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camp, and almost instantly expired. affair, that the Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Nearly at the same moment, General Mullins was found guilty of neglect of Gibbs and General Keane were both duty upon the storm, and cashiered borne off wounded. These disastrous by the sentence of a court-martial. circumstances, the fall of many other The last operation of this armament commanding officers, and the mate- was the taking of Fort Mobile, on rials for crossing the ditch not having the coast of Louisiana. On the fort been brought forward, (the men being being closely invested, the American wounded who were carrying them,) commander capitulated on the 11th of were sufficient to dishearten the troops; February, with his garrison, consistand their despondency was increased ing of 366 men. by perceiving that it was impossible Before the cessation of hostilities, to make any impression on the ene. the British had once more an opportumy's works, every man who reached nity of measuring their strength with the ditch being either drowned, or

the Americans on the ocean. On the obliged to surrender. In this situa- 15th January, a British squadron, tion, the column began to waver, and which had been stationed off the coast was soon obliged to fall back in great of New York, to watch the motions confusion upon the reserve, which was of the American frigate the President, coming up, under General Lambert. commanded by Commodore Decatur,

General Lambert, on whom the and some other vessels, fell in with the command now devolved, after restoring President when attempting to get to order among the troops, and placing sea. After a long chace, the Endythem in position, found, upon careful mion frigate came up with the Presi. consideration, that it would be impro- dent, and a sanguinary action comper to hazard a renewal of the attack. menced, which was maintained for two T'he army, therefore, retreated to the hours and a half, when, in consequence entrance of Lac Borgne, where they of the Endymion being crippled in remained for some days, until the the rigging, the enemy got out of 27th January, when the whole were her reach. On another vessel of the re-embarked. During the retreat, the British squadron, however, coming British troops were not molested in up, the President struck. The loss any degree by the enemy, and all the was considerable on both sides ; but artillery, ammunition, and stores, were greatest on the side of the Ameri. brought away, except six guns which it was impossible to remove, from the The treaty of peace between Great position in which they had been pla- Britain and the United States, which ced. The Americans treated the pri- had been signed by the Commissioners soners and wounded who fell into at Ghent, on 24th December 1814, their hands, with much kindness and was ratified by the American governhumanity. In this action we sus. ment, on 17th February 1815 ; and, tained a heavy loss. Besides Sir Ed. on the 16th of March, it was laid be. ward Pakenham, and General Gibbs, fore Parliament. The substance of who died of his wounds the day after this treaty has been given in our last the action, our loss, in killed, wound. volume. * In the month of March, ed, and prisoners, amounted to about motions were made in both Houses of 2000 men. It was an unusual and un- Parliament for addresses of thanks to pleasant circumstance of this unhappy the Prince Regent for this treaty,


* Page 342.

which met with considerable opposi. American government could be obtain. tion. No objection was stated to the ed respecting these terms ; and it had terms of the treaty ; but it was con. appeared, that, not only the American tended that much blame was impu- government, but the whole American table to ministers, for the delays which people, were unanimous in refusing had taken place in concluding it. It them. In consequence of this, new was said, that, as soort as peace was terms had been proposed by the British concluded in Europe, a negociation commissioners, in which there was not with America ought instantly to have a word regarding the propositions commenced. The treaty of Paris was which they had formerly declared to signed on the 30th of May, and at be a sine qua non ; and when at last that time peace should have been of the treaty was concluded, it was found fered to America. We should then to be perfectly silent as to those prohave appeared, in the eyes of America positions. The consequences of these and of Europe, as acting generously delays were, in the words of Mr Ponand magnanimously ; and, by such a sonby, “ a useless waste of treasure proceeding, we should have disarmed an unfortunate and ever-to-be laThe hostile feelings of those who were mented waste of the best blood of the most unfavourable to us. In place of country-of the most distinguished this, however, we first declined the officers -of the bravest, the most hefriendly offer of mediation made by roic troops--all sacrificed through the Emperor of Russia ; and, when the negligence or indolence of his Ma. we afterwards entered into a direct jesty's ministers !-all sacrificed by negociation, through the means of their not concluding a treaty of peace commissioners, we proceeded in so di. with America, the moment the treaty latory a manner, that the first con- with France was signed ; and by deference between the commissioners, at laying that treaty still farther in disGhent, did not take place till the 8th puting points with America, which of August. It was further contend. they afterwards thought fit to aban. ed, that it was in consequence of un- don.” reasonable, and consequently inadmis. On the part of ministers, it was sible, demands on our part, which we said, that it was an extraordinary obwere afterwards obliged to retract, that jection to the conduct of the negothe negociations at Ghent had been ciators, that every one of the proposi. protracted till the 24th of December, tions, which had been made in the when the treaty was signed. It was course of the discussions, was not to said, that, at the first conference, pro- be found in the treaty when conclupositions had been made respecting the ded. It was observed, that perhaps pacification with the Indians, who

