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people, whom he again subjects to the there, even before the appearance of power of a tyrant. Nay, if a case the allies. could be in agined in which a people, In the departments, the cause of exercising their own right of free- Louis XVIII. was every where reviagency as a state, should, for no other ving. The whole north of France reason than because such was their
was fast declaring for the king, and pleasure, achieve a change of dynasty, Picardy was already levying troops in we acknowledge no right in their his behalf. Marseilles, and a considera neighbours to interfere in behalf of able part of the south of France, hoist. that which is set aside. But if a pa- ed the white flag on news of the battle tion is divided into parties, one of of Waterloo, excepting Toulon, which which is headed by the dethroned was overawed by its garrison. The prince, an ally of the power whose as- dispositions of Bourdeaux, Tholouse, sistance we invoke,-if he in his just and the countries of La Vendee and cause is likely to be borne down by of Britainy, were well known, and, in the superior force of his enemy, at all short, nothing, excepting terror of the times, and in all countries, it has been army and the federates, prevented a held the bounden duty of his confede- declaration in favour of Louis as uni. rates to afford him such assistance to versal as that which preceded his first assert his lawful rights as they can do restoration. Wherever he went, subwithout prejudice to their own sub. jects crowded around him with conjects; and this has been the univer- gratulations and rejoicings, and made sal practice of Europe. Now, what manifest what we have already said, proofs could the provisional govern- that the inclination of the people was ment produce of representing the strongly in favour of his person, al. French nation, in whose name they though they had been unable to oppretended to treat? They could only pose effectual resistance to the more refer to the momentary possession of violent and energetic partizans of the power which the abdication of Buonaparte. Buonaparte had unexpectedly thrown How, therefore, and in what reinto their hands. The self-chosen sub- spect, were the provisional governstitutes of an usurper, they could not ment in the right of representing the even appeal to the poor farce of the people of France, entering into terms Champ de Mai as a testimony of the for that great kingdom, and stipulaadhesion of the French people. They ting the conditions on which her godared not even attempt to command vernment was to rest in future? If the few soldiers who remained to they had the right of representing them, or the inob of the suburbs, in any party at all, it was only those who their own pame, but had been com- adhered to the dynasty of Buonapelled, greatly against their inclina- parte, which they found' it necessary tion, to use the name of Napoleon II., to disown, as a preliminary to any nealthough in the conferences they af- gociation whatever. The only effecfected to disown him. They had not, tual adherents whom they boasted, excepting in the vicinity of Paris, any the
and federates, who had personal partizans, and in the capital plainly shown they only submitted to it was well known that the royalists the present authority as representing greatly predominated. It is, indeed, Napolcon 11. So ibat if the suveprobable, that nothing but the pre- reigns had gone into the views held sence of the army prevented a com- out by the commissioners, of selling plete counter-revolution taking place aside Louis and the Bourbons, on the
one hand, and Buonaparte and his consent to the establishment of any family, on the other, the provisional other than the lawful sovereign. As government possessed no means of their system and authority rested in fulfilling such a treaty on their part; deception, they dared not communiand their announcing the intention to cate this answer to the Chambers; do so, would very likely have led to a but veiled it under a false and evahasty termination of their authority, sive declaration, that the allies did not by the soldiers pulling them out of mean to interfere with the internal gothe Tuilleries by the ears.
vernment of France. At the conferences at Haguenau, If any thing had been wanting to La Fayette stated his constituents justify the rejection of terms offered to be in the same situation as the by persons so little entitled to act in Convențion Parliaments of England, the name of the nation as the present and the army encamped in Hounslow. provisional government of France, it heath, at the time of the English Re- is to be found in the now admitted volution. To have rendered this pa. fact, that the most sagacious and rallel apt, it required all the great powerful of their own number had, circumstances of justice which attend. long before, offered his services to aid ed the great event of 1688, The in the restoration of the Bourbons. French should have been able to vin- The mild government of Augustus dicate the reason of their proceedings obliterated the memory of the cruel. by the aggressions of their exiled mo- ties of Octavius the Triumvir ; and narch, and by the will of the nation from the consideration which the Duke generally, nay, almost unanimously, of Otranto showed to heal the wounds expressed in consequence thereof. of France, while they bled so proBut the English history did afford fusely, he must be allowed to have pne example of an assembly, exactly made some atonement for the deeds resembling their own, in absence of of Fouché of Nantes. Whatever right, and exuberance of pretension, hopes he had entertained of increaand it existed when the Rump-Parlia- sing the liberties of the French, or of ment contrived to shuffle the cards serving his own political purposes by out of the hands of Cromwell the Se the elevation of Napoleon, they had cond, as the provisional commissi- soon disappeared, and Fouché's most oners at Paris were endeavouring to conspicuous part in the new imperial convey the authority from young Na. ministry became that of affording poleon. This Rump Parliament also protection, or means of escape, to sat for a little time as a government, those who fell under the suspicion of and endeavoured to settle the consti. Buonaparte. It has been supposed, tution upon their own plan, in despite that, even before Napoleon's defeat, of the whole people of England, who he was in active correspondence with were longing for the restoration of the king at Ghent; and although, their lawful monarch, which speedily doubtless, he would have disavowed was shown to be the case, when Monk, this connection, in case of the empewith an armed force, appeared to pro- ror's success, yet the battle of Water, tect them in the declaration of their loo decided Fouché as a rational be. real sentiments.
