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ing the reserve in the particular capacity for which they are qualified, and in so doing the experience which they have gained and the loyalty which they have given to the service will be continued and not lost to the country.
The training duty required of reservists in order to maintain elliciency should serve to keep alive that love of the sea and the sea life which caused the individual to enter the regular or reserve service.
It should be noted that this act creates three classes of reserves, viz, Fleet Reserve, Volunteer Reserve, and Merchant Marine Reserve, which may be briefly and broadly summarized as follows:
The active Fleet Reserve consisting of drilling and training units for officers and F-1 men entering largely from civil life. The inactive Fleet Reserve consisting of former enlisted men of the Navy who, except for occasional periods of training, may be regarded as in a retired status. However, both the active and inactive branches of the Fleet Reserve are designed to furnish crews, immediately upon mobilization, for certain combatant ships (largely of the destroyer type, or auxiliaries) of the Navy. The Fleet Reserve also contains a number of aviation squadrons and divisions.
The Volunteer Naval Reserve represents an inactive organization of trained individuals of which the general service class will go largely to combatant ships of the Navy upon mobilization, while the special service or technicist class, being composed of men prominent in civil pursuits, will be called upon to assist in developing the shore organization of the Navy. In view of various misconceptions as to the status of the volunteer reservist, it may be pertinent to state that the fundamental difference between the fleet reservist and the volunteer reservist is merely that one is a member of an organization trained as an organization while the other is a member of a reserve of trained individuals.
The Merchant Marine Naval Reserve is composed of officers and men who follow the sea as a profession and should be of the utmost value as an adjunct to the national defense in time of war.
The bureau notes that many former officers and men of the regular service have, from time to time, gone into the merchant marine, and the bureau is
particularly proud of the fact that many former enlisted men of both deck and engine room ratings have not only passed the professional examinations required by the Department of Commerce for licensed officers, but that many now hold very responsible executive and administrative positions in the merchant marine. It is thought that future developments may open up possibilities of a career in the Merchant Marine Reserve to the enlisted man of the Navy who is ambitious to study and improve himself professionally.
There is a very vital principle in connection with the Naval Reserve which should be always borne in mind and which is strongly evidenced by the maritime policies of various world powers, namely, it should be the aim to strengthen our Navy so far as possible by means which least tend to stimulate rivalry in the maintenance of armaments. A force in reserve does not provoke to retaliatory measures in any great degree.
Every officer and man of the regular service should bear in mind the possibility of being called upon to serve either in or with the reserve, and he is therefore to cooperate and aid in every possible way in promoting the efficiency of the reserve; since with every shrinkage which may be brought about by international reduction in the regularly established services of defense, the function of the trained reserve is being correspondingly increased in importance.
FLEET NAVAL RESERVE
For the information of the service there is added hereto a brief statement showing in considerable detail of what classes of men the Fleet Naval Reserve is composed, viz:
H-2202, Bureau of Navigation Manual, enlisted men of the Fleet Naval Reserve. The enlisted personnel of the Fleet Naval Reserve shall be composed of:
(a) Men enlisted in the Naval Reserve for four years, or with extended enlistments, who are transferred to the Fleet Naval Reserve. (Secs. 4, 22, 23, and 26 of the act.) (Class F-1.)
NOTE.—Made up of men enlisted direct in class F-1, of the Naval Reserve or men transferred thereto from the Volunteer Naval Reserve.
(6) Men who are assigned by the Secretary of the Navy for four years' service in the Naval Reserve after one or more complete enlistments in the Regular Navy. (Class F-2.)
NOTE.—These assignments must be consummated immediately after discharge from the Navy and by the commanding officer issuing the discharge, but only in those ratings prescribed from time to time by the Bureau of Navigation.
(c) Men who, previous to July 1, 1925, were transferred from the Regular Navy to the Naval Reserve Force after 16 or 20 years' naval service and were further transferred from the Naval Reserve Force to the Naval Reserve on July 1, 1925. (Class F-3.)
(d) Men who served in the Navy prior to July 1, 1925, who were either in the Navy or Naval Reserve Force on that date or who reenlist with continuous service after that date and thereafter transfer to the Naval Reserve after 16 or 20 years' service in accordance with article H-2416, Bureau of Navigation Manual. (Class F-4.)
(e) Men who first enlist in the Navy after July 1, 1925, or who reenlist with broken service after that date and transfer to the Naval Reserve after 20 years' naval service. (Class F-5.)
There are three ways in which enlisted men may enter the Naval Reserve:
1. By assignment to the Fleet Naval Reserve.
Enlisted men of certain ratings, as authorized the Bureau of Navigation from time to time, may be assigned to the Fleet Naval Reserve, class F-2, for a period of four years upon the termination of their enlistment in the Navy. Such assigned men are paid in advance $25 each year. If they reenlist in the Navy within three months of their discharge they must refund the $25 they received for the first year. They can not be called to active duty in time of peace except with their own consent.
Men of class F-2 will not be attached to divisions of the Fleet Naval Reserve nor will they be allowed to perform equivalent or appropriate duty.
Enlisted men, after discharge from the Navy and recommended for reenlistment, may, in the discretion of the commandants of naval districts, be enlisted in
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the Naval Reserve either in class F-1 or in the Volunteer Naval Reserve, for a period of four years. Those who enlist in the Fleet Naval Reserve and are attached to divisions receive one day's pay of their rating for the performance of each drill or period of equivalent instruction or duty. They may not, however, be enlisted in the Fleet Naval Reserve unless there are vacancies for them in the Naval Reserve organizations to which they are to be attached, and also subject to the approval of the commanding officers of such organizations.
Enlisted men assigned to the Fleet Naval Reserve or who enlist in the Naval Reserve within three months of discharge from the Navy keep their continuous service rights with the exception that, if they reenlist in the Navy after three months from their discharge, they will be reenlisted in the rating held at time of discharge only if vacancies exist in that rating and if such ratings are open to broken-service men at the time of their reenlistment.
Enlisted men serving in the Navy on July 1, 1925, or who reenlist with continuous service after that date may be transferred to the Fleet Naval Reserve, class F-4c, after 16 years and to class F-4d after 20 years' naval service. They make application to the Bureau of Navigation through their commanding officer for such transfers to the Fleet Naval Reserve.
The following are examples of the monthly pay received by such men: