페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub
[ocr errors]

oxalic acid, or put some powdered oxalic acid or sodium or potassium acid oxalate on the stain previously moistened with water and rub with a piece of white cotton or linen. The stain will dissolve and can be washed out with water. Oxalic acid and its soluble salts are very poisonous, and care should be taken in handling them.

Care of gold lace.—Gold lace will rapidly tarnish and deteriorate if in contact with or hung near any substance containing sulphur, such as rubber or ordinary manila and kraft wrapping paper.

To remove tarnish from gold lace.—Gold lace may be cleaned by dipping in solution of potassium cyanide and rinsing thoroughly with water. The use of potassium cyanide is very dangerous, as it is a powerful poison, and extreme care must be exercised. Never under any circumstances use it when hands bear cuts or scratches.

Mildew.-If stain is recent simply use cold water. If it is an old stain, bleach.

To clean buttons that have turned green.-Buttons sometimes turn green when the gold plate is worn off and the copper base becomes covered with green copper carbonate due to exposure to moist air. This can be removed by rubbing gently with acetic acid or any substance containing this acid, such as vinegar or Worcestershire sauce, followed by a thorough washing in fresh water and drying.

To remove shine from serge uniforms.—The spot to be treated should be steamed by laying a wet cloth over it and pressing with a hot iron and then rubbing very gently with a piece of 00 sandpaper or emery cloth. This had best be done by a regular tailor,

To repair a clean cut in a serge or cloth uniform.—A clean cut in a serge or cloth uniform can be repaired by being rewoven with threads drawn from the material in another part of the garment. This must be done by a regular tailor. This process is rather expensive, but a cut so repaired can not be detected after being rewoven.

To remove a singe mark.—A light singe mark on blue serge or cloth should be rubbed vigorously with the flat side of a silver coin. This will in many cases make great improvement in appearance. It is, however, not effective in the cases of bad singes or scorches.

Cap devices.—These and other embroidered insignia may be kept new and bright by scrubbing them occasionally with a nail brush and ammonia which has been diluted with water. This should be done as soon as there is any signs of tarnishing or corrosion. If the latter has been allowed to continue, or after it has gained a strong hold, the device can not be restored to its original condition. Buttons may be cleaned in the game way.

ISSUE OF FRESH WATER

a

Each ship has a schedule for drawing fresh water. In general, fresh water is issued every morning at turn to, at 11.30 a. m., and at 4.30 p. m. Fresh water can be drawn at other times only by permission of the officer of the deck. All men must learn to conserve fresh water as much as possible, as it is obtained at great expense on board ship. All the fresh water used in the boilers is made aboard ship by the evaporators from sea water. The fresh water for drinking, etc., is also made by the evaporators, but this is sometimes obtained from water barges in ports where good water can be obtained more cheaply than it can be made. The capacity of the fresh-water tanks aboard ship and the capacity of the evaporators are limited, and it is only by close cooperation of all hands that an adequate supply of fresh water can be maintained. Careless use or wastage of fresh water must be stopped.

CHAPTER 28

SUBJECT K.-PERSONAL HYGIENE AND FIRST

AID

PERSONAL CLEANLINESS; ELEMENTARY RULES OF

HYGIENE; PROPHYLAXIS; ELEMENTARY FIRST AID; TREATMENT AND TRANSPORTATION OF THE WOUNDED IN ACTION; TYPHOID PROPHYLAXIS

1. Personal cleanliness; elementary rules of hygiene; prophylaxis.-So much sickness and suffering is caused by ignorance of the simplest matters pertaining to personal hygiene and it is so easy to learn the fundamental rules necessary to preserve health that every man should study and follow the advice given herewith.

(a) Personal hygiene.—Personal hygiene teaches us to keep both our minds and bodies healthy. Improper thinking, where men allow their minds to ponder over filthy subjects or immoral subjects, will eventually cause an unsound mind. It is easy for the mind to form a habit, even as other habits are formed, and improper thinking is sure to form a habit of mind which will drive one down to the depths of degradation. By keeping the mind occupied in the work assigned you, by taking an interest in professional studies, by athletics and clean recreation, and by reading good books, you can develop your mind in a healthy manner. Smoking to excess, drinking the dangerous bootleg liquor, and bad women will ruin your bodily health quicker than anything else. Bad women especially are the cause of more grief than anything else, as promiscuous intercourse with them always results in Ioathsome diseases which not only often leave their effects on your system the rest of your life, but also are transferred by you to your future family with disastrous results. A large percentage of all idiots, blind, and deformed people in this world is traceable to the improper conduct of the father, probably many years before he married. Sexual intercourse is positively not necessary for health and proper manly development. In spite of warning, if you have exposed yourself to venereal disease, you must report to the sick bay for treatment. The sooner you do this the better, as the germs multiply rapidly, and in a few hours after exposure the prophylactic treatment will be ineffective. However, prophylactic treatment is not a sure preventive. The only sure way is to avoid bad women entirely.

NOTE.—The development of a veneral disease when the records of the sick bay show that the man had not taken the prophylactic treatment is an offense that is subject to disciplinary action.

(6) Personal cleanliness. It is possible to tell at a glance whether a man observes the rules of personal hygiene by the appearance of his hair, his face, his teeth, his clothing, his hammock, and his general bearing. The hair and beard must be kept trimmed in the regulation manner. The teeth must be brushed twice a day and kept in good condition by a visit to the dentist at least once every six months. Clothes must be kept clean and only clean clothes worn after working hours or drill. Baths must be taken frequently, especially after strenuous work or drills, and clean underwear put on. The best type of bath is the shower, as it is the most sanitary. Hands must be kept clean,

« 이전계속 »