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the ground, but still continued to leap / volcano, lat. 56° S. He announces about with its usual power and cheer- that there is no southern continent; or, fulness. The crural nerves were then should there be one, it must be inaclaid bare, and the animal put into a cessible, from being covered with pertrough of water, where it shewed itself petual snows, ice, &c. to be an expert swimmer; leaped to Oil obtained by Distillation from the the ground, where it hopped about in Hop.--- In the kiln-drying of hops for a lively manner, till it was taken up, sale, a portion of the essential oil is and its back-bone cut in two, when it evaporated. It is, therefore, adviseinstantly expired.

able to procure hops recently picked, Musical Permutation. A very cu- and, before they are placed on the kiln, rious invention has been made in the by distillation from ten pounds (with art of musical composition. It consists ten gallons of water) placing in the in the use of prepared cards, on each receiver, or separator, a saturated of which a bar of an air is arranged ac- solution of alum, the essential oil cording to a certain rhythm and key. will be obtained. Four packs of these cards, marked Ă, Heat in the Moon's Rays.---The folB, C, D, are mingled together, and lowing interesting experiment was as the cards are drawn and arranged made by Dr. Howard, by means of before a performer, in the order of a differential thermometer of his own that series, it will be found that an invention : (a description of which original air is obtained. The cards may be found in the Edinburgh Philohitherto made are waltzes, and succeed sophical Journal, vol. ii. p. 383:)--perfectly.

Having blackened the upper part of Adulteration of Milk.-Mr. E. Davy my differential thermometer, I passed has lately completed a series of expe- it in the focus of a 13-inch reflecting riments on this subject. He states, mirror, which was opposed to the light that the amount of adulteration in of a bright full moon. The liquid skimmed milk sold in Cork, amounted began immediately to sink, and in to from one-fourth to one-sixth part. half a minute was depressed 8 degrees, In no instance, however, did it appear when it became stationary. On placthat either chalk, flour, or starch, was ing a screen between the mirror and employed ; the first being insoluble the moon, it rose again to the same in skimmed milk, and the flour and level, and was again depressed on restarch speedily subsiding.---To ascer- moving the obstacle.” This experitain the purity of new milk, it is only ment was repeated several times in necessary to employ a glass tube or the presence of some of Dr. Howard's lactometer minutely graduated, and friends, and always with the same the proportion that the cream bears in result. point of depth to the milk beneath, Comets.---It appears that the late marks the purity of the fluid operated Mr. Cusac has left some unpublished upon. The lactometer employed by papers on comets. He supposes them Mr. Davy, and with which he produced to be globes of water ; that, on return the above results, was little more than to perihelion, the solar rays (after a common hydrometer graduated for sun-set,) strike on the mass of water, the purpose, a thermometer being at- enter converging to the centre, where, tached to mark the precise tempe-| after decussation, they emerge from rature at the time of making the expe- the liquid globe diverging, and form riment.

the phenomenon in the heavens called Education of Mechanics.—A school the comet's tail. As to the use of these for the education of mechanics, has watery bodies, he thinks they were been established at Edinburgh, and formed by nature to assist in giving a upwards of 200 students have already due temperature to our system. enrolled themselves for improvement Congreve Rockets.---These destrucin their several trades.

tive missiles have lately been employed Russian Voyage of Discovery.---AC- with considerable effect in the whale counts from Captain Billinghausen, fisheries. Capt. Wm. Scoresby, who Commander in the Russian Voyage is well known on the Greenland seas, of Discovery in the Antarctic Seas, as a successful fisherman, an intrepid dated May, 1820, report that he had adventurer, and an able navigator, discovered three islands, covered with was, we believe, the first to adopt this snow and ice; on one of which was a ingenious mode of capturing the


101 Queries.Literary Notices.Prices Current, &c. 102 “ monarch of the ocean." The Fame

Literary Notices. has brought home nine fish, the whole of which were taken by this means. Professor Lee is preparing, in Persian and In one case, instant death was pro- tyn with the learned of Persia, as a manual for

