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Review Sermons by the late Rev. J. D. Thomas.


fiend” see,


Of battle, shed false-honour's dazzling rays, Stranger! should'st thou approach this awful Till youth's warm bosom pant for martial shrine, praise;

The merit of the honour'd dead to seek, But rather shew where mangled millions The friend, the son, the christian, the dihurl'd,

vine, By mad ambition, seek another world,

Let those who knew him, those who lov'd Reeking with blood; and let the “ War- him, speak. In dawning reason, his just destiny,

Oh! let them in some pause of anguish say

What zeal, what faith, enlarged his pious But hold-'tis done :--behold the theme di

breast; vine, Neglected long, in splendid beauty shine ;

How soon th' unfetier'd spirit wing'd its

way, See eloquence unmatch'd, sense, wit, con

From earth to heaven, from blessing to be spire,

In union sweet, to fan the poet's fire ;
By satire's point transpierc'd see folly lie;

This Monument
Long-cherish'd prejudice, in agony
Writbes with afflictive pangs; and, on her

Is erected by some intimate Friends

As a testimony of his worth, and their esteem. throne Reseated, reason claims to rule alone. Hail! son of song sublime !-long dear to fame,

Review.-Sermons by the late Rev. In her high dome shall shir Bailey's" John Deere Thomas, D. D. Rector And--meed more dear! tho' worth demands

of Kirby Misperion, Yorkshire, 2 no less,

vols. 8vo. pp. 378—396. London: Earth's suffering sons that noble* name shall

G. and W. Nichol, Palmall; and bless;

Rivington, St. Paul's Church Yard. For peace, obedient to his sov'reign voice, 1821. Spreads her wide wings, and bids a world re

joice; Night-mantled Ignorance, thy reign is o'er, These sermons, wbich are forty-one And “warring nations shall learn war no more.” | in number, are designed to illustrate Castle Donington.

AZIM.” and enforce some of the more impor

tant doctrines and precepts of the SONNET.

gospel; and in this attempt it is plea(On the spreading of the Messiah’s Kingdom.) sant to add, that the author has suc

cessfully employed his pen. Designed O rapt'rous thought! replete with blessed for the edification of those, and such ness !

as those, to whom they were first deMessiah shall be honour'd and obey'd livered, they contain no profound In ev'ry land. The government is laid researches, they display no critical On him alone, and all men shall confess

skill, aiming not so much to please His pow'r—the savage of the wilderness

the fancy, as to amend the heart. In Long held in thraldom by the galling chain Of horrid superstition, to his reign

these discourses, the author combats Shall gladly bow, and his mild sceptre bless.

with much force the prevailing opiWith him the multitudes that now profess

nion, that the light of nature is suffiThe lying prophet's faith, and those who own cient for all the purposes of moral The sway of him who fills the papal throne, renovation. On this subject he speaks Shall come--and all their countless hosts shall

as follows: press Into bis kingdom, and with one accord

“ But do men really believe the all suffiAcknowledge him as Universal Lord. ciency of the light and guidance of nature ?

SECTOR. And are they truly earnest in their pretensions

to morality? Does not daily experience but

too evidently shew the weakness and errors of EPITAPH

human reason? And where, we may ask, do (Written by Mrs. Hannah More) in Bristol they find so pare and perfect a morality as Cathedral, on the Rev. Samuel Love, M.A. that which the Gospel teaches ; where, built Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford, and Minor on so solid a basis, or recommended by such Canon of Bristol, who died October 18, powerful sanctions? 1773, ged 29.

