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him as an outcast of nature ; and Indeed, the treatment that many although he serves his master with Horses receive, is a wretched recomunequalled humility and patience, yet pense for their unparalleled docility the sad unjust wages of his servi- and dispatch. Perhaps there are no tude are nothing but scourges, famine, breeds of horses in the world that can and oppression. He is often laden claim a superiority over the British, with heavy burdens, far, very far be- in regard to elegance of form, astonyond his strength, and if, after exert- isbing strength, and quickness of ing all his powers, and straining every dispatch. Among many well authennerve to perform what is impossible, ticated English racers, which have he remains invincible and immove- surprised us with their astonishing able; all the cruelties wbich sin can fleetness, may be particularized the invent, and tyranny execute, are un- celebrated Childers, Bay Malton, and deservedly inflicted upon him. He Eclipse. The first of these was unis scourged and buffeted with merci- doubtedly the swiftest horse ever less severity.

known to man; and the exploits he Asses, when very young, are capa- has performed are truly astonishing. ble of being taught a variety of exer- He ran against all the celebrated cises, but the education of these useful horses of the time in which he lived, little animals is totally neglected; and and was allowed to be the champion although they display a considerable of the course; having never been share of beauty, sprightliness, and known to fail bearing away the prize. agility, yet these good qualities are The general progress of this justly soon lost under the tyrannical domi- celebrated horse, was no less than nion of the monster, man. The ass is eighty-two feet and a half in a second strong, affectionate, humble, patient, of time; a degree of swiftness wbich and tranquil. How often do we see no other horse has ever been capable his strength exhausted with fatigue, of performing. Bay Malton has been his affection treated with contempt, known to run four miles in the short and his humility, patience, and tran- space of seven minutes and forty-four quillity, with insult, negligence, and seconds. Eclipse was much feeter oppression! In short, his services are than Bay Malton; and, excepting indispensable, and his sufferings incal- Childers, the swiftest racer culable ; his days are spent in toil known. He died at the age of twentyand drudgery, and his nights in saun- six. The surprising horse, Matchem, tering about naked lanes and high arrived at the age of thirty-two years, roads, where he vainly endeavours to which may be considered as very collect a sufficiency of food to satisfy great for a race-horse, and indeed for the cravings of his appetite, and to any kind of horse, when we take into sapport that strength on which bis consideration the brutal system of diabolical master places so much re- cruelty to which they are so often exliance.

The following authenticated We find the finest breed of asses in instance of longevity in a draughtSpain, and this can be attributed to horse, will, I am persuaded, be very nothing but the great care and indul- acceptable to a certain class of readgence which are there bestowed upon ers. It is an extract from a letter these industrious animals. Pliny in- which I received from my father a few forms us, that a male ass, of Romish days ago. breed, was sold for a sum exceeding « The horse to which you allude in three thousand pounds of English mo- your's of the 19th, and which has exney; and Varro also assures us, that cited so much interest in Manchester, he knew a she-ass in Rome, that was is now living at Latchford, near Warsold for nearly five hundred pounds. rington. Your friend, Mr. Henry These facts (and many others might Harrison, of Young-street, assures be advanced) will surely be sufficient me that he has known this horse for a to convince any reasonable person, period of at least fifty-nine years. Mr. that if asses were to receive the same Harrison was about fifteen years old care and indulgence as horses, they when he first became acquainted with would then become much more useful, him; and be supposes that he was stately, and beautiful animals, than then about two years of age. His we generally find them, in a state of master, perhaps grateful for his faithdomestication.

ful services, took him from the Gin



1093 Living Poets of Great BritainColeridge. 1094 wheel at the Old Quay, a few months and thus bemorrhage is prevented. ago, since which he has not worked.” But it often happens that the vessels

