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IMPORTS, EXPORTS, CONSUMPTION, AND STOCK OF COTTON. The following shows the quantities of each description of cotton for 1899, in thousands of pounds, and the corresponding totals of previous years : 1899.

Import.

Export. Consumption. Stock Dec. 31. American.

1,313,459

181,253
1,460,342

302,389 Brazilian..

6,243
2,494

2,775

3,035 Egyptian.

367.835
77,817
276,769

49,123 Peru, West Indian, etc..

11.618

12,836

3,308 East Indian, etc...

32,215
26,768

6,778

2,168 Total, 1899

1,731,430

203,964
1,759,500

360,521 Total, 1898,

2,224,189

214,776
1,735,500

659,217 Total, 1897

1,787,077
238,924
1,612,225

420,918 Total, 1896.

1,806,087

191,090
1,614,161

587,027 Total, 1895.

1,815,074

209,211
1,631,953

616,690

AVERAGE PRICE OF COTTON.

Ellison & Co., of Liverpool, give the following estimate of the average price of cotton at that port for a series of years :

1899. 1898. 1897. 1896. 1895. 1894. 1893. 1892. 1891. 1890.
d.
d.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d. Import..... 3 13-16 45-16

4 3-16

53-16 4 13-16 55-16 5 13-16 Export.. 47-32 444

4 7-16 4 11-16 4 3-16 4 5 16 51-16 411-16 4 15-16 55-16 Consumpt'n.. 45-32 3 13-16 4 5-16

44 458 5 3-16 4 13-16 55-16 5 15-16

WOOL.

Helmuth, Swartze & Co., London, give the following statements of the supply, export, and consumption of wool in the United Kingdom: Domestic Imports of Wool,

Left for
Clip.
Alpaca, and

Total

Home Con-
Estimated
Mohair.

Total.

Exports. sumption.
Year.

Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Los.

Lbs. 1895.

135,000,000 801.000.000 936.000.000 420,000,000 510,000,000 1896.

130,00.000 7336,01,000 8722.000.000 352.1111.000 520,000,000 1897

139,000,000
767,0).ON)

MM, 107.000 411.000.000 495,000,000 1898. 139.000,00) 7:31,02),

17.00.00

352, (210,000 5211,000,000 1899. 140,000,000 801,000,000

$34,000,000

4:36,000,000 510,000,000

FLAX, HEMP, AND JUTE.
The imports of these articles into the United Kingdom were as follows:

-Quantity
Flax- Dressed, undressed, and Tons. Tons. Tons.

£

Tow or Codilla of-

1899. 1898.

1897.

1899.

From Russia.

78,337 75,814 73,379 1,942,542

Germany.

1,209 1,064

947

28,152

Holland..

2,659 2,781 2,660 124,344

Belgium..

15,562 16,777 20,715 800,909

Other countries.

1,285

816 1,101 31,408

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Fisheries.
The quantity and value of fish, excluding shell fish, landed on the coast of the United Kingdom
for the year 1899 were as follows: England and Wales, 429,744 tons, value £6,335,736 : Scotland, 259,198
tons, value £2,191,312; Ireland, 50,373 tons, value £337,922 ; total United Kingdom, 739,315 tons, value
£7,936,017; including shell fish, £9,314,338.

Imports and Exports.

The merchandise imports and exports of Great Britain have been as follows for a series of years

Exports

Total

Foreign

British

Total Imports and

Year.

Imports. and Colonial. Produce.

Exports. Exports.

1890.

£120,691,997 £64,721,533 £263,530,585 £328,252,118 £748,944,115

1891

435, 441,264 61,878,568 247,235,150 309,113,718 744,554,982

1892.

423,793,882 64,423,767 227, 138,270 291,640,166 715, 434,048

1893.

404,688,178 58,878,552 218,259,718 277, 138,270 681,826,448

1894

408,344,810 57,780,30 216,005,637 273,785,867 682,130,677

1895

416,689,658 59,704,161 226,128,246 285,832, 407 702,522,065

1896.

441,808,904 56,233,663 240,145,551 296,379,214 738,188,118

1897

451,028,960 59,954,110 234,219,708 294,174,118 745,203,078

1898.

