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which might, for a short time, have severe measures against the royalists preserved his power, nor could he and disaffected_a revolutionary pobring himself to the dignified mea- lice and revolutionary punishments. . sure of an apparently voluntary re- “ Had such," he said, “ been earlier signation. He clung to what could resorted to, a person (meaning prono longer avail him, like the distract- bably Fouché) who now hears me, ed criminal, who, wanting resolution would not be now smiling at the misto meet his fate by a voluntary effort, fortunes of his country, and Wellingmust be pushed from the scaffold by ton would not be marching upon Pathe hand of the executioner.

ris.” This speech was received with Buonaparte held, upon the night a burst of disapprobation, which even of the 21st, a sort of general coun- the presence of the emperor, in whose cil, comprehending the ministers of cause Maret was thus vehement, proevery description, the president and ved unable to restrain; hisses and four members of the Chamber of clamour drowned the voice of the Peers, the president and four vice- speaker. Lanjuinais and Constant presidents of the Representatives, supported the sentiments of Fayette. with other official persons and coun- But the emperor appeared gloomy, sellors of state. The emperor laid dissatisfied, and uncertain, and the before this assembly the state of the counsel broke up without coming to nation, and required their advice. any determination. Regnault (who was the imperial ora- The force was still in Buonaparte's tor in ordinary) seconded the state- hand, for the regular garrison of Paris ment with a proposal, that measures was numerous, and the federates and be taken to recruit with heroes the bands of the suburbs might, at the heroic army, and bring succours to outset, have espoused his cause. They what, by a happily selected phrase, could not, however, be trusted; for he termed the “ astonished eagle.” they were fickle in their quality of He opined, therefore, that the Cham- rabble, and, as Parisian rabble, they bers should make an appeal to French were jacobins by nature and costume; valour, while the emperor was treat. for, if they wanted the bonnet rouge, ing of peace“ in the most steady and that positive part of the republican dignified manner." Fayette stated, livery, they had the no less indispenthat resistance would but aggravate sable negative requisite, being in all the calamities of France. The allies respects, both of dress and princistood pledged to demand a particular ples, sans culottes. Besides, the nasacrifice when they engaged in war : tional guards, thirty thousand strong, they were not likely to recede from it were almost all either royalists or conafter this decisive victory. One mea- stitutionalists, and would certainly opsure alone he saw betwixt the country pose both the regular army and the and a bloody and ruinous war, and he federates, in any violent attempt to referred to the great and generous dissolve the assembly; for all parties, spirit of the emperor to discover its except his own, were now disposed to nature. Maret, called Duke of Bas- unite against Napoleon as the comsano, long Buonaparte's most confi- mon enemy, and main obstacle to the dential friend, and fatally so, because peace so necessary for France. These (more a courtier than a statesman) considerations cowed Buonaparte's he attended rather to sooth his hu- spirit of enterprise, and he remained mour than to guide his councils, took in a state of piteous irresolution for fire at this suggestion. He called for the remainder of that night, and the

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next day; asking advice from those lous contrast with the state of the na-
around him, but unable to determine tion. The expected message did not
on adopting the plans which they re- arrive. The Chamber became impa-
commended, or upon forming any tient; and Mons. Duchesne made a
other for himself. Amid his uncer. motion, that the Chamber should re-
tainty he was surprised by an unask- quire from the emperor his formal
ed and obtruded visit from General abdication, as a sacrifice peremptorily
Solignac, whom he had not seen for demanded by the public safety. It
several years, and who now came to was with difficulty they were prevail-
impress on him the necessity of his ed upon to wait another hour for his
abdication. Regnault supported the voluntary resignation, which was at
arguments of Solignac; and it is said length presented by the minister of
that Napoleon at length received a police. It was couched in these
domiciliary visit from several repre- words:
sentatives, General Marescot being « Frenchmen !-In commencing
one, who used such strong language war for maintaining the national in-
to bring him to a decision, that dependence, I relied on the union of
they might be almost said to wring all efforts, of all wills, and the con-
from him his signature to the act of currence of all the national authori-
abdication by literal violence. He ties. I had reason to hope for suc-
added, however, a clause in favour of cess, and I braved all the declarations
the succession of his son, which, but of the powers against me.
for the rapid advance of Wellington “ Circumstances appear to me
and Blucher, might yet have given changed. I offer myself as a sacri-
much trouble to Europe. It was said fice to the hatred of the enemies of
to be the inventive genius of Lucien, France. May they prove sincere in
which discovered this hopeful expe- their declarations, and have really di-
dient to prop the falling dignity of rected them only against my power!
the house of Ajaccio.

