabitants, fade away, and leave a desert

adapted to its impulse ? Tenderness, without a in its room. What cities, as great as this, have once triumphed reels it more wretched than the object which sues

capacity of relieving, only makes the man who in existence, had their victories as great, joy as just

, for assistance. Adieu. and as unbounded, and, with short-sighted presumption, promised themselves immortality! Posterity can hardly trace the situation of some: the sorrowful traveller wanders over the awful ruins

LETTER CXVIII. of others; and, as he beholds, he learns wisdom,

From Fur Hoam to Lien Chi Altangi, the discontented Wan and feels the transience of every sublunary pos

derer, by the way of Moscow. session.

“Here,” he cries, “stood their citadel, now I have been just sent upon an embassy to Jagrown over with weeds; there their senate-house, pan; my commission is to be dispatched in four but now the haunt of every noxious reptile; tem- days, and you can hardly conceive the pleasure I pies and theatres stood here, now only an undis- shall find upon revisiting my native country. I tinguished heap of ruin. They are fallen, for shall leave with joy this proud, barbarous, inhosluxury and avarice first made them feeble. The pitable region, where every object conspires to disrewards of the state were conferred on amusing ninish my satisfaction and increase my patriotism.

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name, first used by the cunning part of the fair vals; love is a method of protracting our greatest sex, and admitted by the silly part of ours, there- pleasure; and surely that gamester, who plays the fore no way more natural than taking snuff, or greatest stake to the best advantage, will, at the end chewing opium.

of life, rise victorious. This was the opinion of "How is it possible,” cried I, “that such a pas. Vanini, who affirmed, that every hour was lost sion can be natural, when our opinions even of which was not spent in lore. His accusers were beauty, which inspires it, are entirely the result of unable to comprehend his meaning; and the poor fashion and caprice? The ancients, who pretended advocate for love was burned in flames, alas! no to be connoisseurs in the art, have praised narrow way metaphorical. But whatever advantages the fore heads, red hair, and eyebrows that joined each individual may reap from this passion, society will other above the nose. Such was the charms that certainly be refined and improved by its introduccaptivated Catullus, Ovid, and Anacreon. Ladies tion; all laws calculated to discourage it, tend to would at present be out of humour, if their lovers imbrute the species, and weaken the state. Though praised them for such graces; and should an an- it can not plant morals in the human breast, it cul. tique beauty now revive, her face would certainly tivates them when there; pity, generosity, and be put under the discipline of the tweezer, fore-honour, receive a brighter polish from its assisthead-cloth, and lead comb, before it could be seen ance; and a single amour is sufficient entirely to in public company.

brush off the clown. “But the difference between the ancient and “But it is an exotic of the most delicate constimoderns is not so great as between the different tution; it requires the greatest art to introduce it countries of the present world. A lover of Gon- into a state, and the smallest discouragement is sufgora, for instance, sighs 'for thick lips; a Chinese ficient to repress it again. Let us only consider lover is poetical in praise of thin. In Circassia, a with what ease it was formerly extinguished in straight nose is thought most consistent with beau- Rome, and with what difficulty it was lately rety: cross but a mountain which separates it from vived in Europe: it seemed to sleep for ages, and the Tartars, and there flat noses, tawny skins, and at last fought its way among us through tilts, eyes three inches asunder, are all the fashion. In tournaments, dragons, and all the dreams of chiPersia, and some other countries, a man, when he valry. The rest of the world, China only excepted, marries, chooses to have his bride a maid; in the are, and have ever been utter strangers to its dePhilippine Islands, if a bridegroom happens to per- lights and advantages. In other countries, as men ceive, on the first night, that he is put off with a find themselves stronger than women, they lay a virgin, the marriage is declared void to all intents claim to a rigorous superiority: this is natural, and and purposes, and the bride sent back with dis- love, which gives up this natural advantage, must grace. In some parts of the East, a woman of certainly be the effect of art, —an art calculated to beauty, properly fed up for sale, often amounts to lengthen out our happier moments, and add new one hundred crowns: in the kingdom of Loango, graces to society.” ladies of the very best fashion are sold for a pig; “1 entirely acquiesce in your sentiments,” says queens, however, sell better, and sometimes amount the lady, “with regard to the advantages of this

