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either captured or voluntarily surrender. Many times deserters are captured by the civil police (who keep up with all deserters) after they have married and have families. Frequently they are captured several years after their desertion and after the men think it perfectly safe to return to their homes. The civil police are all over the United States, and many of them live on the rewards received by apprehending deserters. They keep a list of deserters, their home addresses, have copies of their finger prints, and other facts that assist in the recovery of deserters.

. (c) Likewise there are few enlisted men who realize the effect of desertion. If men could but read the appealing letters from mothers, wives, and sweethearts concerning those men who have been taken from them because of desertion, no one would ever desert. These letters tell the chagrin of having a son or a husband in prison and often of a destitute condition due to the fact that he loses all pay. Hundreds of such letters are received by the Navy Department every month. Often these letters tell how good a son, or a brother, or a husband the man made, but they rarely, if ever, do any good, for the simple reason that the department is punishing the man for a certain specific act (deserting) which he committed, and all his goodness to his family does not remove from his record this violation of the law. Not infrequently it happens that his imprisonment is as much a punishment to his family as to himself, but he brought it on and has himself to blame. This is written in the hope that, before deserting, before allowing your family or your sweetheart to persuade you to remain at home, you will give a thought to this side of the question.

(d) There are several things to remember about desertion and absence overleave.

(1) It is always better to surrender than to be arrested and brought back.

(2) It is better to surrender in uniform than in civilian clothes.

(3) The sooner you surrender the better. The less time you remain out the better off you will be.

(4) There is never any excuse for an unauthorized absence of over 24 hours without communicating with the ship.

(5) There is never any excuse for desertion that can be accepted by any court.

(6) Finally, when you are in prison your family and dependents suffer as much as you do, often more, for while you are in prison you are at least fed.

(e) The following is taken from a deserter's statement:

“I deserted on account of my sister being sick. I could not get liberty, and I ran away from the ship and went to see my sister. I did not intend to desert, and would like to be restored to duty."

This is an actual case, and it is typical of a very large number of statements. In this case the sentence was 18 months in prison. If the man had behaved and had a clear record, and if his sister had really been sick enough to necessitate his presence, he probably could have obtained the desired permission. The question arises whether the pleasure of remaining at home was worth the punishment of one and a half years in prison on reduced fare, at hard labor, and with loss of all pay during that time.

TYPES OF NAVAL COURTS-MARTIAL There are three types of courts-martial in our Navynamely, deck court, summary court-martial, and general court-martial.

(a) Deck court.—This court consists of one officer and is convened by the commanding officer when he thinks the offense demands a punishment more severe than he is authorized to assign. A man may object to being tried by a deck court, and in this case he is assigned a summary court-martial. A deck court can assign the same punishments as a summary court-martial, except that in no case can a deck court adjudge discharge from the service or adjudge confinement or forfeiture of pay for a longer period than 20 days.

(6) Summary court-martial.—This court consists of three officers as members and one officer as recorder. It is convened by the commanding officer for offenses which demand a punishment more severe than can be given by a deck court. A summary court-martial can assign any one of the following punishments:

(1) Discharge from the service with bad-conduct discharge; but the sentence shall not be carried into effect in a foreign country.

(2) Solitary confinement, not exceeding 30 days, on bread and water or on diminished rations.

(3) Solitary confinement not exceeding 30 days.
(4) Confinement not exceeding two months.
(5) Reduction to next inferior rating.

(6) Deprivation of liberty on shore on foreign station.

(7) Extra police duties and loss of pay not to exceed three months may be added to any of the above punishments.

(c) General court-martial.—This court consists of not more than 13 nor less than 5 officers as members and one officer as judge advocate. It is convened by the President, the Secretary of the Navy, the commander of a fleet or squadron, or the commanding officer of any naval station beyond the continental limits of the United States. A general court-martial can assign

. any punishment including the death penalty.

PUNISHMENTS BY THE COMMANDING OFFICER

For minor offenses which do not warrant one of the three courts-martial the commanding officer will punish. The regulations governing these punishments are as follows:

(1) Reduction of any rating established by himself.

(2) Confinement, not exceeding 10 days unless further confinement bé necessary in the case of a prisoner to be tried by court-martial. The use of irons, single or double, is abolished except for the safe custody or when imposed as part of a sentence by general courtmartial.

(3) Solitary confinement on bread and water, not exceeding five days.

(4) Deprivation of liberty on shore. (5) Solitary confinement not exceeding seven days. (6) Extra duties.

CHAPTER 21

SUBJECT D.-PAY AND ACCOUNTS-GENERAL

INFORMATION ON STORES TITLES

PAY GRADES

The following is the distribution of all ratings to the eight pay grades in our Navy:

Grade

Pay per
month

Class or rating

1 1-A

2

3

4

$126.00 Chief petty officers (permanent).

99.00 Chief petty officers (acting).
84.00 Petty officers, first class; officers' stewards and cooks, first class;

musicians, first class (Naval Academy band).
72.00 Petty officers, second class; officers' stewards and cooks, second

class; musicians, first class. 60.00 Petty officers, third class; firemen, first class; officers' stewards

and cooks, third class; musicians, second class (Naval Acad

emy band). 54.00 Nonrated men, first class (except firemen, first class, and musi

cians, first class); firemen, second class; musicians, second

class; mess attendants, first class. 36.00 Nonrated men, second class (except firemen, second class, and

musicians, second class); firemen, third class; mess attend

ants, second class. 21.00 Nonrated men, third class (except firemen, third class); mess

attendants, third class.

5

7

ADDITIONS TO PAY_EXTRA ALLOWANCES In addition to the base pay shown in the table in the previous paragraph men receive further increases in pay as follows:

(a) For length of service the base pay is increased 10 per cent after the first four years of service and 5 per 48406°—28-17

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