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of the external air, or by capillary ther the tubes were fixed from the root, attraction, as was formerly imagined, for instance, on the extremity of a branch, but by irritation from the stimulus of at the distance of 44 feet 3 inches, the light and beat, increased perhaps by higher the sap was raised, and the longer the motion of the sap itself, as it it continued to flow, perfectly agreeable ascends. The Doctor tried bis expe- to a common observation, that in wallriments chiefly on the vine, by cement- trees the most distant branches draw ing to its mutilated stump, glass hardest, and receive most nourishtubes, each seven feet long, and a quarter ment.
The oldest branches were of an inch diameter, with brass caps, by soonest affected by a change of temwhich they were screwed one above perature, and in them the sap first another, till they rose to the height of began to sink. On July 4th, whilst 36 feet. At other times he used in- in one Vine, which was planted in a fleeted tubes, cach with columns of pot, sap was rising, and a considermercury, to be put in motion by the able quantity was daily pressing ascending sap. In the former, the through the stem, to supply the evasap ran over; in the latter, the mer- poration from its leaves, which amountcurial gage stood at 38 inches, which ed to many ounces in the day; another he reckoned equal to the pressure of Vine, being cut off within three inches more than 43 feet of water. To one of the ground, was so far from emitting thriving branch, in a prime bleeding sap, that it imbibed water from the season, he fixed tubes to the height tube, at the rate of one foot per hour: of 25 feet, and in two hours the sap flowed thereby demonstrating, that the sap in over! By these gáges, it appeared, the former Vine rose by the stimulus 1st. That the såp began visibly to rise of light and heat, not by trusion from March 10th, when the thermometer by the root. day stood only at three degrees above “When the sap was flowing with the freezing point; 2dly. That April the greatest vigour, the stems did not 18th it was at its height and vigour ; dilate, as they evidently do by rain, which 3dly. That from that time to May 5th enters the PERSPIRING PORÉS. This the force gradually decreased ; 4thly. makes it clear, that the sap passes That it constantly rose fastest from through its proper vessels, and that it sunrise to about 9 or 10 in the morn- is confined by these. From all these ing, and then, unless the day was observations and experiments, is it cloudy, gradually subsided till about not clear, Ist. That the stimulating 5 or 6 o'clock in the afternoon, after powers are light and heat? 2d. That which it slowly rose again; but on a the irritability of plants is the greatest cool and cloudy day, it subsided only in spring, and least in autumn? and from about 12 o'clock to 2 in the after that being accumulated during the noon. If in the morning, while the night, it is exhausted, in some measap was rising, and a cold wind blew, sure, before the middle of the day? the son was clouded, the sap would By various experiments of Doctor immediately begin to sink at the rate of Hale's, compared with those of Docan inch per minute; but when the sun tor Ingenhouze, it is evident, that shone out, it rose again. Moisture and vegetables in summer, whilst they warmth made the sap most vigorous, enjoy the sun, are incessantly decommore especially after cold weather, caus- posing water, and emitting from their ing it to rise all day, although slowest leaves, oxygen, combined with caloabout noon. It rose likewise sooner ric, in the form of vital air. And it is in the morning after cool weather, clear, that as long as water is supplied than after hot days.
abundantly, they not only preserve “ In the beginning or middle of the their vigour, even at mid-day, with the season, if warm weather has made the most fervent heat, as in the south of sáp flow vigorously, that vigour would Spain, but make a rapid progress in be immediately much abated by cold their growth, and emit a proportioneasterly winds. When the tube was able quantity of vital air. May we fixed to a very short stump of a Vine, not infer from thence, that their irritawithout any lateral branches, and at bility depends on oxygen and heat; only seven inches from the ground; the and their vital energy, on a plentiful sap flowed incessantly, and fastest of supply of these reviving elements; all in the greatest heat of the day, whilst the hydrogen of the water not inking only after sun-set. The fur- only supplies the combustible part of
A Remarkable Speech.
vegetables, but, by depositing its | £1. 10s. at two years old, and the caloric, maintains the vital heat? That wool will more than pay all the exthe motion of the sap depends on irri- pensé of keeping.-Now, in this young tation, will be still more evident, if man you see a New South Wales we consider the effect produced by grazier. Hundreds more may choose insects ; for wherever they have depó- estates equally good, and stock them sited their eggs, the part begins to with equal advantage. swell.”
