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Sprit rig.-Consists of a single mast carrying a large quadrilateral sail, the peak of which is held out by a light movable wooden boom called a sprit, which when in place extends from the peak of the sail to a stirrup on the lower part of the mast.

Stem.—The upright timber in the forward part of a boat, being a continuation of the keel.

Step of mast.--A small metal receptacle on the keel in which the heel of the mast rests. Steering rowlock.

A peculiar form of swivel rowlock fitted near the stern of a whaleboat in which the steering oar is shipped. This is sometimes called a crutch. Stern fast.

À stern painter for use in securing the stern of a boat.

Sternpost.- The principal vertical piece of timber at the after end of a boat, its lower end forming a continuation of the keel.

Stern sheets.—The space in the boat abaft the thwarts. Strakes.—Continuous lines of fore-and-aft planking. Each line of planking is known as a strake.

Stretchers.-Athwartship; movable pieces against which the oarsmen brace their feet in pulling.

Strongback.—The spar between the davits against which a boat is griped in.

Tack.—The forward, lower corner of a fore-and-aft sail.

Thrum mats.—Mats made of a small piece of canvas with short strands of rope yarn sewed on it. Called “thrumming.” These are placed between the rowlocks and the oars to prevent noise in pulling.

Thwarts. The seats on which the oarsmen sit.

Throat.—The forward upper corner of the quadrilateral fore-and-aft sail in a sloop rig. Also called the nock.

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Tiller.-A bar or lever fitted fore-and-aft in the rudder head by which the rudder is moved.

Topping lift.-A line used for supporting or hauling up the boom of a fore-and-aft sail.

Trailing lines.—Small lines secured to the boat and around the oars to prevent the latter from getting adrift when trailed in using swivel rowlocks.

Yard.—A spar to which the head of a lug sail is attached. The term “lug” is applied to the forward part of it when it has to be dipped (in some rigs) from one side to the other of the mast in going about.

Yoke.-Athwartship piece fitting over the rudder head and by which the rudder is moved when the tiller is not shipped.

Yoke lanyards.—Small lines attached to or rove through the ends of the yoke for use in steering when the yoke is shipped.

BOAT ETIQUETTE

Enlisted men who are passengers in the stern sheets of a boat shall always rise and salute when a commissioned officer enters or leaves the boat.

Juniors always get into the boat before and leave it after their seniors, unless the senior officer in the boat gives orders to the contrary.

As a general rule, the senior take the seats farthest aft; the juniors will leave such seats for their seniors.

The position of attention in a boat is sitting erect: on thwart úr in stern sheets.

At landing places officers are saluted by the crew of a pulling boat by sitting at attention and by the coxswain rising and saluting with the hand.

Enlisted men who are passengers in a running boat which contains officers shall maintain silence.

CHAPTER 12

KNOTS AND SPLICES; LEAD LINE

1. Every sailor should take pride in knowing how to make the knots ordinarily used in our modern Navy. Only the ones most commonly used will be given here. Practice making them so that you can make them perfectly and quickly. Many times speed in making

. these knots is very important.

(a) Overhand knot. --Used in making other knots; never used alone.

(6) Square knot (or reef knot).—Used for tying reef points and bending ropes together.

(c) Figure-of-8 knot. -Put on end of rope to prevent end from unreeving through a block or eyebolt.

(d) Bowline.—Used wherever you want a knot that will not slip.

(e) Running bowline.—A bowline made around the standing part.

(f) Bowline on a bight.—Used to sling a man over the side.

(9) Half hitch.—Used for making fast a line to post or spar.

(h) Two half hitches.—Used same as half hitch. Two half hitches are much better than one.

(i) Clove hitch or ratline hitch.—Ratlines are hitched to shrouds in this way.

() Timber hitch.-Used for towing spars.

(K) Timber hitch and half hitch.—Used same as timber hitch. The half hitch placed near end of spar assists in towing spar fore and aft.

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Fig. Il.

Reeving-Line Bend. BENDING TWO ROPES TOGETHER Reproduced from Knight's “ Modern Seamanship,” by permission.

Courtesy of D. Van Nostrand Co.

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