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(d) Chief fire control, navigating officer, and central station report to executive.

(e) Executive report to captain.
(2) Secure:
(a) Heads of departments report to executive.
6) Executive report to captain.

THE EXERCISE

(1) Thorough preparation shall be made for every general quarters exercise, and a definite program shall be drawn up and followed at this drill, during which casualties shall be simulated.

(2) The training of units of the battle organization and gun crew should not be attempted at general quarters except to simulate casualties to personnel and material. Gun crews and other units are expected to be expert before the ship goes into action, and they should be brought to thorough proficiency before seriously taking up the problems of general quarters.

(3) The action taken on each casualty shall be investigated. Casualties shall be given in such manner and at such time as to closely approximate a real casualty. The patrol and communication system of the ship must be used in all lower-deck casualty drills to determine, first, that there is a casualty; second, to insure a prompt, accurate report to central; and, third, that the proper action is taken to handle the casualty. Great thought and care must be exercised to introduce all possible conditions which exist with each casualty-for example, a shell bursting on second deck. All the probable damages due to the burst should be simulated.

(4) All vessels should provide in organization for the details and necessary action to be taken to safe

а.

guard personnel from explosive or poisonous gases. A standard form of signal for gas alarm should be installed and used for no other purpose. At this alarm all personnel should put on gas masks in accordance with instructions which may be issued from time to time by the department. These masks should be stowed in such a place that they may be manned quickly and yet be free from the destructive effects of shell burst.

Necessary measures must be provided for to prevent the inflow of gases to the vitals of the ship through the ventilating system. Under present conditions all compartments below must receive adequate notice of gases and immediately use gas masks.

At least once a month there should be periodical instruction given to the personnel regarding gas, the different kinds of gas, how detected, the danger of same, and the action to be taken under all circumstances. Inasmuch as there are possibilities of using gas bombs from aerial planes, it is of equal importance to provide for the gas protection of all gunnery personnel stationed in the tops, conning tower, or upper decks. Inasmuch as such personnel can best observe the enemy's shell bursts, it is recommended that special trained lookouts be designated to observe gas shells and report when the gas alarm should be sounded. As it is well known, in the World War the gas alarm in the trenches had to be obeyed instantly, and in some cases, where mustard gas was used at the beginning, too little heed was paid to protect against this method of warfare. Therefore in case of doubt it is best to sound the gas alarm and all hands wear gas masks. The work of personnel in peace-time training should be carried on under conditions simulating a gas attack. Gas defense is discussed in chapter 6, Ship and Gunnery Drill, 1927.

CHAPTER 27

SUBJECT J. REGULATIONS IN REGARD TO

UNIFORM AND CLOTHING

MARKING CLOTHES

Every article of clothing shall be legibly marked with the owner's name, using black paint in marking white clothes and white on blue clothes. The manner of marking is explained fully on page 13. UNIFORM AND REGULATIONS RELATING THERETO

(a) Prescribed outfit for men.—The minimum outfit of clothing, etc., for enlisted men at sea shall be as given in the following table. On shore and in the Tropics, the outfit of clothing may be reduced at the discretion of the senior officer present.

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PRESCRIBED OUTFIT—Continued

Outfit

Chief Officers' All other petty of- stewards enlisted ficers and cooks men

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Drawers, heavy..
Drawers, light or medium..
Dungarees, suit.
Gloves, pair
Handkerchiefs.
Hats, white (or white hats).
Jacket, white (officers' mess attendants only).
Jackknife
Jumpers, undress blue.
Jumpers, dress white
Jumpers, undress white
Jersey
Leggings, pair.
Mattress
Mattress covers.
Neckerchief.
Overcoat.
Overshirt
Pillow,
Pillow covers.
Raincoat.
Rating badges (as required by petty officer).
Sewing kit, as required.
Shirts, flannel..
Shirts, white..
Shoes, pair.
Shoes, gymnasium (as required).
Socks, cotton.
Socks, woolen.
Specialty marks (as required).
Toilet articles, outfit.
Towels...
Trousers, blue.
Trousers, white
Undershirts, heavy-
Undershirts, light or medium.
Waistcoat.

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(6) A man may own more clothing than the outfit requires, provided he desires to do so, that it is of authorized pattern, and that it is conveniently stowed.

(c) In the event of men who have not sufficient pay due them to entitle them to draw clothing or small stores, the captain may, in case of urgent need, direct

such articles as he considers absolutely necessary to be supplied

(d) Uniform clothing.–Men are required to provide themselves with correct uniforms as laid down by the Uniform Regulations, United States Navy. This includes all uniforms, insignia, devices of their rating, and all medals or orders. The uniform, with its various insignia and devices is designed primarily to indicate on sight those belonging to the naval service; to show at a glance their rating, and hence the authority and responsibility imposed by law upon those wearing it. It should be a matter of pride with men in the naval service to be habitually neatly and smartly dressed and to see that their uniforms are scrupulously clean. There is no question but that those who are properly and smartly dressed at once create a far better impression than those who fail in this respect or who wear ill-fitting or stained clothes.

(e) Enlisted men are not allowed to have civilian clothing in their possession on board ship. They shall not wear civilian clothing ashore in a foreign port, but may be granted such permission when on leave in a home port. No part of the uniform can be worn at the same time as civilian clothes, except overcoat, raincoat, jersey, underclothing, gloves, and shoes. When on duty or when on shore in a foreign port, enlisted men of the Navy or Marine Corps shall wear the prescribed uniform, whether serving on shore or afloat.

UNIFORM OF THE DAY (a) The uniform to be worn for the season, day, or occasion is prescribed by the senior officer present.

(6) In the fleet the uniform of the day prescribed by the senior officer present is worn by all petty officers.

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