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to gaze at the noble sufferers: they have at once sent me to a third; till at last it was thought I bethe comfort of admiration and pity.

longed to no parish at all. At length, however, Yet, where is the magnanimity of bearing mis- they fixed me. I had some disposition to be a fortunes when the whole world is looking on i scholar, and had actually learned my letters; but Men, in such circumstances, can act bravely even the master of the work-house put me to business from motives of vanity. He only, who, in the vale as soon as I was able to handle a mallet. of obscurity, can brave adversity; who, without "Here I lived an easy kind of a life for five years. friends to encourage, acquaintances to pity, or even I only wrought ten hours in the day, and had my without hope to alleviate his distresses, can behave meat and drink provided for my labour. It is true, with tranquillity and indifferenee, is truly great : I was not suffered to stir far from the house, for whether peasant or courtier, he deserves admira- fear I should run away: but what of that? I had tion, and should be held up for our imitation and the liberty of the whole house, and the yard berespect.

fore the door, and that was enough for me. The miseries of the poor are, however, entirely "I was next bound out to a farmer, where I was disregarded; though some undergo more real hard-up both early and late, but I ate and drank well, ships in one day than the great in their whole and liked my business well enough, till he died. lives. It is indeed inconceivable what difficulties Being then obliged to provide for myself, I was rethe meanest English sailor or soldier endures with solved to go and seek my fortune. Thus I lived, out murmuring or regret. Every day to him is a and went from town to town, working when I day of misery, and yet he bears his hard fate with could get employment, and starving when I could out repining.

get none, and might have lived so still; but hapWith what indignation do I hear the heroes of pening one day to go through a field belonging to tragedy complain of misfortunes and hardships, a magistrate, I spied a hare crossing the path just whose greatest calamity is founded in arrogance before me. I believe the devil put it in my head and pride! Their severest distresses are pleasures, to fling my stick at it: well, what will you have compared to what many of the adventuring poor on't ? I killed the hare, and was bringing it away every day sustain, without murmuring. These in triumph, when the Justice himself met me: he may eat, drink, and sleep; have slaves to attend called me a villain, and collaring me, desired I them, and are sure of subsistence for life; while would give an account of myself. I began immemany of their fellow-creatures are obliged to wan-diately to give a full account of all that I knew of der, without a friend to comfort or to assist them, my breed, seed, and generation ; but, though I find enmity in every law, and are too poor to ob- gave a very long account, the Justice said I could tain even justice.

give no account of myself; so I was indicted, and I have been led into these reflections from acci- found guilty of being poor, and sent to Newgate, dentally meeting, some days ago, a poor fellow in order to be transported to the plantations. begging at one of the outlets of this town, with a "People may say this and that of being in gaol; wooden leg. I was curious to learn what had re- but, for my part, I found Newgate as agreeable a duced him to his present situation; and, after giv- place as ever I was in, in all my life. I had my ing him what I thought proper, desired to know bellyfull to eat and drink, and did no work; but the history of his life and misfortunes, and the alas! this kind of life was too good to last forever: manner in which he was reduced to his present I was taken out of prison, after five months, put distress.—The disabled soldier, for such he was, on board of a ship, and sent off with two hundred with an intrepidity truly British, leaning on his more. Our passage was but indifferent, for we crutch, put himself into an attitude to comply were all confined in the hold, and died very fast, with my request, and gave me his history as fol- for want of sweet air and provisions; but, for my lows:

part, I did not want meat, because I had a fever all “As for misfortunes, sir, I can not pretend to the way. Providence was kind; when provisions have gone through more than others. Except the grew short, it took away my desire of eating. loss of my limb, and my being obliged to beg, 1 When we came ashore, we were sold to the plantdon't know any reason, thank Heaven, that I have ers. I was bound for seven years, and as I wa. to complain: there are some who have lost both legs no scholar, for I had forgot my letters, I was obliged and an eye, but thank Heaven, it is not quite so to work among the negroes; and served out my bad with me.