The absurd and cruel practice of are too deeply situated, or the hemornicking the tails of horses, still con- rhage too profuse to be stopped by tinues to be prevalent in Europe; and these means; besides, it frequently I am sorry it is in my power to own, occurs, that the hot iron brings off the that this scandalous practice is sanc- burnt part along with it, or the eschar tioned by some of the most eminent separates when we are least upon our horse-dealers, as well as private gen- guard ; and under any one of these tlemen. What Christian heart can circumstances, the hemorrhage may bear to see an ignorant and unmer- prove fatal. ciful farrier take up his operating To conclude: Every scientific veteknife, and cut three or four dreadful rinary surgeon knows, that he can put gashes in the tail; to see him dress an almost immediate stop to the most the wounds with powdered rosin, spi- profuse hemorrhage by the applicarits of wine, and other stimulating tion of ligatures, or the different modisubstances; or to see him lap up the fications of compression. I am of mangled tail, still weltering in blood, opinion, that the painful operation of and fix it in the machine or pulley, firing is performed too often, and that where it is to remai powerfully sus- hundreds of horses are annually lamed pended for seven or eight days ? through the laziness of blacksmiths, Again,, might not the barbarous cus- who too often accommodate feet to tom of curtailing or docking the tails shoes, instead of shoes to the feet. of horses be dispensed with? In de- Were I to endeavour to enumerate priving them of their tails, do we not the sufferings of the brute creation, expose them to many inconveniences ? owing to the perversion of human and is it not violating the cause of nature, I should soon tire the most humanity, to rob them of the only serious readers, and should at last be appendage which nature has given obliged to relinquish the task, as one them as a security against the cease- of fathomless extent. If we examine less annoyance of insects, and to hide the domestic economy of an hundred those parts which she never intended families, we shall find that ninety of to be exposed ?

them suffer their children to make There are so many advocates for the poor inoffensive animals the subjects practice of curtailing, that I do not of their pastimes: thus their tender expect any thing I could say, would minds become inured to an inveterate be of much moment; but it is impos- habit of cruelty ; and by the continusible for any humane mind to tolerate ance of barbarous sovereignty, many the barbarous and very painful means children, who would have been valucommonly employed to stop the bleed- able members of society, had they ing from the vessels necessarily di- received a pious education, become vided in the operation. Instead of the professed enemies of every Chrisapplying a tourniquet to stop the flow tian virtue. of blood into the lower end of the

J. NUTTALL. principal artery, and removing the Handsworth Woodhouse, tail with a sharp knife, it is customary

8th Oct. 1822. to cut it off at one stroke with a kind of large shears, and to stop the hemorrbage by applying a red-hot searingiron. How much more rational, and exceedingly less painful, would it be, to secure the blood-vessels by tying

Samuel Taylor Coleridge. them with ligatures! Secondary he- The father of this ingenious, but ecmorrhage would then be effectually centric writer, a divine and prevented; excessive inflammation schoolmaster at Ottery St. Mary, in would seldom occur; and the cure Devonshire, where he died at the age would always be much more speedy of sixty-two, in 1782, when this, his and certain. In accidental wounds of youngest son, was only nine years superficial or even deep-seated vessels, old. Mr. Coleridge was a man of farriers almost universally apply ac- considerable abilities, an excellent tual or potential cauteries, which form instructor, and an exemplary parish an eschar of greater or less extent, priest; but having a large family of




thirteen children, and only a small collection to a man, whose severities, vicarage, he could leave behind him even now, not seldom furnish the but a scanty provision for their sup- dreams by which blind fancy would port. To lessen the burden, a pre- fain interpret to the mind the painful sentation was procured for the admis- sensations of distempered sleep; but sion of the subject of this sketch into neither lessen nor dim the deep sense Christ's Hospital, where he was placed of my moral and intellectual obligain the grammar school, at the same tions. He sent as to the university time that the present Dr. Middleton, excellent Latin and Greek scholars, Bishop of Calcutta, was in the first and tolerable Hebraists.

