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PART 1.

FOREIGN COUNTRIES;

THEIR

AREA, POPULATION, FISCAL AFFAIRS, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIES, COMMERCE, SHIP

PING, RAILROADS, TELEGRAPHS, BANKING, AND MONEY.

EUROPE.

GREAT BRITAIN.

Area and Population. The area and the distribution of population of the United Kingdom were as follows at the census taken April 5, 1891 :

England, 50,887 square miles; Wales, 7,442 square miles; Scotland, 29,785 square miles; Ireland, 22,583 square miles ; Isle of Man, 227 square miles; Channel Islands, 75 square miles. Total, 120,979 square miles.

Population: England, 27,483,490; Wales, 1,519,035; Scotland, 4,025,647 ; Ireland, 4,704,750; Isle of Man, 55,608 ; Channel Islands, 92,234; military and naval abroad, 224,211. Total, 38,104,975.

The estimated population at the end of June, 1900, was: England and Wales, 32,091,907 ; Scotland, 4,313,993; Ireland, 4,504,025. Total United Kingdom, 40,909,925.

The population per square mile in 1891 was 498; in 1881 was 446: in 1871 was 390; in 1861 was 345 in 1851 was 308 ; in 1841 was 274; in 1831 was 139; in 1821 was 207; in 1811 was 175; in 1801 was 153.

EMPLOYMENTS OF POPULATION IN ENGLAND AND WALES IN 1891.

(See " Commercial Year Book," Volume V, page 1.)
EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION FROM AND TO THE UNITED KINGDOM.
To British
To the

Το

Total, Including
Year.
North America. United States. Australia.

All Other. Immigrants, 1804..

23,633
159,431
11,151
226,827

185,799 1805..

22,357
195,632
10,809
271,772

175,074 1806.

22,590
154,496

10,710
241,952

159,913 1897.

22,669
132,048
12,396
213,280

155,114 1898.

27,487
123,703
11.020
205,171

139,346 1899.

33,727
159,201
12,289
241,105

162,111

Revenue and Expenditure.

The following table shows the actual revenue and expenditure for the years ending March 31 They are revised so as to exclude, in accordance with the system now adopted, the army and navy extra receipts, and the contributions by India for military charges, formerly brought to account as revenue: Expend

Expend
Year.
Revenue.
iture.
Year.
Revenue.

iture. 1885.. £87,988,110 £89,037,883 1893.

£90,395,377 £90,375,385 1886. 89,581,301 92,223,844 1894

91,133,410 91,302,846 1887. 90,772,758 89,996,752 1895

94,683,762 93,918,421 1888. 89,802,254 87,423,645

1896

101,973,829 97,764,357 1889 88,472,812 87,683,830 1897

103,949,885 101,476,669 1890. 89,304,316 86.083,314 1898.

106,614,004 102,935,994 1891. 89, 489,112 87,732,855 1899.

108,336,193 108,150,236 1892. 90,994,786 89,927,773 1900,

119,839,905 133,722,407 SOURCES OF REVENUE, YEARS ENDING MARCH 31.

(Net Receipts.)

CUSTOMS.
Currants, Spirits,

Tobacco

Other
Raisins, F'gn &

and

Imp't'd cellan's Coffee. D'd Fruits. Colonial. Tea. Snuff. Wine. Articles. Rec'ts. Total. 1895.... £170,025 £396,602 £4,197,260 £,3587,632 £10,415,139 £1,143,698 £197,400 £31,193 £20,138,948 1898... 170,049 389,573 4,299,961 3,868,207 11,433,909 1,325,372 267,494 37,685 21,792,250 1899. 173,590 382,005 4,236,160 4,023,504 10,998,726 1,399,100 272,540 77.601 20,850,000 1900... 191,509 424,210 4,898,930 4,628,946 10,885,922 1,729,540 282, 491 1,924 23,800,000

Mis

Excise.

1895. 1898 1899. 1900.

Total. £25,875,626

28,323,142 29,310,939 31,808,704

Chic- Coffee Mix.

Other Beer. Spirits. ory. ture Labels. R'ways. Licenses. Receipts. £10,102,050 £15,269,296

£1,523

£2,101 £280,694 £236,086 £3,876 11,388,126 16,396,726 1,366 1,521

287,924 243,216

4,263
11,638,201 17,109,273 1,427 1,704 308.975 246,916 4,443
11,887,923 19,335,350 1,133 1,686 3:28, 100 249, 439 5,003
-ESTATES

STAMPS
Total Estate,

Bills of Ex'ge, Life and Rec'ts, Drafts,
Legacy, Suc- Deeds, Bankers' Notes, Marine and other Other
cession, etc. etc.

etc. Insur'ces. Penny Stamps. Receipts.
£8,754,343 £3,266,957 £747.890 £194,405 £1,202,747 £421,342
11,185,998 4,796,055 784,030 216,666 1,350,691 450,803
11,468,818 4,842,358 789,922 230,718 1,381,835 460,087
13,909,313 5,350,427 829,097 237,463 1,431,305 581,179

1895. 1898. 1899. 1900

Total Stamps. £5,833,341 7,598,245 7,704,920 8,429,471

[blocks in formation]

EXPENDITURES, YEARS ENDING MARCH 31.
National Debt Services-

1895.
1898.
1899.

1900. Funded debt, interest.

£16,220,514 £16,063,925 £16,009,557 £15,242,192 Terminable annuities and trustee savings-bunk, deficiency annuity...