no treaty was ever known to have were in alliance with Great Britain,' been concluded upon the terms origiand the territorial rights of those In- nally proposed ; for those terms al. dians ;--the military occupation by the most invariably underwent some modiBritish of the Canadian Lakes,--and fications. As to the delays for which the cession of certain islands which our ministers were blamed, it was shown had been occupied by the Americans that they had originated with the Asince the peace of 1783 ; and that it had merican government. The American been stated, that no peace could take commissioners had been instructed to place, unless these propositions were make no peace, without our first reagreed to. The negociations had been linquishing the right of impressment ; suspended, till the instructions of the without our expressly admitting, that

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the American flag covered all who it is more easy for those who gosailed under it. If these points were

vern them to observe the relations of conceded, they were authorised to peace and amity towards each other. sign a peace

with Great Britain ; but It is not very easy, in governments not otherwise. It was not till the constituted as

ours are, to induce day of the first conference at Ghent, a quarrel between the two counthat the American commissioners were tries, if the true state of affairs be authorised to sign a treaty, without known to the people of each. Noinsisting upon those points ; and, till thing but deception--nothing but misthat was the case, it would have been understanding—can produce such an useless to have any conference, as it effect. Both governments depend, in would have been vain to enter into a great degree, on the support of podiscussion respecting terms which pular opinion. That of America dewere wholly inadmissible. With re- pends on it altogether; and, I thank gard to the propositions, which, it God, the government of this country was alleged, were made by our nego


much influenced by the same ciators, and afterwards departed from, principle. If, therefore, the people it was said, that, if the frontier could are not led astray, and if the two gohave been established, it would have vernments look to their true interests, been a great object ; but, with all its it will be a difficult thing to encouimportance, it never occurred to our rage a war between nations so nearly ministers to make it an object of war. assimilated. Many persons affect to The great end they had in view, was look on America with great jealousy, one that affected the honour of the as a growing and powerful rival ; for country, that of protecting those who my own part, sir, far from looking at had fought and bled with us.

We America as a mere rival, I never torn owed to the Indians to replace them my eyes towards that great continent, in a state of peace, and in the enjoy. without feeling in my mind emotions ment of such possessions as they had of a much nobler description. For before ; and this had been accom. such a country as England to have plished by the treaty. It was, finally, been the parent of such a country as stated, as a cause of the length of the America--to have raised that which negociation, that it was almost exclu- was once a wilderness to its present sively occupied in discussing questions state of cultivation—to have establishwhich originated with the Americans ed wealth and prosperity over an imthemselves.—The addresses, as moved, mense empire to have given to the were carried by large majorities. people that free system of government,

In the course of this discussion, all which we alone possess amidst surparties concurred in expressing their rounding nations to see all this to satisfaction that peace had been re- consider America as the child of Eng. stored. On this subject, the follow- land, growing up and Aourishing un. ing excellent observations were made der her fostering hand this is a si. by Mr Ponsonby. “ I trust in God,” tuation of more true glory and of he said, “ another war may never more real happiness, than any other arise between these two countries, to nation on the face of the earth can teach them the respect which they boast of. England has been made owe to each other. There are no great herself by her own liberty. That two countries in the world whose in- liberty never was threatened by free terests are more blended together states. Whenever it was menaced, it and there are no two countries where

was by powers differently constituted.

It is her duty, therefore, to set up as tory tendency, would have the further the patroness of freedom throughout advantage of increasing the independthe world. The nations ought to ence of our navigation, and the resourbe taught to look to her for all the ces of our maritime rights." blessings which mankind may derive As we are now again in relations from independence-they ought to re- of peace and friendship with the Uniceive from her example those bene- ted States, it appears equally useless fits which no other power can con- and impertinent to enter into any furfer."