Yet our form. Coleridge made a rapid pro- classical knowledge was the least of gress in Latin and Greek, for which the good gifts which we derived from he often received laudatory expres- his zealous and conscientious tutorsions of kindness from Mr. Bowyer, age. He is now gone to his final the bead master, who was a perfect reward, full of years, and full of hoOrbilius, and, though friendly to poetic nours, even of those honours which composition, a bitter enemy to all were dearest to his heart, as gratefully extraneous ornament, and mythologic bestowed by that school, and still allusions. “When we were studying binding him to the interest of that the Greek tragic poets,” says Mr. school in wbich he had been himself Coleridge," he made us read Shak- educated, and to which, during his speare and Milton as lessons; and whole life, he was a dedicated bethey were the lessons too which re- ing.” quired most time and trouble to bring At the age of sixteen, Coleridge up, so as to escape his censure. I began to feel the poetic furor in learned from him that poetry, even earnest, by reading Bowles's Sonnets, that of the loftiest, and seemingly which he copied and imitated, more that of the wildest odes, had a logic to the satisfaction of his companions of its own, as severe as that of science, than of his good old schoolmaster, and more difficult, because more sub- who would fain have restrained his tle, more complex, and dependent on ardour, and drawn bim to more sober more fugitive causes. In our English pursuits. But our young student was compositions, for the last three years an enthusiast more ways than one; of our school education, he shewed and besides bis flights in the airy no mercy to phrase, metaphor, or regions of poesy, he ventured to image, unsupported by a sound senso, plunge into the depths of metaphysics or where the same sense might have and mysticism. Instead of storing been conveyed with equal force and his mind with facts and firm concludignity in plainer words. Lute, harp, sions, he busied his imagination with and lyre, muse and inspirations, Pe- attempting to penetrate the obscurigasus, Parnassus, and Hippocrene, ties of Behmenism, to discover the were all an abomination to him.' occult qualities of nature, and the “ There was one custom of our mas hidden springs by which the material ter's, which I cannot pass over in and spiritual worlds are connected. silence, because I think it worthy of This propensity to abstraction was imitation. He would often permit our attended with an itch for disputation, theme exercises, under some pretext always choosing those dark and doubtof want of time, to accumulate, till ful subjects, which the divine poet each lad bad four or five to be looked describes the fallen angels beguiling over. Then, placing the whole num- the eternal hours with, in their doleber abreast on his desk, he would ask ful state, yet.“ found no end, in wanthe writer why this or that sentence dering mazes lost.might not have found as appropriate A mind so unhinged, flitting and a place under this or that thesis ; and doubting between airy fanaticism and if no satisfactory answer was returned, gloomy scepticism, was ill prepared and two faults of the same kind were to endure academic discipline, and found in one exercise, the irrevocable the routine of scientific exercises, verdict followed; the exercise was necessary to be gone through prepatorn, and another, on the same sub- ratory to the taking a degree in the ject, ordered to be produced, in addi- University of Cambridge. Our an. tion to the tasks of the day. The reader thor was admitted a student of Jesos will, I trust, excuse this tribute of re- | College, in 1792, and he distinguished

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1097 Living Poets of Great Britain-Coleridge. 1098 himself there as a good Greek scholar, posing the whole in a more beautiful by some epigrams in that language, manner, purged from all dross, and which, if they did not procure him rendered incapable of being again any honour from Alma Mater, attract- made the instrument of mischievous ed the notice of Dr. Parr, who en- spirits. rolled the author among the Cantabri- Nothing but ignorance of human gian worthies, worthy of record in one nature could excuse this strange frenof his long tails to the long Spital zy, in minds warm with sensibility, sermon, preached by him at Christ and, as it should seem, in love with Church, in 1800. Mr. Coleridge was virtue. But it never struck them that destined by his friends for his father's man, in the social state, is the creaprofession, but the French revolution ture of discipline and habits, over marred their hopes; and he left the whom authority is necessary, not only University, with nothing but his ta- to keep him from doing injury to lents to rely upon, and the world others, but to train him in the path of before him "where to choose his place rectitude for his own happiness. The of rest.” Unfortunately, that place he first thing, however, which entered has never yet found; thus affording into the heads of our political perfecanother melancholy instance of genius tionists, was, the idea of carrying ronning to seed, for want of a proper civilization to the highest pitch of direction at the beginning, and of excellence, without laws or distincjudgment in its progress.

tions, the consequence of which would Previous to leaving Cambridge, our have been universal anarchy, unless young poet published an historic dra- the passions could have been eradima, as he called it, entitled “The cated. That, however, was imposFall of Robespierre,” which consisted sible, and so our author found it by in fact of nothing more than á versif- his own experience, for on going to eation of the most passionate speeches Bristol, to join Lovell and Southey in delivered in the National Convention. their pantisocratical scheme, he fell This piece, however, shewed the turn in love with one of the three Miss which Coleridge bad now taken, and Frickers, whose romantic spirits and that instead of pursuing the even and personal charms subjugated the triumprofitable course of study, necessary virate of reformers to such a degree, to qualify him for the sacred profes- that marriage ensued, and the ideal sion, he was immersed over head and republic vanished. ears in the stormy billows of revolu- During the residence of Mr. Coletionary politics.