470,378,583 60,651,748 233,359,240 294,009,991 764,392,571

1899

485,075,514 65,019,549 264,660,647 329,680, 196 814,755,710

CLASSES OF ARTICLES FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED DECEMBER 31.

Imports from foreign countries and British possessions (in thousands of £'s):

1899.

1898.

1897.

Animals, living for food).

£9,515 £10,386 £11,380

(A.) Articles of food and drink, duty free..

169,150 166,913 151,548

(B.) Articles of food and drink, dutiable.

26,375

26,817 26,698

Tobacco, dutiable...

5,616

3,887 4,066

Metals...

28,264

21,852 21,277

Chemicals, dyestuffs, and tanning substances..

5,769

5,484 5,999

9,689

8,357 7,625

Raw materials for textile manufactures.

65,684

71,268 70,066

Raw materials for sundry industries and manufactures.

56,666

52,226 52,095

Manufactured articles.

91.293

87,076 85,134

(A.) Miscellaneous articles.

15,915

14,797 14,139

(B.) Parcel post....

1,139

1,313 1,004

Total value..

£485,075 £470,378 £451,238

Exports of British and Irish produce and manufactures (in thousands of £'s):

Animals, living..

£1,003 £1,104 £1,142

Articles of food and drink..

12,569

12,105 12, 130

Raw materials.

26,582 21,077 20,134

Articles manufactured and partly manufactured, viz. :

(A.) Yarns and textile fabrics.

49,454 34,508 96,578

(B.) Metals & articles inanufactured therefrom (except mach'y). 40,312 32,747 34,472

(C.) Machinery and mill work..

9,651 18,390 16,256

(D.) Apparel and articles of personal use..

9,554

9,577

9,875

(E.) Chemicals, and chemical and medicinal preparations...

8,855

8,389

8,699

(F.) All uther articles, either manufactured or partly manufact'd 35,016 33,323 32,888

(G.) Parcel post....

2,467

2,140 2,057

Total value...

£264,661 £233,359 £234,220

* Including £9,195,192, the value of new ships (not registered as British), not recorded prior to 1899.

Oils.....

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

Grain and flour.

£49,723 £52,793

£53,580 £62,909 £58,089

Cotton, raw...

30,429

36,272

32,195

34,125

27.673

Wool, sheep and lamb's.

23,026
24,958
24,437
22, 437

23,580
Dead meat.

23,763
24,753
27,369
29,979

32,638

Sugar, raw and refined.

17,684

18,384

15,951

17,222

18,059

Butter and margarine.

16,802
17,842
18,402
18,346

19,763

Wood and timber..

15,743

19,202

23,468

21,284

22,881

Silk manufactures.

15,237

16,707

16,912

16,623

16,110

Flax, bemp, and jute..

9,716

9,207

9,909

9,043

9,248

Теа..

10,243

10,651

10,405

10,336

10,751

Woolen manufactures and yarn. *10,275

11,749

12,405

11,901

12,173

Animals.

8,966

10,439

11,380

10,386

9,515

Oils..

8,112

8,447

8,357

9,689

Chemicals, dyestuffs, etc..

6,559

6,785

6,000

5,483

5,769

Seeds.

6,279
6,736
5,751
6,012

6,277

Fruits and hops..

5,083

5,747

7,570

8,001

7,972

Currants and raisins.

1,662

1,600

2,076

1,965

2,131

Leather.

8,050
7,593
7,648
7,778

8,581

Wine..

5,448

5,951

6,434

6,579

5,633

Cheese.

4,675

4,900

5,886

4,970

5,515

Metals-

Copper ore, etc.....

2,807

2,853

2,752

2,614

3,515

Copper, part wrought, etc...

1,832

2.882

3,041

3,598

4,313

Iron ore

2,978

3.762

4,436

4,035

5,375

Iron, in bars.

549

570

539

556

577

Iron manufactures..

3,298

4,574

6,063

7,322

7,905

Lead..

1,654

1,853

2,033

2,521

2,884

Tin...

2,631

2,290

1,624

1,390

3,298

Zipc and its manufactures.

1,319

1,664

1,629

1,9:20

2,257

Eggs..

4,003
4,184
4,357
4,456

5,044

Coffee..

3,778

3,579

3,586

3,591

3,471

Tobacco..