English, the whole controversy of Mr. Marduced by a single rocket; and in all Missionaries to establish the truth of the Scripcases the speed of the fish was much tures against Mahometanism. diminished, and its power of sinking Speedily will be published, A Mother's Porlimited to three or four fathoms. The trait, sketched soon after her decease, for the peculiar value and importance of the study of her children. By their surviving parocket in the fisheries, is, that by means of it, all the destructive effects las; consisting of 48 plates, including every

Geography.—New Edinburgh General At. of a six or even a twelve pounder piece New Discovery, or recent Alteration in the of artillery, may be given with an Boundaries of States, &c., with a Consulting apparatus not heavier than a musket, Index. Each map is accompanied with a Letand with scarcely any shock or re

ter-press Description, embracing every impor

tant feature in the Geographical, Political, and action on the boat. It appears that Statistical condition of the Countries delineated some of the smallest rockets employed thereon. Oblong folio, half-bound, 31. 3s. in the Fame penetrated completely Just published, 18mo. Zs. bound,

An Abridgthrough the body of the fish, so that ment of the Youth's Spelling and Pronouncing the effect of the explosion was visible designed for the use of the national and other

Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, on the opposite side.---On the score of schools. By E. Dawson, dedicated by perhumanity, the employment of these mission to the Lord Bishop of Durham. rockets is also very desirable, as Just imported, in one vol. 8vo. dedicated by their fierce and destructive fire acting permission to the Most Noble the Marquis of on the vitals of the animal, almost in- Hastings, A Grammar of the Sunscrit Lanstantly destroys life; and saves the guage, on a new plan. By the Rev. William

Yates. lingering tortures of the harpoon, axe, and even saw, which are occasionally Average Price of Grain per Quarter, for the 12 resorted to.

Districts, from the Gazette.

Wheat. Barley. Oats. Rye. Beans. Peas. QUERIES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. Dec. 1. 51 11 24 2 18 523 7 26 4 28 10

8. 51 2 22 10 18 11 27 3 26 8 28 1. On Junius Brutus.

15. 49 2 22 118 7 25 3 24 9 22 3 J. L. asks, Was the conduct of Junius Brutus, in condemning and

Number of Bankrupts. executing his own sons, consistent with justice or humanity ? and re

Dec. 1,


4, quests an answer from some intelli- | Average Prices of Sugar


Dec. 5, 31s. Od. cwt. gent correspondent.

12, 32 7}

15 2. On Books.

19, 33 03


14 18,

14 Ignoramus also asks, What books contain, at the smallest expense, the

Total greatest quantity of useful knowledge, with which a poor man ught to be Price of Stocks, London, Dec. 24. acquainted, in reference both to this Bank Stock, 235, 5 Ex. Bills, 2d., £1000, world and the next?

3 per Cent. Red. 764 I 3. On the Power of charming Adders. Long Ann. 1915-16ths Small Ditto, 24 pm.

4 per Cent. 96 53

Ditto, £500, 2 1 pm. T. D. asks, On what principle are

India Bonds, 7069 pm Cons.forAc.77*** $ serpents prevented from poisoning Prices of Foreign Stock in London, Dec. 24. those persons by whom they are said French 5 per cent. with div. from Sept. 22,38f.

Exch. 25f. 50c. to be charmed, although they take

Prussian 5 them in their hands, or carry them in Russian 6 per Cents. with div. from July 1, 82.;

per Cent. with div. fr. Oct. 1, 851 their bosoms?

Exchange, 12d. 4. On Mr. Law's Portrait and Writings. Ditto Metallic 5 per Cents. with div. fr. Sep. 1,

761; Exchange, 3s. 1d. admirer of the Rev. Wm. Law, Neapolitan 5 per Cent. Bonds, with div. from would be obliged to any correspondent July 1, 72. who would inform him if any portrait Spanish 5 per Cent. Bonds, with div. fr. Oct. 30, of this justly celebrated divine was 564 ; Exchange, 4s. 3d. ever published, and also furnish a cor

Austrian Metallic 5 per Cent. with div. from

Oct. 1, 744. ; Exchange, 101. 4cr. rect list of his works, through the me- Danish 5 per cent. with div. from Jan. 1, 1822, dium of this Magazine.