time, as in duty bound to do. “My father was a labourer in the country, and “When my time was expired, I worked my died when I was five years old ; so I was put upon passage home, and glad I was to see Old Englanu the parish. As he had been a wandering sort of again, because I loved my country. O liberty ! a man, the parishioners were not able to tell to liberty! liberty! that is the property of every what parish I belonged, or where I was born ; so Englishman, and I will die in its defence! I was they sent me to another parish, and that parishlafraid, however, that I should be indicteil for a

vagabond once more, so did not much care to go tries were posted, and rushing upon them, seized into the country, but kept about town, and did their arms in a moment, and knocked them down, little jobs when I could get them. I was very From thence, nine of us ran together to the quay happy in this manner for some time ; till one even- and seizing the first boat we met, got out of the ing, coming home from work, two men knocked harbour, and put to sea. We had not been here me down, and then desired me to stand still. They three days, before we were taken up by an English belonged to a press-gang: I was carried before the privateer, who was glad of so many good hands, Justice, and as I could give no account of myself and we consented to run our chance. However, (that was the thing that always hobbled me), I we had not so much luck as we expected. In had my choice left, whether to go on board of a three days we fell in with a French man of war, man of war, or list for a soldier. I chose to be a of forty guns, while we had but twenty-three; so soldier; and in this post of a gentleman I served to it we went. The fight lasted for three hours, two campaigns in Flanders, was at the battles of and I verily believe we should have taken the Val and Fontenoy, and received but one wound Frenchman, but, unfortunately, we lost almost all through the breast, which is troublesome to this our men, just as we were going to get the victory. day.

I was once more in the power of the French, and “When the peace came on, I was discharged; I believe it would have gone hard with me, had I and as I could not work, because my wound was been brought back to my old gaol in Brest; but, sometimes painful, I listed for a landman in the by good fortune, we were re-taken, and carried to East India Company's service. I here fought the England once more. French in six pitched battles; and verily believe, “I had almost forget to tell you, that in this last that if I could read and write, our captain would engagement I was wounded in two places; I lost have given me promotion, and made me a corpo- four fingers of the left hand, and my leg was shot ral. But that was not my good fortune; I soon off. Had I had the good fortune to have lost my fell sick, and when I became good for nothing, got leg and use of my hand on board a king's ship, and leave to return home again with forty pounds in my not a privateer, I should have been entitled to pocket, which I saved in the service. This was clothing and maintenance during the rest of my at the beginning of the present war, so I hoped to life; but that was not my chance; one man is borr. be set on shore, and to have the pleasure of spend with a silver spoon in his mouth, and another with

my money; but the government wanted men, a wooden ladle. However, blessed be God, I enand I was pressed again, before ever I could set joy good health, and have no enemy in this world foot on shore,

that I know of, but the French and the Justice of “The boatswain found me, as he said, an obsti. Peace." nate fellow: he swore that I understood my busi Thus saying, he limped off, leaving my friend ness perfectly well, but that I shammed Abraham and me in admiration of his intrepidity and conmerely to be idle. God knows, I knew nothing tent; nor could we avoid acknowledging, that an of sea business: he beat me without considering habitual acquaintance with misery is the truest what he was about. But still my forty pounds school of fortitude and philosophy. Adieu. was some comfort to me under every beating : the money was my comfort, and the money I might have had to this day, but that our ship was taken

LETTER CXX. by the French, and so I lost it all.

"Ourcrew was carried into a French prison, and many of them died, lvecause they were not used to live in a gaol; but for my part, it was nothing to The titles of European princes are rather more me, for I was seasoned. One night, however, Inumerous than ours of Asia, but by no means su as I was sleeping on a bed of boaruls, with a warm sublime. The king of Visa pour or Pegu, not blanket about me (for I always loved to lie well), satisfied with claiming the globe and all its appurI was awaked by the boatswain, who had a dark tenances to him and his heirs, asserts a property lantern in huis hanii. "Jack,' says he to me, 'will leven in the firmament, and extends his orders to you knock out the French sentry's brains ? I the milky way. The monarchs of Europe, with don't care,' says ), striving to keep myself awake, more modesty, confine their titles to earth, but make if I lend a hand. “Then follow me,' says he, up by number what is wanting in their sublimity. "and I hope we shall do business.' So up I got, Such is their passion for a long list of these splenand tied my blanket, which was all the clothes I did trifles, that I have known a German prince had, about my niiddle, and went with him to fight with more titles than subjects, and a Spanish nothe Frenchmen. We had no arms; but one Eng-bleman with more names than shirts. lishman is able to beat five Frenchmen at any time; Contrary to this, "the English monarchs," says se 1st went down to the door, where both the sen- la writer of the last century, "disdain to accept of