3,354

4,371

4,066

3,887

5,616

PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF BRITISH EXPORT, HOME PRODUCE (IN THOUSANDS OF £'s).

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

Cotton manufactures.

£54,455 £59,334 £54,145 £55,977 £50,902

Cotton yarn....

9,291

10,048

9,930

8,923

8,055

Total of cotton..

£63,746 £69,382 £63,973 £64,901 .£58,557

Woolen manufactures...

£19,738 £18,207

£15,975 £13,699 £14,785

Woolen and worsted yarn..

5,372

5,666

6,595

6,444

6,723

Total of woolen and worsted.. £25,110 £23,933 £22,571 £20,143

£21,508

PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF BRITISH EXPORT, HOME PRODUCE (IN THOUSANDS OF £'s).

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.5

Linen manufactures...

£5,351
£5,031
£4,771
£4,398

£5,075

Linen yarn.

966

1,042

976

S86

909

Jute manufactures.

2,230

2,345

2,167

1,854

1,963

Jute yarn..

356

379

526

468

461

Apparel and baberdashery.

5.878

6,746

6,465

6,200

6,170

Metals-

Iron, pig.

2,077

2,536

2,889

2,739

4,784

Iron, bar, angle, bolt, and rod.

854

1,104

1,087

994

1,227

Iron, railroad, of all sorts..

1,897

3,567

3,857

3,012

3,131

Iron wire..

711

904

867

773

888

Iron, tin plates....

4,239

3,036

3,038

3,168

Iron, hoops, sheets, and plates.. 3,014

3,692

3,474

3,312

4,054

Iron, cast and wrought, of all sorts. 3,728

4,724

4,876

4,732

5,232

Iron, old, for re-manufacture..

232

339

236

239

391

Steel, wrought and unwrought..

2,908

3,913

4,315

4,087

5,218

Total of iron and steel....

19,681
23.813
24,641
32,630

28.09

Hardware and cutlery...

1,856

2,121

2,104

1,989

2,143

Copper

2,819

2.549

2,528

2,797

3,740

Machinery

15,150

17,137

1K, 256

18,390

19.639

Coal, cinders, fuel, etc.

15,434
15,161
16,655
18,135

23,101

Chemicals.

8,289

8,244

8,699

8,389

8,856

THE PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF CHIEF ARTICLES OF Food.
The quantity of the principal food imports retained for home consumption per head of popula-
tion in each of the years named was as follows:
Article.

1890. 1893. 1894. 1895, 1896. 1897. 1899. 1899.
Bacon and hams......

lbs.
13.53 11.73 13.29 14.63 15.20

17.95 19.00

20.16
Butter..........

5.83 6.59 7.27 77.92 8.46 8.85 8.77 9.22
Cheese..
6.23 5.87 6.38 5.93

6.22 7.17 6.36 6.43

Eggs..

No. 32.91 34.39 36.68 38.97 40.25 42.23 43.04 47.78

Wheat and flour. lbs. 226.38 247.65 256.19 285.09 257.30 227.84 237.98 244.10
Sugart...

73.21 78.85 80.06 88.13 85.29 80.89 85.18 84.31

Tea.

5.17 5.41 5.52 5.67

5.77 5.81

5.86 5.98

Hice.

8.54

7.26 8.00 6.49 8.62

8.81

Tobacco..

1.55 1.63 1.66 1.67

1.73 1.75 1.83 1.89

* Does not include yarn.

+ The total of raw and refined sugars,

9.38

Countries.

£22,275

2,526

Russia....
Sweden..
Norway
Denmark
Germany.
Holland.
Belgium
France.
Portugal..
Spain....
Italy.
Austrian territories.
Greece
Turkey
Egypt.
China.
Japan.
United States.
Mexico.....
Central America..
Chili.
Brazil.
Uruguay.
Argentine Republic....
British Possessions..

DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH FOREIGN TRADE.
-Imports From

-Exports To
In Thousands of £'s.

In Thousands of £'s.
1899.

