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subject, the first thing we have to do is to know 1775. what books have treated of it. This leads us to look

Ætat. 66. at catalogues, and the backs of books in libraries.' Sir Joshua observed to me the extraordinary promptitude with which Johnson flew upon an argument.

Yes, (said I, he has no formal preparation, no flourishing with his sword; he is through your body in an instant."

Johnson was here solaced with an elegant entertainment, a very accomplished fainily and much good company; among whom was Mr. Harris of Salisbury, who paid him many compliments on his “ Journey to the Western Islands."

The common remark as to the utility of reading history being made ;-JOHNSON. “We must consider how very little history there is ; I mean real authentick history. That certain Kings reigned, and certain battles were fought, we can depend upon as true; but all the colouring, all the philosophy of history is conjecture.” Boswell. “Then, Sir, you would reduce all history to no better than an almanack, a mere chronological series of remarkable events." Mr. Gibbon, who must at that time have been employed upon his history, of which he published the first volume in the following year, was present; but did not step forth in defence of that species of writing. He probably did not like to trust himself with JOHNSON?5

Johnson observed, that the force of our early habits was so great, that though reason approved, nay, though our senses relished a different course, almost every man returned to them. I do not believo

► See p. 960,

1775. there is



human nature better founded than this; and in many cases, it is a very Ætat, 66,

painful truth; for where early habits have been mean and wretched, the joy and elevation resulting from better modes of life, must be damped by the gloomy consciousness of being under an almost inevitable doom to sink back into a situation which we recollect with disgust. It surely may be prevented, by constant attention and unremitting exertion to establish contrary habits of superiour efficacy.

The Beggar's Opera,” and the common question, whether it was pernicious in its effects, having been introduced ;-JOHNSON. “ As to this matter, which has been very much contested, I myself am of opinion, that more influence has been ascribed to * The Beggar's Opera,' than it in reality ever had; for I do not believe that any man was ever made a rogue by being present at its representation. At the same time I do not deny that it may have some influence, by making the character of a rogue familiar, and in some degree pleasing." Then collecting himself, as it were, to give a heavy stroke: “ There 1775. is in it such a labefactation of all principles, as may be

• A very eminent physician, whose discernment is as acute and penetrating in judging of the human character as it is in his own profession, remarked once at a club where I was, that a lively young man, fond of pleasure, and without


would hardly resist a solicitation from his mistress to go upon the highway, immediately after being present at the representation of “The Beggar's Opera." I have been told of an ingenious observation by Mr. Gibbon, that “ The Beggar's Opera may, perhaps, have sometimes increased the number of highwaymen; but that it has had a beneficial effect in refining that class of men, making them less ferocious, more polite, in short, more like gentlemen.' Upon this Mr. Courtenay said, that “Gay was the Orpheus of highwaymen."

Ætat. 66. injurious to morality.”

While he pronounced this response, we sat in a comical sort of restraint, smothering a laugh, which we were afraid might burst out. In his life of Gay, he has been still more decisive as to the inefficiency of “ The Beggar's Opera” in corrupting society. But I have ever thought somewhat differently; for, indeed, not only are the gaiety and heroism of a highwayman very captivating to a youthful imagination, but the arguments for adventurous depredation are so plausible, the allusions so lively, and the contrasts with the ordinary and more painful inodes of acquiring property are so artfully displayed, that it requires à cool and strong judgement to resist so imposing an aggregate: yet, I own, I should be very sorry to have “ The Beggar's Opera” suppressed; for there is in it so much of real London life, so much brilliant wit, and such a variety of airs, which, from early association of ideas, engage, soothe, and enliven the mind, that no performance which the theatre exhibits, delights me more.

The late worthy" Duke of Queensberry, as Thoinson, in his “Seasons,” justly characterizes him, told me, that when Gay shewed him “ The Beggar's Opera,” his Grace's observation was, “ This is a very odd thing, Gay; I am satisfied that it is either a very good thing, or a very bad thing.” It proved the former, beyond the warmest expectations of the authour or his friends. Mr. Cambridge, however shewed us to day, that there was good reason enough to doubt concerning its success. He was told by Quin, that during the first night of its appearance it


was long in a very dubious state; that there was a

disposition to damn it, and that it was saved by the Ætat. 66.


“ Oh ponder well! be not severe?” the audience being much affected by the innocent looks of Polly, when she came to those two lines, which exhibit at once a painful and ridiculous image,

“For on the rope that hangs my Dear,

“ Depends poor Polly's life,” Quin himself had so bad an opinion of it, that he refused the part of Captain Macheath, and gave it to Walker, who acquired great celebrity by his grave yet animated performance of it.

We talked of a young gentleman's marriage with an eminent singer, and his determination that she should no longer sing in publick, though his father was very earnest she should, because her talents would be liberally rewarded, so as to make her a good fortune. It was questioned whether the young gentleman who had not a shilling in the world, but was blest with very uncommon talents, was not foolishly delicate, or foolishly proud, and his father truely rational without being mean, Johnson, with all the high spirit of a Roman senator, exclaimed, “ He resolved wisely and nobly to be sure. He is a brave man. Would not a gentleman be disgraced by having his wife singing publickly for hire? No, Sir, there can be no doubt here. I know not if I should not prepare myself for a publick singer, as readily as let my wife be one."

Johnson arraigned the modern politicks of this country, as entirely devoid of all principle of whatever kind. - Politicks (said he) are now nothing more than means of rising in the world. With this sole view 1775. do men engage in politicks, and their whole con

Ætat. 66. duct proceeds upon it. How different in that respect is the state of the nation now from what it was in the time of Charles the First, during the Usurpation, and after the Restoration, in the time of Charles the Second. Hudibras affords a strong proof how much hold political principles had then upon the minds of meri. There is in Hudibras a great deal of bullion which will always last. But to be sure the brightest strokes of his wit owed ther force to the impression of the characters, which was upon men's minds at the time; to their knowing them, at table and in the street; in short, being familiar with them; and above all, to his satire being directed against those whom a little while before they had hated and feared. The nation in general has ever been loyal, has been at all times attached to the monarch, though a few daring rebels have been wonderfully powerful for a time. The murder of Charles the First was undoubtedly not committed with the approbation or consent of the people. Had that been the case, Parliainent would not have ventured to consign the regicides to their deserved punishment. And we know what exuberance of joy there was when Charles the Second was restored. If Charles the Second had bent all his mind to it, had made it his sole object, he might have been as absolute as Louis the Fourteenth." A gentleman observed he would have done no harm if he had. Johnson. “ Why, Sir, absolute princes seldom do any harm. But they who are governed by them are governed by chance. There is no security for good government.” CamBRIDGE. “ There have been many sad victims to

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