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the churchmen of that age; all which most decidedly concur in a sameness of sentiment on the great and leading points of doctrine. Indeed, a general uniformity is manifested through the whole of their writings. It cannot come within the limits of a work of this kind, even to make selections from papers which are so voluminous. I must deny myself such an indulgence. I only beg to refer every reader of common candour to consult the works themselves; and very sure I am, his mind cannot but receive the most ample conviction, that the subscription to the articles, and the real sentiment of their hearts were in most perfect unison on these doctrines. And if the reader can, and will have recourse to some of the old bibles of those times, and observe the marginal notes, and catechisms, which are bound up with some of them, he will soon discover what were the leading doctrines of the then day.

It was well known, that about that period (the sixteenth century,) the holy scriptures were translated from the original language by faithful men, into our mother tongue. This was the first thing of the kind hitherto done. And the labour was received by the whole nation (as might have been well expected,) with an ardour of affection, bordering upon enthusiasm. Myles Coverdale, William Tyndale, Richard Traverner, Thomas Matthews, and some few others, to whom the history of those times bear honourable testimony, were the first which took the lead in this great work. And all subsequent writers, who have noticed

admission of bachelors of divinity, and the choice of the bachelors of divinity, which must answer Dei comitiorum, he was stayed by the major part of the suffrages of the doctors of the faculty. And though sundry doctors did favour him, and would have had him to be the man that should answer Dei comitiorum, yet he was put by, and one Mr. Flatkers of our college chosen to answer. The truth is, there are some heads among us that are abettors of Mr. Tourney, (the party above-mentioned), and who no doubt are backed by others. I pray God that we may persist in the doctrine of our church contained in the articles and homilies.'

this transaction, have borne their approbation to the faithfulness of the same.

To these succeeded the labours of archbishop Cranmer, in the translation of the bible, which still bears his name. Not that the archbishop was the sole labourer in that work; but from being in the see of Canterbury at the time of the publication, he gave sanction to it, and it took more particularly his name. But whoever compares it with Coverdale's, or Tyndale's bible, will discover how great a part is copied from both. Soon after came out what is commonly called, the Bishops' bible; and so denominated, from being the joint labours of several bishops. This bible first made its appearance under the auspices of archbishop Parker, who succeeded Cranmer in the metropolitan see of Canterbury. The first edition of this work was published in the year 1568. But it should be here again remembered, that in respect to the translation, it differed nothing from the bible of Myles Coverdale. Some time after all these, namely, in the year 1576, was first published the great quarto bible, commonly called the family bible, and which was intended (and, perhaps, take it altogether, was really so) as a correct edition of all the preceding: and what made this work yet more valuable, it was full of marginal notes and remarks.

I have been the more particular in this relation, because I humbly conceive, that by a reference to the marginal notes and catechisms on the great points of divinity, as well as the remarks with which, more or less, those translations of the scriptures abound; the faith of the great divines of the sixteenth century, may be easily ascertained. It would be irrelevant to the plan I must use in sketching the features of character in the bishops of that day, to do more than refer to them. But beyond all question, certain it is that the whole are in the most perfect agreement with the articles. The

whole are the works of one and the same men.


in the plain, unstudied, and artless language in which the whole is written, it is impossible, but by perversity, to be at a loss to know their meaning.

If, indeed, the shadow of a doubt could be supposed to arise on the subject, in adition to the reference to those bibles, where for the most part those marginal notes and catechisms are bound up with them, we might consult a well known work of this age, and which hath been preserved to the present, I mean Bishop Ponet's catechism. Every one who is at all conversant with the English history of the sixteenth century, cannot but know somewhat of this celebrated catechism, on points of doctrine. It was first published in the year 1553. Edward himself was a great admirer of it. So partial, we are told, by the historians of that age, was the young monarch of it, that he constantly used it: nay, some went so far as to call him the author of it. There doth not appear, however, sufficient authority to make this conclusion. But very

certain it is, the king took much pleasure in it. And by an order of the convocation held under an express warrant of Edward, it was used in schools; and the youths were directed to be taught in it.

The Lambeth articles constructed for the giving clear apprehensions concerning faith, are too well known to need being mentioned upon the present occasion. They were nine in number, and all highly expressive of the pure doctrines of the gospel. They took their name of Lambeth articles, from the palace of the archbishop, from whence they were sent forth. History relates, that they were the joint labours of the archbishop himself (at that time, Whitgift); the bishops of London and Bangor; Tindall, dean of Ely; and Whittaker, one of the professors of the college. Archbishop Whitgift made this remarkable subscription to them. 'I know them to be sound doctrines, and

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uniformly professed in the church of England, and agreeable to the articles of religion established by authority.' And archbishop Hutton, at that time metropolitan of York, to whom they were sent for his sanction, returned them to the palace at Lambeth, with these words added to them: Ha theses, ex sacris literis, vel aperte, coligi, vel necesaria consecutione, deduci possunt,' i. e. These points are gathered from the holy scriptures, either expressly, or by necessary consequence.' And thus approved by the archbishops of both provinces, the Lambeth articles were sent to the universities, accompanied with a recommendation from the archbishop of Canterbury to the heads of houses, that care might be taken nothing of a contrary nature should be taught in our almæ matres.-See Strype's Life of Whitgift.

I have now, in as brief a manner as possible, endeavoured to collect into one point of view, what were the leading sentiments, on the great subject of theology in the reformed church of this country, at the period of the sixteenth century. I have, indeed, been somewhat longer in this introductory chapter, than I could have wished, or had originally intended. But it appeared to me, I confess, a matter so highly important, that the standard of faith at this period, should be well and clearly ascertained, before that the portrait of the bishops of those days should be brought forth to view, that I hope it will be considered a sufficient motive for preparing the way in this manner. The point, however, being now very fully, and I trust satisfactorily answered, in discovering the principles of those venerable reformers, there will be the less difficulty in forming the character of the bishops upon this standard. Faithful men, in all ranks and orders of society, cannot but act up to their principles. And in the high and sacred department where those men moved, whose portraits we wish to draw, we may well look for a proportioned

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greatness of fidelity. It was the character of ancient Rome, that her senators formed res publica regum, a commonwealth of kings. But an infinitely higher rank the word of God assigns to the ministers of Christ, for they are said to be "kings and priests to God and the Father."

One observation more, by way of introduction, I would beg to make, before that we enter upon the portrait, namely, that we throw into the back ground of the piece, every consideration of all other periods of the church but of the sixteenth century. The professed object of this little work, is to give the portrait of a bishop of those times, according to the system of religion which then prevailed throughout the kingdom. With all the subsequent and intermediate periods of the church, to the present hour, this work hath nothing to do. What change of features have taken place; how different, in many instances, hath been the order, and more especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; these are points foreign to the subject. The far greater part of the last, and the whole of the former, are now no more. They have long since been summoned to their audit. And we are all hastening fast after them. "And to their own master, they (as well as we) stand or fall."

Let the reader keep this in view, as he examines the portrait. Nothing personal is intended in the picture. It is the bishop which is held forth. The features will be general, and suited to many of the venerable prelates of that age. They will, as far as the office extends, form a family painting, and carry with them a family likeness. And the writings of those faithful men of God, which are still with us, will serve to elucidate and explain the several compartments of the portrait. Indeed, in their writings, it may be said, that "though dead, they speak." And on the subject of divine truths, they have discoursed with so much light

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