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COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 25th DECEMBER, 1821. The year is about to close upon as, under circumstances of peculiar interest. Our foreign trade has been much diminished since the general peace; and, notwithstanding our peculiar maritime situation as a nation, the wealth, resources, industry, and liberal enterprising spirit of the country, we do not reap those benefits from these advantages, which our individual efforts have enabled other nations, our competitors, to obtain. Upon a near examination, however, it will be found, that we are deprived of our fair share of the beneficial trade of the world, by certain difficulties emanating from our own navigation, revenue, and navigation laws. To this circumstance, therefore, and not to a reduced trade in the world, may be ascribed the stagnation felt and complaived of in our foreign commerce. It is consoling, however, to learn, that the subject has engaged the attention of Government, and some preliminary steps were taken daring the last session of Parliament, to remove some of the impediments attending our foreign trade, to increase our relations with such countries as open a free intercourse with us. For other governments, finding us tenacious in not relaxing in our restrictive system, adopt retaliatory measures, to the exclusion of our productions and shipping; which the very loans they contract in this country (our capitalists not having sufficient employment for their funds at home) assist them in enabling to do most effectually, Presuming, then, that many of the restrictions and laws relating to commerce will be altered and modified in conformity to the changed state of things, we may look forward to an enlarged trade, as foreigners will certainly avail themselves of the facilities afforded them in this country to trade intermediately with the distant parts of the world, which are indiscriminately opened to all.

With this short sketch of our opinion upon the above vital points, which we may occasionally advert to, we proceed to state some of the late leading transactions in our market.

of Cotton, the imports have not been so extensive as were anticipated; the demands, how.. ever, have been proportionate : the sales of the week preceding the last, were 7044 packages, they amounted, during the week just elapsed, to 6560 packages, which are underneath the classification, with the prices. 2879 Bags of Uplands, from 8 to 102 80 Bags of Mina Geras, 91 to 10 535 Orleans, 81 to 121 299

Demeraras, 9. to 113 331 Alabamas, 8 to 9


Surinam, 11 356 Sea Islands, 141 to 22


Barbadoes, 91 to 9 37 Stained, 11 to 12

147 Carthagenas, 84
Pernambucco, 114 to 121

West Indias,

8f to 9
Bahias, 102 to 11


7 to 8} 124 Maranham, 11" to 113


Bengal, 64 to 63 Unless the import of Cotton increases, some improvement seems very probable. The imports during the year, up to this period, are 403,934 packages; and prices, generally speaking, are ld. per pound below the prices of December last.

of Sugars, the import has been 34,327 hhds. British : 87,779 barrels and bags of British and East-India sorts ; of Havannah, 1676 boxes ; of Brazil, 4396 cases. The average prices may be considered 6s. to 8s. per cwt. lower than at the same period last year. The demand is now good, and the consumption of Sugar seems evidently on the increase. The prices are,-dry brown, 53s. to 57s.; middling, 59s. to 68s.; good to fine, 70s. to 80s.

Of Coffee, the import has been 6030 tierces, 15,241 barrels and bags. The present prices are on an average 12s. to 15s. per cwt. under those of the preceding year. It may be also remarked, that the consumption is greatly increased in this country, the accounts of forthcoming crops are promising, and the present rates are somewhat high. Our present stock does not exceed 300 tons.

Of Rum, the import has been 8129 pancheons. Prices are low ; for Jamaica 0. P. 1s. Id. to 2s. per gallon.

The import of Tobacco has been 5744 hhds.; the supplies are expected to be abundant.

Carolina Rice commands 15s. to 18s. per cwt in bond. The import is 12,473 casks and bags, including some small arrivals from India.