ing, and one who had not, in the The conferences at Haguenau were
mist of his own prejudices and prespeedily broken up; the French com- possessions, lost sight of the real inmissioners being given distinctly to terest of his country, that her safety understand, that the allies would not was only to be sought in returning to the allegiance of the lawful sovereign. vance. The Bavarian general carried In the mean time, and it is there that Sarreguemines by force, and entered we give him credit for his patriotism, Nancy by the voluntary surrender of he laboured to accomplish the resto- the inhabitants, who declared for the ration of the king, under such cir- Bourbons. A body of three thoucuinstances as should give least occa- sand French, with cavalry and artilsion for bloodshed, revenge, and reta. Jery, forming a corps of observation liation. He availed himselt of all the between Metz and Longwy, were interest and skill which be possessed defeated, and driven into Metz. Tou! to moderate the republican rage of and Maresall were invested, as they Carnot and Davoust, and to neutralise refused to surrender; and the Bava. the efforts by which they were prepa rians advanced on Chalons. A rerivg a frantic and insane resistance; connoitring party of an hundred Ba. while, on the other hand, the services varian hussars surprised the gate of which he offered in secret to Lou's the city, and rushed into the town. were qualified by the condition, that, The garrison flew to arms, recovered in a case where defection had been so possession of the gate by which the general, vindictive measures should assailants had entered, and cut off be avoided, and a general amnesty their retreat. But the cavalry, inresorted to as speedily, and upon a stead of losing heart in a situation so footing as extensive, as should be precarious, charged through the town, found possible. Thus, like a ship overthrew all opposition, and escaped beating up against the wind, which at the gate on the opposite side from appears to move by the impulse of that at which they had entered. The that resistles: element, but is, in fact, Bavarian advanced-guard had, in the directed by the unseen man@uvres of meanwhile, come up, and desirous to the pilot, Fouché, without openly op- succgur the reconnoitring detach. posing the opinions of his brethren, inent, whom they supposed to be cut or of the Chamber of Representatives, off, blew open the gate of Chalons gave the vessel of the state a secret with their flying guns, entered at the impulse in a very different direction. gallop, cleared the streets of the garThe return of this statesman to his rison, already stunned by the audacity allegiance, a fact of which the allies of the first assault, and look posseswere well aware, threw still more sion of the town without much oppocontempt on the negociation offered sition, Chalons, a fortified town, by the provisional government, since was thus strangely assaulted and taone of the most powerful of their body ken by an advanced-guard of cavalry, had thus, in secret, declared for the six guns, and about six hundred priking's interest.
soners, falling into the hands of the In the mean time, the tempest victors. darkened around France. The re. · Another Austrian army, maining armies of the allies, far ex- under the Prince Royal of June 24. ceeding in number, upon each point, Wirtemberg, so often disthose of the British and Prussians, tinguished in the campaign of 1814, had already commenced their opera. and General Walmoden, crossed the tions on the frontiers.
Rhine at Philipsberg, and masking The Austrians crossed the strong fortress of Landau, ada June 19. the Rhine at Manheim, vanced into France. Near
Prince Wrede, with the the village of Sarbourg, June 25. Bavarians, forming the corps in ad. they were suddenly at
tacked by the French, who at first A fourth Austrian corps, obtained considerable advantage; but under General Frimont, June 28. were finally repulsed, and driven crossed the Arve near Geacross the Saar. On the
The army of Suchet had preJune 27. next day, the batile was viously made some progress in this di.
renewed near Haguenau ; rection, which was now speedily checkbut General Rapp, who commanded ed by the advance of the Austrians in the French, about eleven thousand great force. The French division, strong, found it necessary to fall back posted near Carouge, offered to evato Vendenheim, where he took a cuate the strong ground in the valley strong position, with his right cover- and defiles of the Arve, and twentyed by the Rhine, his left by some four hours were granted for this pur. strong heights, and a ravine along his pose. The city of Geneva, of which front, which could only be passed by Suchet had possessed himself, was octhe bridge over the high road at two cupied on ihe same day. And the other points. The superiority of victorious corps of Austrians advanced numbers, joined to the present high upon Paris by the way of Chalons, a
of spirits among the Bavarian line of advance already occupied by soldiers, forced this difficult position; the Bavarians. and General Rapp, after great loss,
The élite of that Austrian army was compelled to retreat to Stras. which had defeated Murat bourg, which was instantly invested crossed Mont Cenis, to take June 28. and blockaded by the victorious Aus- the route of France, under trians.
