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regard to them are. The following paragraphs will explain the meaning of these titles and give information which will assist men in taking proper care of articles and stores placed in their custody.

All expenditures of the Navy are reported to the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts by titles. The following is a list of titles which concern men on board ship:

(1) Title A.–First cost of ships (hull, machinery, and permanent fittings). Title A articles on board ship, therefore, are the hull, machinery, and all permanent fittings.

(2) Title B.-Ships' equipage, or articles which make the ship manageable, habitable, and serviceable as a naval vessel, as guns, furniture, special tools, etc.

(3) Title C.-Operating expense. This includes pay of officers and crew, value of rations, stationery, paints, coal, oil, ammunition used in target practice, and other expenses incidental to the maintenance of the vessels in commission.

(4) Title D.—All repairs to ships—that is, repair to Title A articles are charged under Title D.

(5) Title K.-Changes and alterations to ships. (6) Title P.-All repairs to Title B are charged as Title P.

(7) Title X.—These are stores carried by the supply officer, and when issued such stores become Title C.

SHIP'S ALLOTMENTS

Ships are assigned allotments of a certain amount of money each quarter for use in the upkeep, repair, and operation of the ship. Each department on board is assigned an allotment usually administered by the head of that department on the ship. (Assigning lumpsum allotments for use of all departments on small ships has been discontinued.) Each department or ship must not exceed this allotment except in an emergency. This allotment is expended under Titles B, C, D, K, and P. As an example, the engineer officer of a battleship has an allotment for the quarter of $10,000. He draws out 200 gallons of lubricating oil on a Title C requisition. He draws out a special Title B wrench to replace one broken and surveyed on a Title B requisition. He draws out some steel plating to repair a bulkhead or Title A article, and this is charged to Title D. He draws out some wire to repair a spare Title B armature, and this is charged to Title P. He draws out piping to use in an alteration of some steam leads. This is charged to Title K, if authorized by the Navy Department.

It is the duty of everyone to prevent waste of Title C materials. It is also the duty of everyone to care for the Title B equipage which is necessarily found in every part of the ship. This equipage is in the custody of certain men, and they will be held responsible in case of loss, but all hands must lend their aid to see that this equipage is not carelessly misplaced by them. Broken Title B articles should be saved and turned into store, when another article to replace it will be issued by the supply officer.

Title B articles must be inventoried annually. The heads of departments usually require all men under them who hold Title B custody receipts to account for them more frequently. The supply officer has a list of all Title B articles in use made out for each department on the ship, and the head of that department has to sign a custody receipt for these articles. The head of department then requires his division officers and certain other men to sign a custody receipt to him for all equipage belonging to his department which is assigned to them. The division officer then divides these articles among his section leaders or men in charge of parts of his division and requires them to account to him for them. Men who sign these custody receipts must realize that they are responsible for these articles and must check up on them frequently. If one of these men can not account for them, he must report the fact immediately to his division officer. Failure to do this is a serious offense.

Lost or missing Title B articles are surveyed as soon as possible by an officer appointed by the commanding officer if the value of any one article does not exceed $100 or the total of identical articles does not exceed $100, and by a board of three officers if values are greater. These survey boards make a most searching and exhaustive investigation of the circumstances and in every case fix the responsibility for the loss. In case the loss is due to carelessness on the part of any person, the commanding officer will assign punishment as the case demands. Surveying officers do not hold men responsible for loss due to stress of weather or casualties if witnesses can be found to prove what was the cause of loss; and a great deal of trouble is avoided if the survey is held before the facts are forgotten.

Surveys of Title B articles broken or worn out in use are similar except that the article must be kept for inspection by the surveying officer, and the survey is ordinarily held at a navy yard by navy-yard officer.

CHAPTER 22

SUBJECT E.-NAVAL CUSTOMS; NAVAL

ORGANIZATION

RULES REGARDING SALUTES

1. Salutes.—Nothing gives a better indication of the state of discipline than the observance of the forms of military courtesy.

2. From time immemorial the salute has been a form of military courtesy that has been strictly and conscientiously observed by men of every nationality who follow the profession of arms.

3. In falling in with ships of foreign ports the national salute of 21 guns is fired and in turn answered by the foreign ships or batteries.

4. In regard to personal salutes, a junior always salutes a senior. An enlisted man salutes an officer, and the very officer saluted is called to account if he fails to salute another officer, his senior.

5. Enlisted men are often lax in the matter of saluting. This laxity is usually due to ignorance of how to salute properly or to uncertainty as to when the salute is required.

6. If uncertainty exists in regard to the necessity for saluting, the only rule to follow is to render the salute. It is far better to salute, even if in doubt as to the necessity for so doing, than to expose yourself to the chance of censure and reprimand and to be thought ignorant of the rules of one of the most essential and elementary requirements of your profession.

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