My political life is terminated, and I
On the next morning, the proclaim my son, under the title of
June 22. Chamber of Representatives Napoleon II., Emperor of the French.

was convoked at half-past 9 " The present ministers will provio'clock. They evinced the utmost sionally form the council of the goimpatience to receive the act of ab- vernment. The interest which I take dication, which now all ventured to in my son induces me to invite the name as the only measure which could Chambers to form, without delay, the save the country. They were inform- regency by a law. ed, that in half an hour they would « Unite all for the public safety, receive from the emperor such a mes.

in order to remain an independent sage as would meet the wishes of the nation. Representatives, and the imperialists (Signed) “ NAPOLEON." endeavoured to turn the deliberations of the assembly on the mode of open- The republican party having thus ing negociations for peace and recruit- gained the victory, various proposals ing the army. A Mons. Crochon pro- were made for declaring the Chamber posed, that, to soften the alies, France a national, or a constituent, assembly, should disclaim all views of foreign and instantly beginning to construct conquest; a proposal which, even in a new constitution, in the room of those feverish moments, excited a that accepted, and sworn to, exactly laugh in the assembly, by its ridicu. three weeks before. These measures

were judged premature, and the could not do it." Then addressing Chamber resolved instead, to content the president, he added, “ Tell the themselves with naming a provisional assembly, that I recommend my son executive government of five persons, to them; it is in his favour I have abto be chosen by ballot ; three from dicated.” the body of Deputies, and two from The point, therefore, which remainthe Chamber of Peers. They seemed ed to be litigated between Buonaparte next to feel that some decency was and his legislature, was the succession due to the late head of the state, and of Napoleon II. Besides the embarresolved to send an address of thanks rassment of pinning themselves down to Buonaparte for the sacrifice which to a choice, which they might be unhe had just made. But, in their ad- able to support, since it was certain dress, they carefully avoided all men- to prove distasteful to the allies ; betion of the condition in favour of his sides the absence, and non-age of the son, with which his resignation was child in question, his relation to Buoqualified. The President Lanjuinais, naparte, and the influence which his attended by a delegated committee, father, and his father's friends, were carried this addresss to Napoleon, likely to exercise in any government who, for the last time, received them formed in his name, were, with the in the imperial habit, surrounded by republican and constitutional party, his state-officers and guards. He strong arguments for altogether setseemed pale and pensive, but was ting aside the dynasty of Napoleon. firm and collected, and heard, with a This point was fiercely composed and steady look, the empty and articulately contested June 22. praises which the Chamber bestowed in the Chamber of Peers, on his abdication. His reply was in when the abdication of the emperor these words:-" I thank you for the was laid before them. But the dissentiments you express. I recom- cussion was preceded by one of those mend to the Chamber to reinforce singular scenes which occur only in the armies, and to place them in the France, where men's prejudices and best state of defence; those who wish passions travel so much faster than for peace, ought to prepare for war. their judgment, and occasion so many Do not expose this great nation to extraordinary inconsistencies of conthe mercy of the foreigner, lest you duct. After the declaration of Nabe disappointed in your hopes. In poleon had been read, Carnot mount. whatever situation I may be placed, ed the tribune, and announced the I shall be happy if France be free most reassuring and gratifying, inand independent. lo transferring telligence from the army. Many the right which France has given me corps, he said, had rallied, particularto my son, during my life, I make ly two thousand of the Old Guard had this great sacrifice only for the wel- joined Marshal Soult, near Mezieres, fare of the nation, and the interests who was directing their march on of my son, whom I therefore proclaim Laon; and Grouchy, who had led emperor."