In short, turn even to England, don't passion, but can not avoid giving it a nobler origin I there see the beautiful part of the sex neglected; than you have been pleased to assign. I must and nɔne now marrying or making love, but old think, that those countries, where it is rejected, are men and old women that have saved money? Don't obliged to have recourse to art to stifle so natural a I see beauty from fifteen to twenty-one, rendered production, and those nations, where it is cultivatnull and void to all intents and purposes, and those ed, only make nearer advances to nature. The same six precious years of womanhood put under a stal- efforts that are used in some places to suppress ute of virginity? What! shall I call that rancid pas- pity, and other natural passions, may have been sion love, which passes between an old bachelor of employed to extinguish love. No nation, however fifty-six and a widow lady of forty-nine? Never! unpolished, is remarkable for innocence that is not never! what advantage is society to reap from an famous for passion; it has flourished in the coldest, intercourse where the big belly is oftenest on the as well as in the warmest regions. Even in the man's side? Would any persuade me that such a sultry wilds of Southern America, the lover is not passion was natural, unless the human race were satisfied with possessing his mistress's person with. more fit for love as they approached the decline, out having her mind : and, like silk wornis, became breeders just before

"In all my Enna's beauties bless'd, they expired.” " Whether love be natural or no," replied my

Amidst profusion still I pine;

For though she gives me up her breast, friend, gravely, “it contributes to the happiness of

Its panting tenant is not mine." every society into which it is introduced. All our pleasures are short, and can only charm at inter- •Translation of a South American Ode

to a cow.

1

1

“But the effects of love are too violent to be the and not on useful members of society. Their riches result of an artificial passion. Nor is it in the and opulence invited the invaders, who, though al power of fashion to force the constitution into those first repulsed, returned again, conquered by persechanges which we every day observe. Several verance, and at last swept the defendants into unhave died of it. Few lovers are unacquainted with distinguished destruction." the fate of the two Italian lovers, Da Corsin and How few appear in those streets which but some Julia Bellamano, who, after a long separation, ex- few hours ago were crowded! and those who afr pired with pleasure in each other's arms. Such pear, now no longer wear their daily mask, nor atinstances are too strong confirmations of the reality tempt to hide their lewdness or their misery. of the passion, and serve to show, that suppressing But who are those who make the streets their it is but opposing the natural dictates of the heart." | couch, and find a short repose from wretchedness Adieu.

at the doors of the opulent? These are strangers, wanderers, and orphans, whose circumstances are

too humble to expect redress, and whose distresses LETTER CXVII.

are too great even for pity. Their wretchedness

excites rather horror than pity. Some are without From the Same.

the covering even of rags, and others emaciated

with disease: the world has disclaimed them; soThe clock just struck two, the expiring taper ciety turns its back upon their distress, and has rises and sinks in the socket, the watchman forgets given them up to nakedness and hunger. These the hour in slumber, the laborious and the happy poor shivering females have once seen happier are at rest, and nothing wakes but meditation, days, and been flattered into beauty. They have guilt, revelry, and despair. The drunkard once been prostituted to the gay luxurious villain, and more fills the destroying bowl, the robber walks are now turned out to meet the severity of winter. his midnight round, and the suicide lifts his guilty Perhaps, now lying at the doors of their betrayers, arnı against his own sacred person.

they sue to wretches whose hearts are insensible, Let me no longer waste the night over the page or debauchees who may curse but will not relieve of antiquity, or the sallies of contemporary genius, them. but pursue the solitary walk, where Vanity, ever

Why, why was I born a man, and yet see the changing, but a few hours past walked before me, sufferings of wretches I can not relieve! Poor where she kept up the pageant, and now, like a houseless creatures! the world will give you refroward child, seems hushed with her own impor-proaches, but will not give you relief. The slighttunities.

est misfortunes of the great, the most imaginary What a gloom hangs all around! The dying uneasiness of the rich, are aggravated with all the lamp feebly emits a yellow gleam; no sound is heard but of the chiming clock, or the distant power of eloquence, and held up to engage our at

tention and sympathetic sorrow.

The peor weep watch-dog. All the bustle of human pride is for

unheeded, persecuted by every subordinate species gotten, an hour like this may well display the

of tyranny; and every law which gives others seemptiness of human vanity.

curity becomes an enemy to them. There will come a time, when this temporary solitude may be made continual

, and the city itself

, much sensibility? or why was not my fortune

Why was this heart of mine formed with so like its inhabitants, fade away, and leave a desert

adapted to its impulse? Tenderness, without a in its room.

What cities, as great as this, have once triumphed capacity of relieving, only makes the man who in existence, had their victories as great, joy as just

, for assistance. Adieu.

feels it more wretched than the object which sues and as unbounded, and, with short-sighted presumption, promised themselves immortality! Posterity can hardly trace the situation of some: the sorrowful traveller wanders over the awful ruins

LETTER CXVIII. of others; and, as he beholds, he learns wisdom,

From Fum Hoam to Lien Chi Altangi, the discontented Wanand feels the transience of every sublunary pos

derer, by the way of Moscow. session.

“Here,” he cries, “stood their citadel, now I have been just sent upon an embassy to Jagrown over with weeds; there their senato-house, pan; my commission is to be dispatched in four but now the haunt of every noxious reptile; tem- days, and you can hardly conceive the pleasure 1 ples and theatres stood here, now only an undis- shall find upon revisiting my native country. I tinguished heap of ruin. They are fallen, for shall leave with joy this proud, barbarvus, inbcsluxury and avarice first made them feeble. The pitable region, where every object conspires to die rewards of the state were conferred on amusing minish my satisfaction and increase my patriotism. But though I find the inhabitants savage, yet were placed behind lattices, in such a manner as til the Dutch merchants who are permitted to trade see without being seen. Here all the Europeans hither seem still more detestable. They have were directed to pass in review, and yravel and ac raised my dislike to Europe in general; by them I the serpent as before: with this spectacle the whole learn how low avarice can degrade human nature; court seemed highly delighted. The strangers how many indignities an European will suffer for were asked a thousand ridiculous questions, as gain.

their names, and their ages; they were ordered to I was present at an audience given hy the em- write, to stand upright, to sit, to stoop, to compliperor to the Dutch envoy, who had sent several ment each other, to be drunk, to speak the Japanese presents to all the courtiers some days previous to language, to talk Dutch, to sing, to eat; in short, his admission; but he was obliged to attend those they were ordered to do all that could satisfy the designed for the emperor himself. From the ac- curiosity of women. counts I had heard of this ceremony, my curiosity Imagine, my dear Altangi, a set of grave men prompted me to be a spectator of the whole. thus transformed into buffoons, and acting a part

First went the presents, set out on beautiful every whit as honourable as that of those instructed enamelled tables, adorned with flowers, borne on animals which are shown in the streets of Pekin inen's shoulders, and followed by Japanese music to the mob on a holiday. Yet the ceremony did and dancers. From so great respect paid to the nut end here, for every great lord of the court was gifts themselves, I had fancied the donors must have to be visited in the same manner; and their ladies, received almost divine honours. But about a quar- who took the whim from their husbands, were all ter of an hour after the presents had been carried equally fond of seeing the strangers perform, even in triumph, the envoy and his train were brought the children seeming highly diverted with the forward. They were covered from head to foot dancing Dutchmen. with long black veils, which prevented their seeing, “Alas,” cried I to myself, upon returning from each led by a conductor, chosen from the meanest of such a spectacle, “is this the nation which assumes the people. In this dishonourable manner, having such dignity at the court of Pekin? Is this the traversed the city of Jedo, they at length arrived at people that appear so proud at home, and in every the palace gate ; and, after waiting half an hour, country where they have the least authority ? were admitted into the guard-room. Here their How does a love of gain transform the gravest of eyes were uncovered, and in about an hour the mankind into the most contemptible and ridicagentleman-usher introduced them into the hall of lous! I had rather continue poor all my life than audience. The emperor was at length shown, sit- become rich at such a rate. Perish those riches ting in a kind of alcove at the upper end of the which are acquired at the expense of my honour room, and the Dutch envoy was conducted towards or my humanity! Let me quit,” said I, "a counthe throne.

try where there are none but such as treat all others As soon as he had approached within a certain like slaves, and more detestable still, in suffering distance, the gentleman-usher cried out with a loud such treatment. I have seen enough of this nation voice, Iolanda Capitan; upon these words, the to desire to see more of others. Let me leave a envoy fell flat upon the ground, and crept upon his people suspicious to excess, whose morals are corhands and feet towards the throne. Still approach- rupted, and equally debased by superstition and ing, he reared himself upon his knees, and then vice; where the sciences are left uncultivated, where bowed his forehead to the ground. These cere- the great are slaves to the prince, and tyrants to monies being over, he was directed to withdraw, the people ; where the women are chaste only when still grovelling on his belly, and going backward debarred of the power of transgressior. ; where the like a lobster.

true disciples of Confucius are not less persecuted Men must be excessively fond of riches, when than those of Christianity: in a word, a country they are earned with such circumstances of abject where men are forbidden to think, and consequentsubmission. Do the Europeans worship Heaven ly labour under the most miserable slavery, that itself with marks of more profound respect? Do of mental servitude.” Adieu. ihey confer those honours on the Supreme of Beings, which they pay to a barbarous king, who gives them a permission to purchase trinkets and porcelain? What a glorious exchange, to forfeit their

LETTER CXIX. national honour, and even their title to humanity, for a screen or a snuff-box!

From Lien Chi Allangi, to Fum Hoam, First President of

the Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in China. If these ceremonies essayed in the first audience appeared mortifying, those which were practised in The misfortunes of the great, my frier), are held the second were intinitely more so. In the second up to engage our attention, are enlarged upon in vudience, the emperor and the ladies of the court tones of declamation, and the world is called upon

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