1898. 1897. 1896. 1899. 1898. 1897. £18,690 £19,490

£22,642 £11,754 £9,228 £7,543
10,061 9,737 9,846 9,527 4,715 3,998 3,568

5,308 4,986 4,989 4,322 3,202 2,441 2,251
12,437 11,703 10,970 10,687 3,964 3,338 3,088
30,041 28,534 26,230 27,567 25,838

24,605
30,477 28,533 28,982 19,255 9,531 8,619 8,857
22,809 21,534

2,227

19,255 9,887 8,802 8,231
53,281 51,397 53,260 49,974 15,417 13,706 13,824

3,177 3,448 2,646 2,604 2,107 1,530 1,417
14,579 13,188 13,118 11,984 4,622 2,848 3,247
3,628 3,333 3,324 3,168 6,974 5,648

5,609
1,317 1,135 1,282 1,256 2,046 1,672 1,549
1,449 1,448 1,634 1,241 1,152 1,140 835
5,027 5,019 6,212 5,330 5,341 6,191 6,557
10,916 8,856 9,295 9,632 5,068

4,419 4,435
2,685 2,668
2,700 2,984 7,035 5,099

5,142
1,698 1,154 1,283

7,928 4,913 5,808
120,005 126,062 113,195 106,376 18,104 14,716 21,036
521
264 594

593 1,968 1,752 1,605
580 1,171 1,176 990

645
550

845
4,181 3,634 3,206 3,609 2,246

1,966 2,230
3,956 4,602 3,738 4,045 5,424 5,586 5,438
257
392 345

316 1,301 1,304 795
10,941 7,788 5,745 8,979 6,207 5,813 4,742
484,899 470,378 451,029

1896. £7,230 3,163 1,995 2,858 22, 478

8,350 7,824 14,258 1,541 3,466 5,150 1,508

850 5,044 3,780 6,734 20,436 1,519 1,269 2,551 6,706 1,434 6,678

COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES.
(See Index, under United States, Imports and Exports.")

Foreign Movement of Precious Metals.

(Ireland Included.)
GOLD COIN AND BULLION.

SILVER COIN AND BULLION.
Year.
Imports. Exports.

Year.

Imports. Exports. $134,590,674 $76,208,306 1894.

$65,431,903 $60,979,318 176, 197,803 104,094,683 1895.

60,428,333 52,209, 705 119,664,232 146,628,706 1896.

76,043,209 74,182,191 150,648,060 149,970,951 1897

94,711,400 91,816,411 230,260,646 178,101,062 1898,

77,006,055 76,984,253 158,161,250 104,629,750 1899..

61,804,550 68,131,000

1894. 1895 1896. 1897 1898, 1899

1891. 1898. 1899

Men. 25,107 35,682 47,893

1891 1898 1899.

Shipping and Navigation.
(See also Index, under “Great Britain.")
VESSELS IN THE HOME TRADE.
Sailing-

Steam
Year.
Number. Tons.

Men. Number. Tons.
8,675 556,968

36,714
2,211

354,714
3,521

407.626 26,989 3,102 458,382
6,485 397,177 25,600 3,295 476,449
VESSELS ENGAGED IN BOTH HOME AND FOREIGN TRADE.

312
40,248
1,796

286 166,813
199
26,174
1,115

320 265,144
178
20,250

960
338

308,898
VESSELS IN FOREIGN TRADE ALONE.

2,127 2,250,285 42,679 3,632 4,795,513
1,388 1,878,896 31,063 3,677 6,064,506

1,236 1,700,548 27,773 3,665 6,343,312
TOTAL SHIPPING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM IN THE HOME AND FOREIGN TRADE.
Number of

Number of
Vessels. Tons.

Men. Year.

Vessels.

Tons. 18,791 7,209,163 198,781 1896.

15,793 8,933,340 17,425 7,915,336 236, 108 1897

15,423 8,925,813 16,547 8,716,285 240,458 1898

15,207 9,080,728 16,105 8,861,848 240,486 1899.

15,197 9,246,634

5,169 6,722 7,834

1891 1898, 1899.

129,015 140,982 144,075

Year. 1885. 1890. 1894. 1895.

Men. 242,039 240,931 242,553 244,135

Railways, Telegraphs, Coins, Monetary System, Weights and Measures.

(See Index, under Great Britain.")

Canals and Other Navigable Waters. At the latest date available-1898-the length, traffic, revenue, and expenditure of the canals and navigations in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, which do not, and of those which do, belong to railway companies were as follows:

Length.
Traffic.

