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shall send on board to offer any assistance or civilities which the foreign vessel may require; but he shall not visit the foreign officer till that officer shall have first visited him.

ARTICLE 85.

Vessels of war of the United States are never to lower their sails or flags as a salute in any part of the world to any foreign ship or ships, unless such foreign ships shall have first lowered, or shall at the same time lower their sails and flag to the vessels of the United States.

ARTICLE 86.

Upon the death of a President or of an Ex-President of the United States, the commanding officers of the navy yards, and of vessels in commission, will cause minute guns to be fired on the day following the receipt of official intelligence, commencing at noon, and firing one gun for each State in the Union, and will display their colors at half-mast during the day. Officers are to wear crape on the left arm for one month.

ARTICLE '87.

When the commander of a fleet, squadron, division, or vessel, shall die during his command, the colors, flags, and pendants, of all the vessels present, which had been under their respective commands, shall, when at sea, be hoisted half-mast during the performance of the funeral service; and when in port, from the time of his decease until the funeral service is completed. At sea, when the body shall be committed to the deep, and in port, when it leaves the vessel to proceed on shore, the vessel in which he shall have been embarked shall fire as many guns, at intervals of a minute, as shall be equal to the number designated as the salute for officers of his rank and command.

ARTICLE 88.

When a lieutenant, or other commission officer, in actual service, shall die, the colors of the vessel to which he had belonged shall be hoisted half-mast during the performance of the funeral service when at sea, and when in port, from the time the body leaves the

vessel until the funeral service shall be completed... The full guard of the ship shall fire three, vollies of musketry when the body is committed to the deep, or when it leaves the ship for the shore.

ARTICLE 89.

Upon the death of any warrant officer, the colors of the vessel, to which he may have belonged at the time of his death, shall be hoisted half-mast during the performance of the funeral service at sea, and when in port, from the time the body leaves the ship until it reaches the shore, and the guard shall fire two vollies of musketry.

ARTICLE 90.

The funeral honors to be rendered to officers on service having assimilated rank with sea officers, shall be the same as is prescribed or sea cfficers of their respective ranks.

ARTICLE 91.

No military honors shall be paid except between the rising and setting of the sun.

CHAPTER IV.

GENERAL REG:ULATIONS.

ARTICLE 92.

All officers are to be constant in their attention to their duties, never absenting themselves therefrom without the consent of their commanding officer, nor remaining out of the vessel to which they belong during the night, after the watch is set, without express permission to that effect from the commander of the vessel to which they belong, or the commander-in-chief of the fleet or squadron.

ARTICLE 93.

All persons in the navy shall conduct themselves with perfect respect to their superiors, and show every proper attention to those

under their orders, having due regard to their situation; and should invariably set an example of morality, subordination, and attention to duty.

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ARTICLE 94.

If an officer shall consider himself to be oppressed by his superior, or observe any misconduct in him, he is not, on that account, to fail in his respect to him; but he is to represent, through the prescribed channels, [in the chapter on correspondence,] such oppression or misconduct to the captain of the vessel, or commander of the yard, to the commander of the fleet or squadron, or the Secretary of the Navy, as the circumstances of the case may require.

ARTICLE 95.

If any person belonging to the navy shall know of any fraud, collusion, or improper conduct in any agent, contractor, or other person, employed in matters connected with the naval service, he shall report the same in writing, through the prescribed channels, to the proper

officer or the Navy Department. But he must, in all cases, specify the particular acts of misconduct or collusion, and state the means of proving the same ; and he will be held strictly accountable for any groundless or vexatious charge he may exhibit.

ARTICLE 96.

No person in the navy shall use any language that may tend to render officers or others dissatisfied with any service in which they may be engaged, or upon which they may be ordered, or to diminish their confidence in, or respect for, their superiors in command; or which may, in any manner, tend to weaken that subordination which is essential to the security and usefulness of the navy; and it shall be the duty of any officer, and especially of the senior officer, who may hear such language, to reprove and suppress it in all inferiors, and to report them immediately to the proper officer, if they disregard such interference.

ARTICLE 97.

No deviation is to be made from the directions which the navy commissioners may give, relatively to the construction, repair, ar

rangement, armament, and equipment of vessels, without their previous sanction; excepting cases of absolute necessity occur when absent from the United States, and in such cases the alteration, and the effects produced by it, are to be reported to the navy commissioners as soon thereafter as practicable.

ARTICLE 98.

Every officer is strictly enjoined to avoid all unnecessary expenditures of public moneys or stores, and, as far as may be in his power, to prevent the same in others, and to encourage the strictest economy that

may be consistent with the interests of the service ; and all persons in the navy will be answerable for any unnecessary or improper expense, which they may direct or authorize, either in their pay by the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, or before a court-martial for disobedience of orders.

ARTICLE 99.

No article of public stores is ever to be appropriated to the private uses of any person, without the consent of the Navy Department, except in cases of distress, or by the order of the senior officer present in command, who shall give the earliest information to the Department of the circumstances, and shall be careful to take the best security which the nature of the case will admit, so that the articles or their value may be refunded to the United States.

ARTICLE 100.

The United States are, in all cases, to receive credit for the actuaj proceeds of all bills of exchange. When practicable, the rate of exchange, at the time and place where the bill was negotiated, should be certified by the consul of the United States, or by three respectable merchants. The Secretary of the Navy must be immediately advised of every draft drawn, and the amount chargeable to each particular item of appropriation.

ARTICLE 101.

All persons employed in the navy, or for naval purposes, are strictly prohibited from having any interest in purchasing or contracting for supplies of any kind for the nary, or in any works ap

pertaining to it. Neither shall they receive any emolument or gratuity, of any kind, from any contractor, or other person furnishing supplies, either directly or indirectly, nor act as agent or attorney for any contractor, on account of such purchases, contracts, or works.

ARTICLE 102.

Every person, whose signature is necessary for the passing of any other person's accounts, shall, before relinquishing his command, or leaving his situation, sign all such as may be necessary for that purpose, upon being satisfied of their accuracy.

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ARTICLE 103.

When the sun sets after six o'clock, the tattoo shall be beat at nine o'clock in the evening, and the colors be hoisted at eight o'clock in the morning ; and when it sets before six o'clock, it shall be beat at eight o'clock in the evening, and the colors shall be hoisted at nine o'clock in the morning.

ARTICLE 104.

All lights and fires, except those necessary for the service of the vessel, or specially allowed by the commanding officer, shall be extinguished at tattoo, excepting the lights used by the commission and warrant officers, which shall be extinguished at ten, P. M., unless sooner directed, or specially permitted, by the commanding officer.

ARTICLE 105.

In the execution of criminal process issued by civil authorities, officers are to furnish active assistance, within their commands, when lawfully required.

ARTICLE 106.

The commander of a fleet, or single ship acting alone, shall, before leaving a port at which he may have received supplies, examine the bills which require his approval, notify the persons who may have furnished the same to attend, at some specified time, with their accounts, so that none may be left without receiving his inspection and approval, should they be correct. The approval of all

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