“ The rules and precepts of the Gospel ex

tend to our very thoughts, as well as actions. WHEN worthless grandeur fills tb'embellish'd | There is not a sia or wickedness, however

secretly conceived, or lurking in the mind, No poignant grief attends the sable bier; but it developes and forbids. There is not a But when distinguish'd excellence we mouru virtue or a duty any way connected with the Deep is the sorrow, genuine the tear. glory of God or the welfare of mankind, but

it declares and inculcates. And all this, not as *" Sola nobilitat virtus."

merely by the feeble and uncertain light of


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pature, but as by the clear and decisive autho- “ I might adduce many more testimonies to rity of God himself; promoted and encouraged this purpose; but if there be any force in by the bright example of our blessed Lord, words, or any truth in an inspired writer, we and promised assistance of the Holy Spirit; plainly learn from these passages, that the and strengthened and enforced by positive Messiah was to be an humble and a suffering assurances of future and eternal reward or character. Accordingly we find, that the expunishment, when at the final judgment every piation and atonement for sin by the passion one sball receive according to that he hath and death of Christ, is the leading principle done, whether it be good or bad.'

that runs through the sacred writings; the “ In all these respects, Heathen knowledge favourite subject of the preachers of the Gosand morality were very defective. How de pel; and the great doctrine which forms the lusive and vain therefore to look to such strong basis of all our best hopes. Which guides ! how lamentable to see men preferably brings me, secondly, to observe, as was properuse even the best Heathen moralists, as if posed, the propriety and fitness of the Gospel it were a reproach to their understandings to doctrine of the redemption of sinners by a be found reading the Holy Scriptures! How crucified Saviour. perverse and absurd to slight and neglect reli- “ If we look into the several religions then gion and morals cultivated and improved by prevailing in the world, when our blessed revelation, and yet pretend to approve and Lord first appeared, we find sacrifices made follow both, by the weak assistance of the a principal part; which are an indubitable and light of nature, and the old moralists, espe- convincing evidence, that some other atonecially since, at the same time that they for- ment for sin was thought necessary, beside sake Jesus Christ, they incur the risk of losing repentance and amendment. Sacrifices were all the advantages, temporal and eternal, which the only standing means of salvation among his Gospel was intended to secure.

the Jews : nor were they wanting among the “ As for those hopes which they ground Heathens; whose philosophers, notwithstandupon God's gracious dealings with the good ing they placed litile or no confidence in the Heathens, of what use or avail is such a con- efficacy of sacrifices, acknowledged and lasideration to them? Observe their lives and mented the want of some certain means of conversations. Is their virtue greater than reconciliation with God. For as all men had their faith? Do they not act against the light sinned, all stood in need of pardon and forof nature, which they admire, as much as giveness. It was not possible that the blood against that of Revelation, which they de- of balls and goats could take away sin.' But spise ? And what if God should vouchsafe to how, or by what means, or by whom, pardon deal graciously with the virtuous Heathens, was obtainable, natural reason, in its utmost what encouragement is this to wicked Christ- improvements, could give no positive assuians, who moreover profess, or perhaps affect, rance; natural reason might suggest such quainfidelity under the light of the Gospel ? The lities, as should be proper and requisite in the good Heathens believed and acted according person who attempted this atonement. It to the light they had. God has now afforded might direct such holiness as to merit the a better, through Jesus Christ ; and yet they divine favour by a perfect obedience ; such wilfully refuse the greater, and choose the resignation as to undergo the punishment due less, act confidently against both, and still to sin; and sach exaltation as to stamp a value hope for eternal life.'”_vol. i. p. 269 to 271. upon his sufferings sufficient to satisfy the jus

tice of offended heaven. But these were quaOn the necessity and efficacy of an lities which no mere human being ever posatonement for sin, Dr. Thomas has sessed ; but all which, as the Gospel assures delivered his sentiments in a plain us, were found fully accomplished, and most and unequivocal manner. This he Christ. And therefore it is, he is set forth to infers from the dispensation of the

us as a redeemer; 'in whom we have redempJews, from the annunciations of pro- tion through his blood, for the forgiveness of phecy, and from the unambiguous sins ; that he came to give bis life a ransom declarations both of the Old Testa- for all ;'--' that he hath once suffered for sins, ment and the New. On this all im- that he might bring us unto God.' portant doctrine, by which the gospel of the New Testament, that one would think