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such titles, which tend only to increase their pride, so upon former occasions, I am told there is no without improving their glory; they are above de danger of it for the future. As England, therepending on the feeble helps of heraldry for respect, fore, designs to keep back its gold, I candidly think perfectly satisfied with the consciousness of ac- Lunenburg, Oldenburg, and the rest of them, may knowledged power.” At present, however, these very well keep back their titles. maxims are laid aside; the English monarchs have It is a mistaken prejudice in princes to think of late assumed new titles, and have impressed that a number of loud sounding names can give their coins with the names and arms of obscure new claims to respect. The truly great have ever dukedoms, petty states, and subordinate employ- disdained them. When Timur the Lame had ments. Their design in this, I make no doubt, conquered Asia, an orator by profession came to was laudably to add new lustre to the British compliment him upon the occasion. He began throne; but, in reality, paltry claims only serve to his harangue by styling him the most omnipotent, diminish that respect they are designed to secure. and the most glorious object of the creation. The

There is, in the honours assumed by kings, as emperor seemed displeased with his paltry adula in the decorations of architecture, a majestic sim. tion, yet still he went on, complimenting him as plicity, which best conduces to inspire our rever- the most mighty, the most valiant, and the most ence and respect : numerous and trifling ornaments, perfect of beings. “Hold, there," my friend, cries in either, are strong indications of meanness in the the lame emperor; "hold there till I have got designer, or of concealed deformity. Should, for another leg.” In fact, the feeble or the despotic instance, the emperor of China, among other titles, alone find pleasure in multiplying these pageants assume that of deputy mandarine of Maccau; or of vanity, but strength and freedom have nobler the monarch of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, aims, and often find the finest adulation in majestic desire to be acknowledged as duke of Brentford, simplicity. Lunenburg, or Lincoln; the observer revolts at The young monarch of this country has already this mixture of important and paltry claims, and testified a proper contempt for several unmeaning forgets the emperor in his familiarity with the duke appendages on royalty; cooks and scullions have or the deputy.

been obliged to quit their fires; gentlemen's gentleI remember a similar instance of this inverted men, and the whole tribe of necessary people who ambition, in the illustrious king of Manacabo, up. did nothing, have been dismissed from further on his first treaty with the Portuguese. Among services. A youth who can thus bring back simthe presents that were made him by the ambassa- plicity and frugality to a court will soon probably dor of that nation, was a sword with a brass hilt, have a true respect for his own glory; and, while upon which he seemed to set a peculiar value. he has dismissed all useless employments, may This he thought too great an acquisition to his disdain to accept of empty or degrading titles. glory to be forgotten among the number of his Adieu. titles. He therefore gave orders, that his subjects should style him for the future, Talipot, the immortal Potentate of Manacabo, Messenger of the

LETTER CXXI. Morning, Enlightener of the Sun, Possessor of the whole Earth, and mighty Monarch of the brass-handled Sword.

Whenever I attempt to characterize the EngThis method of mixing majestic and paltry lish in general, some unforeseen difficulties constanttitles, of quartering the arms of a great empire and ly occur to disconcert my design; I hesitate bean obscure province upon the same medal here, tween censure and praise. When I consider them had its rise in the virtuous partiality of their late as a reasoning philosophical people, they have my monarchs. Willing to testify an affection to their applause; but when I reverse the medal, and obnative country, they gave its name and ensigns a serve their inconstancy and irresolution, I can place upon their coins, and thus, in some measure, scarcely persuade myself that I am observing the ennobled its obscurity. It was, indeed, but just, same people. that a people which had given England up their Yet, upon examination, this very inconsistency, king, should receive soine honorary equivalent in so remarkable here, flows from no other source return; but at present these motives are no more: than their love of reasoning. The man who ex. England has now a monarch wholly British; and amines a complicated subject on every side, anı) it has some reason to hope for British titles upon calls in reason to his assistance, will frequently British coins.

change; will find himself distracted by opposing However, were the money of England designed improbabilities and contending proofs; every alter to circulate in Germany, there would be no fia- ation of place will diversify the prospect, will give grant impropriety in impressing it with German some latent argument new force and contribute to names and arms; but, though this might have been maintain an anarchy in the mind.

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From the Same.