The roads from this part, across the Thus far Doctors Hales and Towns- mountains, are very bad ; and upon end.
their lofty summits there is no pastu. I think these truly curious extracts rage for cattle; in consequence of need no comment of mine, though I which, the traveller is obliged to concould confirm many parts of them from tinue his journey, instead of resting: observations in my own little garden. I only stopped about three hours in
R. G. P. the 120 miles, and that was at a conReading, 9th of the 10th Month, 1822. vict's bark-hut, very far removed from
the residence of any other human
being. I came to it at midnight; it Extract of a Letter from New South was very dark, and I was weary. The
Wales, (dated Parramatta, February men, however, who were road makers, 8th, 1822.)
fifteen in number, all got up. Some
watered my horse; others boiled the BATHURST, the little settlement which kettle, and made me some tea. They I visited, is 120 miles west of Parra. sat up all night, and piled their wool matta, and 15 more from Sydney: beds one upon another, that I might The country for inany miles round it lie upon them comfortably. They very much resembles, in its present knew not that they should get any natural state, the pastures of Wilt- remuneration, but seemed to act from shire, with this difference, that in the that generous spirit which inherits an neighbourhood of Batharst the beau- English breast. These poor convicts tiful plains are finely interspersed had no shirts, but woollen frocks and with tufts of trees, ever green. I was trowsers. They had food enough, but accompanied by a young man, who no wages. A mutilated copy of the New selected a piece of land which I had Testament composed their library. received from the crown, in common They earnestly requested me to send with others in this colony ; its dimen- them a copy of the whole Scriptures, sions were 600 acres. He fixed upon which of course I shall not omit. The a spot about 12 miles east of Bathurst; thermometer stands now in my study one side line was the Fish-river, upon at 110° in the shade; and in the sun the banks of which his farm runs 119o. The winds are hot from the nearly two miles; on the other side is west-we have an alarming drought. a beautiful hill, of gentle acclivity, with here and there a cluster of trees, not so thick as to destroy herbage, but
A REMARKABLE SPEECH. sufficiently so to afford a partial shade. About 400 acres of this land are fine MR. EDITOR. alluvial soil, without a single tree, Sir,—Mr. Cuff, Secretary to the Earl into which it is only necessary to put of Essex, was executed in the reign the plough, and a heavy crop of wheat of Queen Elizabeth for the same may be confidently expected. The offence which brought his master to whole has the appearance of an Eng- the block. At the place of execntion lish gentleman's lawn.
he made the following speech, which, The young owner put about 80 head if you think it worthy your notice, is of horned cattle to graze upon it, and at your service. 700 sheep, with three shepherds, and
W. J. R. Cá stockman; to maintain these men, Deptford, October, 19, 1822. £25 per annum each man is required. Next year he will probably have from “I AM here adjudged to die for acting 30 to 40 calves, each of which will be an act never plotted, for plotting a worth £10 at least, in three years; he plot never acted. Justice will have will also get more than 300 lambs next her course ; accusers must be heard ; year, each of which will be worth greatness must have the victory; No. 47.-VOL. IV.
scholars and martialists (though learn- That rose amid the lonely vale,
He mark'd the top of old Knock-boy; dogs, and be hanged. To mislike this For near it dwelt the lovely maid, were but folly; to dispute it, but time That first his youthful heart betray'd. lost; to alter it, is impossible; but to What though he heard that maid was dead, endure it, is manly; and to scorn it, is And hope had quite his bosom fled; magnanimity. The queen is displeas- Her image haunted still bis breast?
And now with toil and care opprested, the lawyers imperious, and death He call'å to mind the hazel bow'r, terrible; but I crave pardon of the He thought upon the raptur'd hour queen, forgive lawyers and the world, She met him on Glenocum's** side, desire to be forgiven, and welcome And pledg’d her soul to be his bride.
But woe betide the cruel morn death.”
That Donald from bis love was torn,
And forc'd in foreign climes to roam,
An exile from his native home :
The baseness of each sland'rous foe;
But still the scenes of early youth, Encyclopædia, &c. &c.
Would thrill with rapture through his soul,
And sorrow's deepest sigb control; The sun was set behind the bill,
As down the vale bis anxious eye And ev'ning came serene and still ;
The well-known cottage yet could spy, The flocks and herds were sunk to rest, Where dwelt, when he was forc'd away, Upon the distant mountain's breast;
His dearest friend and comrade gay.
So hast’ning down the mountain-side,
With weary steps he onward hied,
To gain the cot ere twilight gray The wildest bills that skirt the Braid.t
Woold yield to nigbt her milder sway. Far to the south, old Slemisht gray
Yet oft ihe robin's ev'ning song, Still caught the last faint smile of day;
He paus’d to hear the dells among; While eastward, Claggin's woody hills
And shepherd's whistle, far away, Pour'd forth a thousand crystal rills :
That echo'd wild o'er glen and brae. But Quila's|| mountains seem'd in view,
And now the mountain-burn he past, Clad with a vest of misty hue,
Where, with his friend, he parted last, * Knock-ramer-A hill lying north of Sle- And mark'd the spreading bawthorn tree, mish; from it to the glens, near Cushendall, Where many a childish sport had be. there is not a single house for the space of But when he reach'd the cottage door, several miles. About a century ago, a great How was he sank in deep despair,
And thought his toil and journey o'erbody of water barst from the n. e. side of this mountain, and the large furrows wbich it made To find no friend nor welcome there! are still visible, and go by the name of the
The lonely cot a wreck be found, Water Breaks.