ther discussion as to the causes of the The treaty of peace was followed interruption of that friendship, or to by a commercial treaty between the enquire which party was to blame in two countries, which was signed in producing the war. It would be a pity, London in July, and ratified by the like the modish couple in the farce, American government in December. to renew an accommodated quarrel, The principal features of this treaty by resuming the argument about a are, that it establishes a reciprocal li- spade and a diamond, which originally berty of commerce between Great Bri- gave rise to it. In the present pacitain and America ;---that it stipulates, fic state of the world, which we fer. that the duties on goods exported vently hope will not soon be disturbfrom, or imported into either coun- ed, those subjects of irritation between try, shall not be higher than the du- Britain and the United States, which ties on the exportation or importation produced the late unhappy war, canof similar goods, to or from any other not occur. Till another Buonaparte country; and that it admits American shall arise, and again engage all the vessels, under certain regulations, to nations of Europe in one great quartrade with the British settlements in rel, an event scarcely to be anticipa. the East Indies. This treaty the ted even in the lapse of ages, all quesAmerican President communicated in tions respecting the maritime rights his message to Congress on 5th De- of neutrals may sleep in oblivion. Biscember, in the following terms.--" It putes on other subjects may, indeed, is another source of satisfaction, that arise between Great Britain and Ames the treaty of peace with Great Bri- rica; with regard, for instance, to tain has been succeeded by a conven- their territorial boundaries. But it is tion on the subject of commerce, con- very unlikely that any misunderstandcluded by the plenipotentiaries of the ing about a few square miles of woods two countries. In this result, a dis- or marshes on the Canadian frontier, position is manifested on the part of will tempt either nation to forego the that nation, corresponding with the advantages of peace, and to plunge disposition of the United States, which, again into a war, which can produce it may be hoped, will be improved in. nothing but mutual disaster. Of the to liberal arrangements on other sub- benefits of peace and friendly interjects, on which the parties have mu- course, both nations have been made tual interests, or which might endan- well aware, by the temporary privager their future harmony. Congress tion of them. 'Our quarrel with Amewill decide on the expediency of pro- rica deprivedus of the best foreign marmoting such a sequel," by giving effect ket for our manufactures ;-a market, to the measure of confining the Ame. which was already of immense extent, rican navigation to the American sea- and constantly increasing. America is, men; a measure, which, at the same and, in the natural course of things, time that it might have that concilia. ought to be, for a long period to come, a great agricultural country; point, at which, from the cultivation -and the almost boundless extent of of the ground having approached its fertile land, which requires only to be limits, from the check to population, cleared and cultivated, must allow the and cheapness of labour arising from principle of population to operate in that circumstance, and from the accuits fullest extent. The inhabitants of mulation of capital, a portion of this such a country will naturally employ capital, and of the labour of the counthemselves chiefly in the cultivation of try, would necessarily be turned into the ground, and will not be diverted the course of manufacturing industry. from this object by the wish to be- But, in consequence of the dispute come manufacturers, if they can easily with Britain, the Americans became obtain the commodities they require manufacturers from necessity; and from other countries, at the expense there is no doubt that this circumof a part of the abundant produce of stance will permanently diminish, to a their soil. The mutual intercourse, certain extent, the American market therefore, of America, with Britain, for our manufactures. It is under was a great mutual benefit. Britain stood, however, that many of the insupplied the American cultivators in fant manufacturing establishments of abundance with manufactured 'com. America were stifled by the immense modities ; thus enabling them to em- influx of British goods into that counploy themselves in the manner most try immediately after the peace; and favourable for spreading their popu. there is reason to hope, that the Amelation over the immense continent which ricans, when they can, as formerly, they inhabit ; while the benefit to Bri. obtain an abundant supply of goods tain was incalculable, from the great from Britain, will find it more advanand daily increasing market thus pro- tageous to apply themselves to the duced for her manufactures. The cultivation of the boundless tracts of war, however, by interrupting this fertile land by which they are surintercourse, and by depriving the Ame- rounded, than to endeavour to supply ricans of our manufactures, checked themselves with manufactured commo. their progress in agriculture and po- dities. In addition to these considepulation, by compelling them to de- rations, the recollection of the distress vote a part of their labour and ca. produced in America by the absolute pital to the fabrication of those artió annihilation of her commerce, and in cles which were indispensable to them. Britain, by the great abridgment of The consequence has been, that the ours, in consequence of the war, will, slow progression by which an agricul. it is to be hoped, render two nations, tural nation gradually becomes a ma- united by so many ties, unwilling, by nufacturing one, has been very greatly any breach of friendship, to expose accelerated. Before the war, Ame- themselves and each other to a recurrica was far from having reached that rence of similar misfortunes.

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