On the contrary, they who never examine with equal to what is felt in the most despotic govern their own reason, act with more simplicity. Ig- ment; but man will bear every calamity with pa norance is positive, instinct perseveres, and the tience when he knows himself to be the author of human being moves in safety within the narrow his own misfortunes. Adieu. circle of brutal uniformity. What is true with regard to individuals is not less so when applied to states. A reasoning government like this is in continual fluctuation, while those kingdoms where

LETTER CXXII. men are taught, not to controvert but obey, continue always the same. In Asia, for instance, where the monarch's authority is supported by My long residence here begins to fatigue me. force, and acknowledged through fear, a change of As every object ceases to be new, it no longer congovernment is entirely unknown. All the inhabi-tinues to be pleasing ; some minds are so fond of tants seem to wear the same mental complexion, variety, that pleasure itself, if permanent, would and remain contented with hereditary oppression. be insupportable, and we are thus obliged to solicit The sovereign's pleasure is the ultimate rule of new happiness even by courting distress. I only, duty; every branch of the administration is a per- therefore, wait the arrival of my son to vary this fect epitome of the whole; and if one tyrant is de- trifling scene, and borrow new pleasure from posed, another starts up in his room to govern as danger and fatigue. A life, I own, thus spent in his predecessor. The English, on the contrary, wandering from place to place, is at best but empty instead of being led by power, endeavour to guide dissipation. But to pursue trifles is the lot of huthemselves by reason; instead of appealing to the manity; and whether we bustle in a pantomine, pleasure of the prince, appeal to the original rights or strut at a coronation; whether we shout at a of mankind. What one rank of men assert is de- bonfire, or harangue in a senate-house; whatever nied by others, as the reasons on opposite sides object we follow, it will at last surely conduct us happen to come home with greater or less convic- to futility and disappointment. The wise bustle tion. The people of Asia are directed by prece- and laugh as they walk in the pageant, but fools dent, which never alters: the English, by reason, bustle and are important; and this probably is all which is ever changing its appearance.

the difference between them. The disadvantages of an Asiatic government, This may be an apology for the levity of my acting in this manner by precedent, are evident; former correspondence; I talked of trifles: and I original errors are thus continued, without hopes knew that they were trifles; to make the things of of redress; and all marks of genius are levelled this life ridiculous, it is only sufficient to call them down to one standard, since no superiority of think- by their names. ing can be allowed its exertion in mending obvious In other respects, I have omitted several striking defects. But, to recompense those defects, their circumstances in the description of this country, governments undergo no new alterations; they as supposing them either already known to you, have no new evils to fear, nor no fermentations in or as not being thoroughly known to myself: but the constitution that continue; the struggle for there is one omission for which I expect no forgivepower is soon over, and all becomes tranquil as be- ness, namely, my being totally silent upon their fore; they are habituated to subordination, and buildings, roads, rivers, and mountains. This is a men are taught to form no other desires than those branch of science on which all other travellers are which they are allowed to satisfy.

so very prolix, that my deficiency will appear the The disadvantages of a government acting from more glaring. With what pleasure, for instance, the immediate influence of reason, like that of do some read of a traveller in Egypt, measuring a England, are not less than those of the former. It fallen column with his cane, and finding it exactly is extremely difficult to induce a number of free five feet nine inches long; of his creeping through beings to co-operate for their mutual benefit ; every the mouth of a catacomb, and coming out by a dif. possible advantage will necessarily be sought, and ferent hole from that he entered; of his stealing every attempt to procure it must be attended with the finger of an antique statue, in spite of the jani. a new fermentation ; various reasons will lead dif- zary that watched him; or his adding a new conferent ways, and equity and advantage will oftenjecture to the hundred and fourteen conjectures be out-balanced by a combination of clamour and already published, upon the names of Osiris and prejudice. But though such a people may be thus Isis ! in the wrong, they have been influenced by a hap Methinks I hear some of my friends in China py delusion; their errors are seldom seen till they demanding a similar account of London and the are felt; each man is himself the tyrant he has adjacent villages; and if I remain here much longoleyed, and such a master he can easily forgive. er, it is probable I may gratify their curiosity. I 'l'he disadvantages he feels may, in reality, be intend, when run dry on other topics, to take a

