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FIG. 51.—Position "way enough,” oars at angle of 45°

(5) Back starboard, give way port (or vice versa). Given from the position of Oars or Hold water. Proceed as described under Table II, paragraph (4) and the paragraph above.

(6) Boat the oars.—Given from the position Toss, Trail, or Oars.

(7) Point the oars.—To shove off a boat that has grounded, stand facing aft, point the blades of the oars forward and downward to the beach at an angle of about 30°, ready to shove off at the command. If waves lift the stern of the boat, the united effort to shove off should be made just as her stern lifts..

When for any reason it may be desirable, the preparatory command Stand by to

- may precede the commands Toss, Trail, Hold water, Stern all, or in fact any command of execution given in a boat. In order to secure precision and uniformity of movement, and in order to avoid taking the crew by surprise, cautionary orders should usually precede commands of execution, the crew thus being always prepared promptly to execute the commands when given; they should only be used when necessary, since a multiplicity of cautionary or preparatory orders detracts from the sharp, smart work that boats and their crews should exhibit.

NOTE.—The preparatory command for Oars is Stand by to lay

on the oars. ,

CHAPTER 11

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TO PULL AN OAR; NOMENCLATURE Every sailor should know how to pull an oar properly. For purposes of explanation, the movements of a complete stroke will be divided into five positions. A study and practice of these positions will enable everyone to learn our Navy's standard stroke in a short time.

Position No. 1 (fig. 52).-This is the position of Oars. The man sits erect, eyes directly astern, oar horizontal and blade flat. Note the position of the hands on the handle of the oar. The wrists are down in order to get the blade flat.

Position No. 2 (fig. 53).—This is the position at Stand by to give way or the beginning of the stroke. The man leans well forward, arms out straight, wrists straight, eyes directly astern, the blade of the 'oar vertical and just clear of the water. Note that the hands are in the natural position for a heavy pull.

Position No. 3 (fig. 54).–This is the middle of the stroke. The blade entered the water from position No. 2, and the pull up to this time has been made by leaning back. The arms are still straight, eyes astern.

Position No. 4 (fig. 55).—This is the end of the stroke. This is made by giving a final pull with the arms. The blade is pulled out of the water at the finish of the pull. Position No. 5 (fig. 56)

.This is the Recovery. As the blade comes out of the water the wrists are bent down, causing the blade to lay flat with the water. This is

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Fig. 53.—Position “ Stand by to give way

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