General Bubna. They attacked the The Arch-Duke Ferdi- strong tete-de-pont of Arly, June 26. nand, at the head of a third Contians, where a body of French
Austrian army, crossed the troops defended themselves bravely. Rbine at Grenzach, occupied Basle, It was at length carried, with the loss and on the next day, defeated the of two thousand Austrians and half French General Lecourbe, with great the French defenders. The road to loss, near the village of Wickle, the interior was thus completely open sheim. A second attack, between along the Swiss frontier. Donnemarie and Belfort, drove the Besides these immense armies, there French General from another very yet remains to be mentioned the strong position, where he lost several Grand Russian army, at the head of pieces of artillery, and more than a which, with many Prussian, Austrian, thousand men. The arch-duke con- and other German troops, the Empetinued to pursue, and in a third well- rors of Austria and Russia, and the
disputed action, carried, King of Prussia, themselves advanced June 29. and finally obtained posses- into France. They crossed
sion of a very strong posi- the Rhine at Spires, and June 27. tion near Montbeliard. Chevremont, advancing by the route of Besencourt, and Montbelliard, were Haguenau and Saarebourg, successively stormed and taken by the had reached Halle when the July 3. Austrians, who, having nearly destroy. fate of Paris was decided. ed Lecourbe's army, proceeded to ad- From the magnitude of these vance on Langres, in full communi- military operations, it was evident cation with the invading army under that Europe, grown wise by expethe Prince Royal of Wirtemberg. rience, had combined her united
and gigantic force for the execution which they held their power, had two of her purpose, and, trusting as little fundamental principles, one negative, as possible to the fickle chances of the other positive, the latter vested the war, had brought into the field such a hereditary right to the crown in Napopreponderating strength of numbers, leon and his dynasty; the former deas, employed with ordinary discretion, clared, that in no chance should the could hardly fail, either effectually to Bourbon family be recalled to the goimprove victory, or speedily remedy vernment. The provisional governdefeat. Nor was this an unnecessary ment, notwithstanding each basis had precaution, considering the advantages been equally recognized by the ratifica. which Buonaparte possessed, acting as tion of the Champ de Mai, and that they sole and uncontrolled commander-in- could reject neither, except upon such chief against the various generals of principles as might be fatal to both, a confederated army-advantages of shewed, as we have seen, no relucwhich he had so ably availed himself tance to relinquish the cause of Nain the campaign of 1814. He was poleon II., providing that the allies even heard to assert, that, if he did not insist upon the restoration of had won the battle of Waterloo, the the Bourbons. But while the sovecoalition would not have subsisted reigns refused thus to divide the diftwenty-four hours ; and without rest- ference concerning the points in dis. ing much on the declaration of a per- pute betwixt them and France, the son who never allowed truth to stand French soldiers and federates, who in the way of his interest, or even the constituted the only strength of the humour of the moment, there is no government, gave plain symptoms that doubt that such an event might have their adhesion was not to the provi. called forth the steadiness of the allied sional rulers, but to the cause of Na. sovereigns, and exhibited the wisdom poleon. When Mouton-Duvernet haof their precaution in assembling such rangued, in the name of the national an immense army. But Providence representatives, the disbanded sol. had ordained otherwise, and the allied diers, who, in troops, crowded the armies of reserve advanced on every roads to the capital, they answered to side unopposed, as to a triumph in his exhortations, “ Why should we stead of a battle. The strong places fight any more? we have no longer an of Metz, Lisle, Valenciennes, Conde, emperor;" an answer which sufficientand other frontier fortresses, were ly shows how completely these miliblockaded. They were chiefly de- tary partizans of Buonaparte considerfended by troops of the line, who ed the interest of the conflict as endcould no longer keep the field, and ed by his abdication. The federates, did not therefore fall, like Cambray that is, the armed part of the rabble, and Peronne, into the power of the held the same opinion and predilecallies by storm or submission. The tions with the army. The royalists number of allied troops which entered were increasing in numbers and auFrance on this memorable occasion, dacity, and gained daily accessions has been roundly computed as high as from the constitutionalists. Indeed, a million, but certainly exceeded eight if any of the latter still continued to hundred thousand men.
dread the restoration of the Bourbons, The government against whom it was partly from the fear of reaction these immense armaments were di- and reialiation on the side of the sucrected, were placed in a predicament cessful party, and partly because it of singular difficulty. The Additional was apprehended that the late events Act, or new Constitution, through might have made on the mind of