And nought but silence reign'd around. + Braid-The most mountainous district in His gen'rous soul, to view the scene, the county of Antrim. The Grund-ridge, or Wa
Was pierc'd with anguish sharp and keed; tershed of the county, from which the waters For, O! he fear’d his friend was dead, flow eastward to the sea on the one side, and
Or forc'd to leave his native shed;
And doom'd in want and woe to stray, westward to Loughneagh and the Bann on the other, commences to the south of Devis, By carst oppression's lawless sway; near Belfast, and keeping pretty closely to the
Wasted with hunger, toil, and grief, eastern shore, extends to Knock-layde, near
And no kind hand to yield relief. Ballycastle; but in the Braid, the mountains Repining at his luckless lot, branch out into more irregular groups, and ex
He left the melancholy spot, hibit a more bleak and dreary appearance. And sought with faint but hasty stride The inhabitants, however, of this district, are
Knock-coghrum'stt well-known mountain side; a hospitable, well-informed class, greatly resembling the Scotch in their language and man- (Knock-boy-A bill lying above the village pers; and in the four towns of Skirry is a very of Broughshane, it signifies the Yellow hill. old respectable book club.
** Glenocum-A small stream, baving its #Slemish-Supposed to be the highest moun- source in the Quila mountains, and running tain in the county of Antrim, from which you past Tallymore-lodge, the seat of the Hon. have a fine view of Ailsu, and some of the Col. O'Neill, M.P. There is a small cascade Highland isles.
on this river, about three miles from its fall Claggan mountains were once beautifully into the Braid water. It is sometimes called fringed with woods, the haunt of the wild-cat, Artoaz, which signifies the water of the little martin, and fox.
hills. It is a beautiful romantic stream. Il Quila, or Coila, lies westward of Knock- Knock-coghram-A hill lying S. W. of
When, lo! in all her virgin charms,
Instant the lovers westward hied,
Resolved to rest, till dawning day
Now night her gloomy curtain spread
Bat scarcely did his eyelids close
With trembling voice, the maid replied,
He heard with wonder and surprise, And scarce believ'd his doubting eyes;
Luir, or Lure-A place near the Clagginbills, formerly a great haunt of foxes.
What gives to homeliness a charm,
Unfading bloom, resistless grace, Which Time improves, whose ruthless hand
Destroys the witchcraft of the face? A Temper even and benigo,
Sedate amidst the storms that rise On life's tempestaous sea,--serene
As ev’ning suns in cloudless skies. What adds to beauty's winning smiles?
What rivets beauty's pleasing chain ? What most attracts the good and wise ?
What will esteem and love obtain ?
Unruffled as the vernal air,
Good Temper makes the fair-more fair! It gives a fascinating grace,
When sets the sun of beauty's pow'r, As rising Cynthia's placid beam
Sheds lustre on the midnight hour.
TO THE SUN.-By John Gorton.
MONARCH of day, high sov'reign of the year,
roll, Proud of thy friendship, pleas'd t accept thy
favour, That with no niggard spirit is poor'd down
On them perpetually; how may I sing,
And when the sun shall just appear
May I behold, at eve or morn,
(Alone, neglected, and forlorn, trees,
Or catch theffalgence as it dies,
Leaving the concave of the skies
Wbile echoes answer back again
And gently rustles 'mong the trees,
And when the tear steals o'er bis cheek,
May I in consolation speak,
And feel his sorrow;
I envy not that meaner breast
Which cannot beal the inind distrest,
Nor can I ever think it best Oppression foul its goodly branches blasting.
Its throes to borrow.
When day departs, oh! may I roam,
At ev’ning close;
And hold sweet converse with the night,
Of dire repose.
Give me, when darkness clothes the sky,
Airy and light; “ La solitude est charmante.”-ANON.
And never may I close my eyes
Until my pray'r to beav'n shall rise, Give me contentment and a cot,
Then may I dream of yon blue skies, Plac'd in some solitary spot
To chase the night. From public gaze;
R. L. There let tbe ivy twine around, While flow'rets deck th' adjacent ground, And flocks and herds may there be found
LINES To low and graze.
On reading Mr. Bailey's publication, “The
Carnival of Death."
Rise, Genius! rise, proclaim the reign of In lowly quiet;
peace, Around the door may roses twine,
And bid war's horrors, murder, rapine, cease; And sweetest scented jessamine
Hurl false-nam'd glory from her soaring Their evanescent scents combine
throne, In nature riot.
And dash the warrior's trophied column down; There on a bench may I inhale
Blight on his gory brow the blood-stain'd The fragrance of the passing gale,
wreath, In contemplation;
Expose the fiends which haunt the field of
death Thus may I dream away my days, And fear not censure, court not praise,
To the world's execrating eye ;-unbind For in amusements such as these
The fetters which intbral th'immortal mind; Is consolation.
Drag from his lair ambition's monstrous mien,
Forbid the muse to pour her magic strain I'll quit my pillow,
Around th' eosanguin'd crest, and o'er the To hear the lark's sweet music rise,
plain In grateful cadence to the skies-I feast my longing eyes
“So sicken waning moons too near the sun." On yon green billow.