Expend-
Miles.
Tons.
Revenue.

iture. Canals not belonging to railwaysEngland and Wales

2,208
32,513.800
£1,895,506

£1,322,201 Scotland..

70
158,739

14,640

13,316 Ireland...

490
676,034
108,148

84,517 United Kingdom...

2,768
33,348,573

£2,018,294 £1,420,034 Canals belonging to railways England and Wales,

939
4,913,805

£331.305

£309, (225 Scotland..

84
1,064,595

52,3ti9

28,830 Ireland..

96
32,140

6,566

6,148 United Kingdom

1,139
6,009,820

£390,240

£344,003 Total............

3,907
39 358 394

£2, 408,534 £1,764,037 The paid-up capital of these waterways not belonging to railway companies was, in 1898, in England and Wales, £35,091.403 ; in Scotland, £1,254,047; in Ireland, £1,583,829; rotai £37,929,279.

The Manchester Ship Canal, opened in 1894, is 354 miles in length, 26 feet in depth, and (except for 24 miles near Latchford) not less than 120 feet in bottom width. The minimum width of the locks is 65 feet. The large docks at Manchester are 28 feet deep, and the smaller 20 feet. The canal is in direct communication with all the large canals of the district. The capital of the company is $15,412,000. The traffic is exhibited as follows:

In Vessels. In Barges.

Total.

Gross
Tons.
Tons.

Tons.

Revenue. 1894.

686,158
239,501
925,659

£87,470 1895

1,087,443
271,432
1,358,875

136,769 1897

1,700,479

365,336
2,065,815

204,414 1808.

2,218,005

377,580
2,595,585

235,278 1899.

NOTE.-Does not include old Bridgewater Barge Canal, now the property of the Manchester Ship Canal.

20

Post-Office.
LETTERS, Post-CARDS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC., DELIVERED.
Year

Book-Packets, ending

Letters

Post

Newspapers, March 31. Letters. Per Capita.

Cards.

Parcels. England and Wales...

1890
1,413,000,000

184,000,000 502,000,000
1900
1,908,900,000

59

342,600,000 720,300,000 Scotland...

1890
140,000,000

35
23,000,000

58,750,000
1900
196,800,000

46
40,800,000

94,300,000 Ireland...

1890
96,750,000

9,750,000 37,500,000
1900
141,100,000

31
16,900,000

51,600,000 United Kingdom....

1890
1,649,750,000

44

216,750,000 598,250.000 1900

2,246,800,000 55 400,300,000 866,200,000 MONEY AND POSTAL ORDERS IN UNITED KINGDOM. Money Orders.

1880.
1890.
1895.
1898.

1899. Home issues-Number...

16,704,118 8,961,068 9,272,794 9.672,658 1,041,216 do -Amount, £'s..

24,515,395 23,925,921 25,317,302 28,395,202 29.765,356 Poreign issues-Number*

602,971 1,381,406 1,551,301 1,734,516 1,781.318 do -Amount, £'s.

1,780,873 3,940,521 4,025,682 4,637,013 4,704,692 Postal orders-Number....

3,645,543 47,870,798 62,946,171 75,278,730 80,439,193 do -Amount, £'s... 1,662,090 18,814.276 23,521, 415 26.844,901 28.072,119

Money and Banking. MONEY.-For gold and silver coins, see Index.

The standard of value is gold, Silver is legal tender up to 40 shillings; bronze up to 12d., but fartbinge only up to 6d. Bank of England notes are legal tender.

The following table shows the amount of gold, silver, and bronze moneys issued from the Royal Mint, London, and of light gold coin and worn silver coin sent in for re-coinage:

--Gold

Silver
Light Coin

Worn Coin Bronze,
Years.

New Issues. Returned. New Issues. Returned. Xew Issues. 1806

£4,808, 860
£2,749,309
£1,15,161

21.167

£12.90 1897

1,778,437
2,719,300

902.00
379,US

107.30 1898

5,780,446
2,050,691
1.33.305
377,457

$4.31 1809. 8,520,311

1,015,830)

139.65

* Includes orders received into the United Kingdom from colonies and foreign countries as well as orders sent out to same,

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