6,422,410 7,261,159 7,281,703 7,290,491 Unfunded debt.

461,830 139,300 139,254 272,577 Management of debt.

176,953 174,309 175,027 174,864 New sinking fund.

1,718,263 1,361,307 1,394,459

19,876 Total..

£25,000,000 £25,000,000 £25,000,000 £23,216,657

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Issues to meet other Expenditure

1895.
1898.
1899.

1900. Under Barracks Act...

£670,000 £300,000 £200,000 £150,000 Telegraph Act..

90,000 160,000 133,336 290,000 Navul Works Act..

596,000 1,080,000 1,460,000 Uganda Railway Act, 1896.

595,000 1,005,000 1,034,000 Military Works Act..

750,000 630,000 1,093,216 Public Buildings Expenses Act..

2,550,000 Total issues to meet, etc...

£810,000 £2,751,000 £6,103,336 £4,847,216

THE NATIONAL DEBT. The following statement shows the oscillations of the national debt of the kingdom from 1748 :

Annual Principal.

Charge. At the end of the Spanish War, 1718.

£75,812,132

£3,165,765 Decrease during eight years' peace..

1,237,107

412,199 At the commencement of the Seven Years' War, 1756.

74,575,025

2,753.566 Increase during the war...

58,141,024

2,279,167 At the Peace of Paris, 1763..

132,716,049

5,032,738 Decrease during twelve years' peace..

5,873,238

829,214 At the commencement of the American War, 1775.

126,812,811

4,703,519 Increase during the war...

116,221,334

4,837,787 At the end of the American War, 1781.

243,063,145

9,514,256 Decrease during the peace.

3,399,724

109,077 At the commencement the French War, 1792.

239.663,421

9,432,179 Increase during the war..

297,989,587

10 836,372 At the Peace of Amiens, 1802.

537,653,008

20 268,551 Increase during war with Napoleon.

3:23,386,041

12:377,067 At the Peace of Paris, 1815...

861.039.049

32-645,618 Decrease during forty years.

56,812,695

4,-489,609 At commencement of Crimean War, 1854.

804,226,354

28,156,009 Increase during the war...

32,918,243

742,642 Debt in 1857..

837,141,597

28,898,651 Decrease since the Crimean War.

209,582,012

3,898,651 Debt on March 31, 1899...

627,562,585

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1900.

628,978,783

23,216,657

Agriculture.
The statement following shows the acreage in cereals and green crops in Great Britain and
Ireland respectively :

GREAT BRITAIN.
Wheat. Barley. Oats. Beans. Peas. Potatoes. Turnips.
Year.

Acres.
Acres.

Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. 1874.

3,630,300 2,287,987 2,596,384 559,044 310,547 520, 430 2,133,336 1896

1,693,957 2,104,764 3,036,056 251,076 196,561 563,741 1,883.118 1897

1,889,161 2,035,790 3,031,999 228,912 190,656 504,914 1,833,145 1898

2.102,206 1,903,665 2,917,760 231,964 175,914 524,591 1,772,502 1899. 2,000,981 1,982,108 2,959,755 249,056 162,751 547,682 1,740,993

IRELAND. 1874.

188,711 212.230 1,480.186 9,646 1,756 892,421 333, 487 1896. 37,919 173,393 1,193,604 1,771

318 705,652 308, 494 1897

40,880
170,634 1,175, 467 1,377

440 677,765 308,942 1898 52,862 158,151 1,165,295 1,712

537 664,912 306,936 1899. 51,859 169,660 1,135,675 1,988

426 662,898 301,455 PRODUCE OF PRINCIPAL CROPS. Great Britain

-Ireland-
1896. 1897. 1899. 1899.

1895.
1896. 1897. 1898.

1899. Description

1,000 1,000 1,00) 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 of Crops.

Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Wheat.. 57,053 54,940 73,029 65,529 1,109

1,194
1,355

1,856 1,731 Barley and bere. 70,775 66,814 68,032 67,716 6,377 7,050 5,799 6,679 6,817 Oats. 114,016 116,847 118.921 114,747 52,327 48,844 46,709

53,657

51,393 Beans

6,437
6,603 7,20) 7,481

71
54 47

67

85 Peas.. 4,970 5,239 4,849 4,421

12

8
10

9

10 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

1,000 1,000 1,000 Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Potatoes...... 3,562 2,608 3,283

3,077 3,472 2,701 1,498 2,942 2,760 Turnips and Swedes. 23,254 25,652 21,337 16,061 4,490 4,783 4,134 5,103 4,309

AVERAGE YIELD PER ACRE.

Bush. Bush, Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush, Bush. Bush, Wheat.

33.68 29.08 34.74 32.75 30.35 31.41 28.69 35.16 33.38 Barley and bere.. 33.63 32.82 35.75 31.16 37.12 40.65 33.98 42.23

40.17 Oats...

36.83 38.49 40.76 38.77 43.02 40.92 39.75 46.04 45.26 Beans,

25.66 28.88 31.07 30.09 30.34 30.43 34.49 38.92 42.63 Peas....

25.34 27.56 27.62 27.23 34.29 23.40 23.72 21.84 23.95

Tons. Tons. Tors. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Potatoes

0.32 5.17

6.26 5.02 4.89 3.83 2.21 4.43 4.16 Turnips and Swedes. 12.35 13.99 12.04 9.23 14.33 15.50 13.38 16.82 14.29

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