ridge at Bristol, be delivered, in the That he was capable of better things, large room over the corn market, a appeared from a small collection of course of lectures, in which he ensonnets and other poems, which about forced with great energy, the necessity the same time he ventured to send into of revolutions, even in this country, the world, and which met with a more upon the basis of equal rights and favourable reception from the crities, community of property. Here, also, than his drama." Coleridge now quit: he published some political pamphlets, ted the University, to engage in the of a like tendency, and began a perimore than Herculean labour of purify- odical paper, called “ The Watching society from the corruptions of man,” the object of which was to rouse kingcraft and priestcraft, for such, in the people to active exertions in the the judgment of the New Lights, were restoration of liberty, and the estaall the existing political institutions in blishment of a perfect commonwealth. Earope, not excepting those of Eng- To promulgate these doctrines, and land. This was a bold project for a procure subscribers for the support of youth of one-and-twenty; but the his literary undertaking, he became times were out of joint, and every an itinerant lecturer on politics ; but unfledged stripling fancied himself though he met with many hearers in qualified, and even called upon, to public houses, who approved of bis turn legislator, to change fornis of principles, and bowed to him as an government, and to restore man to oracle, he found very few disposed to his primeval dignity. The moral contribute their mite towards the difworld was to be reduced to its ele- fusion of knowledge. This was rather ments, that the wisdom of these rege- hard, considering how liberally Dr. nerators might be displayed in recom. | Priestley had been aided at BirmingNo. 47.-Vol. IV.

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ham, where about four or five hun- stance coming to the knowledge of dred pounds a year were raised by the late Mr. Wedgewood, in Staffordsubscription, for a considerable pe- shire, he took our author under his riod, to defray the charges attending protection, settled on him a liberal his numerous publications in defence annuity, and sent him to Germany to of Unitarianism. Mr. Coleridge had acquire the language, and to complete no such good luck in the manufactur- those studies, which he had so indising districts through which he tra- creetly left unfinished, by quitting velled; and the members of his Cambridge to instruct the unenlight“Watchman,” instead of illuminating ened in the arcana of political philo the minds of the people by a wide cir- sophy. culation, were employed, as long as

During the stay of Mr. Coleridge they lasted, every morning in lighting abroad, his wife and children resided the author's own fire.

with Mr. Southey, at Keswick, where When the warning voice of this also Mrs. Lovell, who had been left a guardian of liberty ceased to be heard, widow in destitute circumstances, which was in the summer of 1796, our found an asylum. What was the end author found it expedient to seek a proposed by this course of proceeding retirement in an obscure village called on the part of Mr. Coleridge, we are Stowey, at the foot of the Quantock not told, but it does not appear to Hills, in Somersetsbire, where also have had any other good effect than Mr. Wordsworth had a cottage. A that of making him better acquainted congeniality of sentiment produced a with the living languages, which enfirm friendship, and the two poets be abled him to become secretary to Sir came inseparable; but being strangers Alexander Ball, on his being appointto the natives of the place where they ed Governor of Malta. This situaresided, and their conversation being tion, bowever, he did not long retain; above the ordinary level, they naturally and after visiting Rome, he returned enough excited much notice, and some to England, more enlarged in knowsuspicion. One person concluded ledge than improved in circumstanthey were either agents for the French ces. He now became a writer for the republic, or incendiaries connected newspapers, a translator of German with some conspiracy against govern- plays, and a lecturer on polite literament. These surmises were strength- ture at the Royal Institution. One of ened into conviction, by hearing Cole- the subjects discussed by him was ridge sometimes drop a word or two, Education; and baving considered at in discourse with his friend, on thé some length, the new system of Lanpolitics of the day. The man, in con- caster, when he came to the disciplisequence, who had formed his judg- narian part, in which one boy was ment of their character, resolved to made to act the part of a beadle or observe their movements; and often, executioner to another, the lecturer when they had no idea that any one threw the book down with vengeance was near, be listened behind them, in from the rostrum on the floor, exclaimtheir rambles on the hills, or along ing, “No boy who has been subject the sea shore. After watching them to punishments like these, will stand in this manner for some weeks, with-in fear of Newgate, or feel any out being discovered himself, or ga- horror at the thoughts of a slave thering any thing on which to ground ship!" an information, he very candidly ac- Mr. Coleridge next gave lectures at knowledged how he had been em- different places, upon poetic compoployed.

sition, and the plays of Shakspeare ; While in this secluded state, Mr. but the little interest which this speColeridge wrote several poems, and cies of entertainment was calculated some pieces for the periodical prints; to excite, soon subsided; whether but the remuneration was scanty, and from the want of novelty in the subject, his embarrassments increased so much, or of attraction in the manner of treatthat he left Somersetshire, and, as we ing it, we cannot take upon ourselves have been credibly informed, enlisted to determine. It is to be lamented, into a regiment of horse, quartered however, that a person so endowed at Reading; but the officers, on ascer- with native genius, and enriched by taining who he was, generously grant- acquired learning, should have been ed him his discharge. This circum- | driven to the necessity of making a

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