back his division out of Belgium unThe president respectfully replied, touched and entire, after a glorious that the Chamber had given him nó victory at Wavres, had an army of orders on the subject, which Napo- sixty thousand men, to whom were leon now pressed upon. “ I told to be added ten thousand soldiers, you,” said Buonaparte turning to Lu- and two hundred pieces of artillery, cien, “ I knew they would not, or dispatched from the interior. The extravagance of these statements sions; Lavalette and Carnot especialcalled forth the resentment of Mar- ly appeared incensed against him. shal Ney, who was writhing under the Ney replied, with sullen contempt, to sense of the infamy he had gratui- those who blamed his conduct, “I tously incurred, under the neglectam not one of those to whom their and censure of Napoleon for whom he interest is every thing ; what should had encountered it; and, under the I gain by the restoration of Louis, sense of vexation of a soldier, who excepting being shot for desertion? had seen his whole army destroyed, but I must speak the truth, for the seems to have been impelled to speak sake of the country." It is, indeed, truth, like a possessed person under hardly to be supposed, that Ney had the exorcism. There was a reckless any serious expectations of repairing spirit of desperation in the manner his error, or making interest with the of his contradicting the minister; it royalists by his present conduct. He seemed as if he wished the state of spoke from the native ardour and ver the world undone in his own undoing. hemence of a disposition, much guid“ The report,” he said, “was false ed by the feeling and impressions of false in every respect. Dare they the moment. The predominating face tell eye-witnesses of the disastrous day tion, therefore, took care to prevent of the 18th, that we have yet sixty his voice being again heard in the asthousand soldiers embodied?"Grouchy sembly. The marshal was, in his precannot have under him twenty, or sent mood, too apt to speak disagreefive and twenty thousand soldiers at able truths to be entrusted with the the utmost. Had he possessed a public ear. But what he had said sunk greater force, he might have covered deep into the minds of thinking men, the retreat, and tbe emperor would and induced them to view the subsehave been still in command of an ar- quent bustling debates and sounding my on the frontiers. Not a man of resolutions of the Chambers as empty the guard would ever,” he said, noise, unsupported by any strength “ rally more. I myself commanded them I myself witnessed their total The abdication of Napoleon being extermination, ere I left the field of read to the Chamber of Peers, gave battle— They are annihilated— This rise to a scene as stormy and scandaenemy is at Nivelles with eighty thou- lous as that which had just taken sand men; they may, if they please, place. Lucien Buonaparte, who asbe at Paris in six days— There is no cended the tribunal, insisted that the safety for France, but in instant pro- Chamber should follow the line of the positions of peace.” On being con- constitution, and instantly acknowtradicted by General Flahault, Neyledge his nephew as emperor. “ If resumed his sinister statement with the emperor die, the rule is, Long even more vehemence; and at length live the Emperor his successor. The. striking at once into the topic which emperor being resigned, let us, in all felt, but none had ventured yet like manner, cry, Long live Napoleon to name, he said in a low, but distinct II.He concluded, that the Chamvoice, " Yes! I repeat it-your only ber should at once, and with enthucourse is by negociation, you must siasm, recognize the legitimate sucrecal the Bourbons; and for me, I cessor to the crown. The orator was will retire to the United States.” interrupted by Count de PoniécouThe most bitter reproaches were lant, who, (although he had taken heaped on Ney for his last expres- his oath of fealty twenty-one days be

or resources.

fore to a constitution, which declared this impetuous young man, aiding his Lucien one of the blood-royal of speech with the most violent gestures, France), had forgot his qualities so and overpowering, by the loudness of far, as to demand by what title he, a his tone, the murmurs of the assemRoman prince, proposed a sovereign bly, “ if you refuse to acknowledge to the French empire, and who had the imperial prince, I declare that given him the privileges of a denizen?" Napoleon must again draw his sword Lucien was about to speak, probably -again shed blood. At the head of to remind him of the Additional Act, the brave Frenchmen who have bled which gave them all the right (such in his cause, we will rally around as it was) to sit and deliberate as a him; and woe to the base generals branch of the legislature; but Porté- who are perhaps even now meditating coulant, commanding him to respect new treasons. I demand that they be that equality, of which he had for- impeached, and punished as deserters merly set an example, proceeded to of the national standard - that their state objections against acknowledg, names be given to infamy, their houses ing, as sovereign of the state, a child razed, their families proscribed and who resided in another kingdom. Lu- exiled. We will endure no traitors cien angrily vindicated his right to amongst us. Napoleon, in resigning call himself a Frenchman by his sen- bis power to save the nation, has timents, and by the constitutions of done his duty to himself, but the nathe empire. “ By those constitu- tion is not worthy of him, since she tions,” he said, “ the oath to Napo- has a second time compelled him to leon II. cannot be the object of de abdicate ; she who vowed to abide by liberation, but ought to be taken as him in prosperity and reverses.” The speedily as possible to prevent civil ravings of this daring enthusiast, who war." Boissy d'Anglais asked, “ if was, in fact, giving language to the the foreign war was not sufficient, feelings of a great part of the French that civil war was threatened, in order army, were at length drowned in a to precipitate and prejudge a most general cry of order. “ You forget important national question ; perhaps yourself,” exclaimed Massena. “ You effectually deprive themselves of the believe yourself still in the corps de power of treating with the foreign- garde,said Lameth. Labedoyere ers.'

At observing this hesitation, strove to go on; but was silenced by Labedoyere started up, and demean the general clamour, which at length ing himself with fury, exhibited the put an end to this scandalous scene. same blind and devoted attachment to The Peers, like the Deputies, having Napoleon, which had prompted him eluded any express recognition of the to show the example of defection at right of Napoleon II., the two ChamGrenoble. “ The emperor,” he said, bers proceeded to name the members “ had abdicated solely in behalf of of the provisional government. These

His resignation was null, if were Carnot, Fouché, Caulaincourt, his son was not instantly proclaimed. Grenier, and Quinette. The three And who were they who opposed this first are sufficiently known. Grenier generous resolution? Those whose had been a soldier ; Quinette an advoices had been always at the sove- vocate. Both were faggots, chosen reiga's devotion while in prosperity; to fill up the commission, because who fled from him in adversity, and they were likely to follow the sentiwho already hastened to receive the ments of their more able colleagues, yoke of foreigners. Yes," continued They addressed a proclamation to the

his son.

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