serious survey of the city wall; to describe that ing a fair stone building, called the White Conduit beautiful building, the mansion-house; I will enu- House, on my right. Here the inhabitants of Lon merate the magnificent squares in which the no- don often assemble to celebrate a feast of hot rolls bility chiefly reside, and the royal palaces appointed and butter; seeing such numbers, each with their for the reception of the English monarch; nor will little tables before them, employed on this occasion, I forget the beauties of Shoe-lane, in which I my. must, no doubt, be a very amusing sight to the self have resided since my arrival. You shall find looker-on, but still more so to those who perform me no way inferior to many of my brother-travellers in the solemnity. in the arts of description. At present, however, "From hence I parted with reluctance to Panas a specimen of this way of writing, I send you a cras, as it is written, or Pancridge as it is profew hasty remarks, collected in a late journey 1 nounced: but which should be both pronounced made to Kentish-Town, and this in the manner and written Pangrace : this emendation I will venof modern voyagers.

ture meo arbitrio : say, in the Greek language, " Having heard much of Kentish-Town, I con- signifies all, which, added to the English word, ceived a strong desire to see that celebrated place. grace, maketh all grace, or Pangrace; and, inI could have wished, indeed, to satisfy my curiosity deed, this is a very proper appellation to a place of without going thither, but that was impracticable, so much sanctity as Pangrace is universally esand therefore I resolved to go. Travellers have teemed. However this be, if you except the parish two methods of going to Kentish-Town; they take church and its fine bells, there is little in Pangrace coach, which costs ninepence, or they may go a-foot, worth the attention of the curious observer. which costs nothing: in my opinion, a coach is by "From Pangrace to Kentish-Town is an easy far the most eligible convenience, but I was resolved journey of one mile and a quarter: the road lies to go on foot, having considered with myself, that through a fine champaign country, well watered going in that manner would be the cheapest way. with beautiful drains, and enamelled with flowers

“As you set out from Dog-house bar, you enter of all kinds, which might contribute to charm upon a tine level road railed in on both sides, com- every sense, were it not that the odoriferous gales manding on the right a fine prospect of groves, and are often more impregnated with dust than perfields, enamelled with flowers, which would won- fume. derfully charm the sense of smelling, were it not “As you enter Kentish-Town, the eye is at for a dunghill on the left, which mixes its effluvia once presented with the shops of artificers, such as with their odours. This dunghill is of much greater venders of candles, small-coal, and hair-brooms; antiquity than the road; and I must not omit a there are also several august buildings of red brick, piece of injustice I was going to commit upon this with numberless sign-posts, or rather pillars, in a occasion. My indignation was levelled against the peculiar order of architecture. I send you a drawmakers of the dunghill, for having brought it so ing of several, vide A B C. This pretty town near the road ; whereas it should have fallen upon probably borrows its name from its vicinity to the the makers of the road, for having brought that so county of Kent; and indeed it is not unnatural near the dunghill.

that it should, as there are only London and tho “After proceeding in this manner for some time, adjacent villages that lie between them. Be this a building, resembling somewhat a triumphal arch, as it will, perceiving night approach, I made a salutes the traveller's view. This structure, how- hasty repast on roasted mutton, and a certain dried ever, is peculiar to this country, and vulgarly called fruit called potatoes, resolving to protract my rea turnpike-gate : I could perceive a long inscription marks upon my return : and this I would very willin large characters on the front, probably upon the ingly have done, but was prevented by a circumoccasion of some triumph, but, being in haste, I left stance which in truth I had for some time foreseen, it to be made out by some subsequent adventurer for night coming on, it was impossible to take a who may happen to travel this way; so, continuing proper survey of the country, as I was obliged to my course to the west, I soon arrived at an un- return home in the dark.” Adieu. walled town, called Islington.

“Islington is a pretty neat town, mostly built of brick, with a church and bells; it has a small lake, or rather pond, in the midst, though at pre

LETTER CXXIII. sent very much neglected. I am told it is dry in summer: if this be the case, it can be no very proper receptacle for fish, of which the inhabitants them After a variety of disappointments, my wishes selves seem sensible, by bringing all that is eaten are at length fully satisfied. My son, so long exthere from London.

pected, is arrived; at once by his presence banish“ After having surveyed the curiosities of this ing my anxiety, and opening a new scene of unfair and beautiful town, I proceeded forward, leav- expected pleasure. His improvements in mind

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