Ashes are become extremely scarce, and the price is advancing. American Pots 40s. Pearls 42s. to 43s. The imports are 22,999 casks.-Of Logwood, the import has been very small, only amounting to 1153 tons; the price is £1. 10s. to £2. per ton above the ruling prices last year. - Jamaica Logwood £9. Campeachy £10. per ton. Fustic is little inquired after.

Of African Palm Oil, the imports have been 8753 casks; the price is £29. 10s. per tun.

Of Tallow, there have arrived 12,587 casks and serons. The price of Yellow Candle has suddenly risen from 48s. to 50s. per cwt. Hemp continues to advance, and sells readily at £50. per ton. The import only amounts to 926 tons.

Of Hides, there have been received 244,444. The prices are considerably higher than in the preceding year.

of Timber, there have arrived 360 cargoes. Pine realizes 19d. to 20d. per foot.

Grain.—There is some revival in our corn market; good old Wheats have attracted the notice of speculators. New Irish Wheats are also more saleable at some improvement. Wheat under lock is not inquired for. Oats and Barley are also held for higher rates. The holders of the late arrivals of American Flour, require 28s. per barrel. New French Clover Seed sells at 72s. per cwt. There have been no arrivals of American. Of American Flax Seed, there have as yet been no imports ; the prices are expected to open at 58s. to 60s. per hbd.; and a large quantity is expected to be sown this year in Ireland.



Imperial Magazine ;




the Almighty himself first measured

time in the creation of the universe. No. 2.-The Septenary Law of Nature And even to the present day, the most considered and demonstrated. barbarous and heathen nations are not (Continued from col. 18.)

destitute of some traces of it. The HAVING in No. 1, laid down the sep- very early and general division of time tenary system of the universe, accord- into weeks, or periods of seven days, has ing to the theory of Mr. Macnab, it is been a subject which has nonplused proper before we proceed further, that the learned infidel, who will not admit some evidence should be adduced in the authority of scripture in the case. support of it. Though the theory be He tries in vain to account for it from acknowledged to be in a great mea- any other ancient source of informasure artificial ; yet the foundation it tion. We find, from time immemoseems to hold in the scriptures, and in rial, the use of this period prevailing the works and providence of God,-and among all nations, without any variaabove all, the wonderful facility with tion in the form of it. The Israelites, which it may be made to illustrate the Assyrians, Egyptians, Indians, Aramost abstruse subjects, both in phy- bians, and, in a word, all the nations sics and in morals, as shall by and of the East, have, in all ages, made by be made to appear,-render it an use of a week consisting of seven days. admirable conception of its author. We find the same custom among the Nor does it signify much to us, what ancient Romans, Gauls, Britons, Germethod any author may adopt, whe- mans, the nations of the North, and of ther it be numbers, allegories, or hie- America, before they had any interroglyphics, provided it conveys clear course with other nations.* and distinct conceptions to our mind. Now, how are we to account for this -But, that the septenary system is universally prevailing practice ? Many not merely ideal, without any founda- vain conjectures have, indeed, been tion in nature or scripture, I conceive, formed, concerning the reasons and will appear manifest, by the following motives which determined all mansketch of its origin.

kind to agree in this primitive division To begin with the origin of the ob- of their time. It is evident, however, servance of the seventh day, it is said, that nothing but tradition concernGen. i. 31. "And God saw every ing the space of time occupied in thing that he had made, and, behold, the creation of the world could give it was very good. And the evening rise to this universal, immemorial and the morning were the sixth day. practice. Thus the heavens and the earth were Consequently, the very existence of finished, and all the host of them. such a division of time in the present And on the seventh day God ended his day, for the origin of which no one work which he bad made: and rested nation under heaven can assign any on the seventh day from all bis work reason peculiar to itself, is a testimowhich he had made. And God blessed ny that all had originally something in the seventh day, and sanctified it; be- common which gave rise to it; and cause that in it he had rested from all this could be no other than that assignhis work,whichGod created and made.”'ed by Moses, Gen. ii. 2. and Exod.

It is evident from scripture, that the xx. 11. That“ on the seventh day God septenary number, or the number seven, ended his work which he had made ; is frequently spoken of; and that, to and rested on the seventh day from all whatever purpose men, through per- his work which he had made.”—“ For version, may have applied it, it was far from being originally a creature of their

Soaliger De Emendat. Temporum. Le own invention. It was the rule by which 'Spectacle de la Nat. tom. viii. p. 53. No. 37.–VOL. IY.



in six days the Lord made heaven and Having thus seen the origin of the earth, the sea, and all that in them observance of the seventh day, we now is, and rested the seventh day: where- inquire into its meaning; and we find fore the Lord blessed the sabbath-day, the Hebrew word saw, which is renand hallowed it."

dered seven, to denote fulness, suffiNow Moses, it is to be remarked, ciency, completion, plenituule, and peris the most ancient writer extant; and fection, and so forth;-evidently alludthe subject is clearly described in the ing to something that preceded, namewritings of Moses ; not, however, as ly, the work of creation, which, being an invention of his time, but as having effected by the operations of the six existed from the beginning. There- preceding days, God entered upon his fore, in whatever nations the fact is rest or sabbathism, or state of comknown, these nations must have bor- pletion, plenitude, or perfection. It rowed the tradition from Moses, or is the same word which is used in the from the sources which furnished him xvi. Psalm. “ In thy presence is fulwith it, and not be from them. The ness or completion of joy; at thy tradition, and, what is more, the prac- right hand there are pleasures for tice, existed prior to his time, cven evermore." from the beginning, and was handed It is added, “ And God blessed the down from Adam to Noah, and from seventh day, and sanctified it; because Noah to his descendants, and thus that in it he had rested or ceased from was introduced into the new world all his work, which God created and after the flood. It is in vain, then, to made.” Hence the sacredness of the say, that the Israelites had it from the seventh day, not only among the Jews, Egyptians. The Mosaic history shews after the giving of the law, but among that they had it from a more direct both believers and heathens in many line. Nay, that the patriarchs of the ages and nations, both prior and subIsraelitish nation were in possession sequent to that period. As that day of this, as well as of their other vari- was set apart by God himself, from ous peculiar rites and ceremonies, be- the beginning, for sacred purposes ; fore they went down into Egypt; and so, numerous nations still observe it that what they learned in Egypt, was in this sense, in some form or other; by no means of such a rational or than which there cannot be a clearer sanctified nature ; but, on the con proof, that the thus assigning the trary, it laid the foundation for their seventh day to sacred purposes, origisubsequent idolatry and disobedience nally arose from the circumstance of to the Divine commands ;—for their God's blessing the seventh day, and forming of the golden calf, and their sanctifying it, or setting it apart to murmurings in the wilderness;--and for commemorate, in all time coming, the their constantly hankering after the completion of the stupendous work of perversions of that people.

creation. Are not these, and many things else What may bave induced Almighty which belong to this subject, clearly God, with whom “one day is as a narrated in the scriptures? Narrated, thousand years, and a thousand years not in a casual and unconnected as one day,” to have set his creatures way, but incorporated into the history an example of dividing time into seven of the lives of men, forming part of days, and assigning one of these days their history; and that such a closely to sacred purposes, is not easy to deconnected part, that there is no deny termine. However, as of the septenary ing the one without denying the other? number, or the number seven, there So that the opposition manifested by are, indeed, traces in some of the infidels to this part of sacred truth, other works of God, as the seven colours and their pretending that all the pecu- of the rainbow, for instance, and the liar practices among Jews and Christ- seven sounds of the octave in music, and ians, were borrowed from the hea as bis blessed word speaks often of the thens, manifest, either their gross and number seven, and even of the seven unpardonable ignorance, of a subject, spirits of God himself; perhaps there concerning which they pretend to de- is something in the nature of God himcide, or else, their rooted hatred of self, (“ for who by searching can find the simple truth, with the consequen- out God? who can find out the Al. ces it involves, that they are deter- mighty unto perfection ?”) which nemined to deny it at all events.

cessarily comprises this number; and

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