“This is so evidently the doctrine and tenor is distinguished from a mere system no serious and unprejudiced inquirer could of ethics, the author uses the follow- have the smallest doubt upon the subject. It ing language:

is so familiar in the common instances of life,

that one person should undergo pains and “ He was also to keep the law, and to die hardships for the sake of others, and even the for sin.' This was prefigured by several typi- good to prevent the misery and promote the cal resemblances, and foretold by many clear welfare of the wicked, that though we could and express predictions. It was typified in not have expected, we may well believe the the elevation and effects of the brazen serpent, truth of the Apostle's declaration, 'while we and the sacrifice of the paschal lamb. It was were yet sinners, Christ died for us. We foretold, that he was wounded for our trans- see not indeed the exact reasons bow or why gressions, and bruised for our iniquities ;' that his death produces our salvation; neither "the cbastisement of our peace was upon him;' know many people how the steps taken by and that with his stripes we are healed their friends bave proved effectual for their that he was cut off from the land of the benefit; but we see daily, that from regard to living, and made his soul an offering for the services and intercessions of some, favours

have been done to others very wisely and


Review--Life of John Goodwin.

1126 justly, which else neither wisdom nor justice Review.—The Life of John Goodwin. would have permitted. Nor is there any difficalty with respect to the justice of laying the punishment of sinners upon an innocent per

( Concluded from col. 1056.) son, who submits to it freely and of his own accord; and where the party offended is will- Of the general character of Mr. ing to accept the commutation. And such Goodwin, a very accurate judgment was the sacrifice of the death of Christ, and may be formed by the different views such the acceptation of it by the Father.

Let men therefore be disposed to object in which Mr. Jackson has placed it, and cavil as they please ; men who never and the judicious extracts he has manifest more the vanity and folly of their un

made from his valuable works. He derstandings, than when they presumo to has thus made him his own biograarraign proceedings, no part of which can be pher. Considering the number, and reason as a standard for revelation, and resolve frequently the abusiveness, of his to believe nothing,

but what reason alone dic assailants, during the time of his chief tates or explains. Every true Christian, how- controversies, it is truly astonishing ever, will admire and adore God's infinite what meekness of wisdom appears in wisdom and goodness, in discovering such an expedient to reconcile his attributes of justice of a master visible, but all the sancti

all his replies. Not only is the band and mercy, and will acknowledge himself bound, in the strictest bonds of gratitude and fied dispositions of a Christian, mixed love, for so stapendous an instance of Christ's with such innocent playfulness of imatenderness and compassion, as to become so gination, and such truly classical ignominious but willing a sacrifice for us.' taste, as throw an irresistible charnı - vol. i. p. 182 to 187.

around the productions of his pen. But while the author lays down this Take as a specimen his reply to Mr. doctrine of the atonement as the meri- Walker, one of his bitterest antatorious cause of the sinner's accept-gonists: ance with God, he does not make void the law through faith. Several of his

"If Mr. Walker had an intent,' says he, sermons are exclusively devoted to 'to have gained ground upon me, or led me the cause of practical godliness, as method of his war. Five sober words, well

away in triumph, he was quite mistaken in the fruits and effects flowing from a lively balanced with reason and understanding, would faith in Christ, which, by these marks, have wounded me deeper than a thousand is proved to be genuine. In following crackers. If any man speaks reason, I am through its various ramifications this ready to tremhle and do him reverence. Thereimportant topic, Dr. T. conducts us quake, and whirlwinds, and fires, and sold

fore Mr. Walker might bave kept his earththrough the duties we owe to God, them for bagbears to scare children; his small and those also which we are bound still voice would soon bave laid me at his feet. to discharge towards our neighbours ; I dare not indeed deal with him at his own thus exhibiting in one view a system The yoke that Christ hath put about my neck;

I mean railing, however provoked. of morals, that is both luminous and

to keep me in compass this way, I dare not comprehensive. The accomplishment break nor cast from me : neither do I know of of this work, he ascribes to the divine any example in all the history of heaven, that agency; uniformly asserting, that“ it would bear me out in such a practice. And is God who worketh in us, both to therefore I here promise him, that in all my rewill and to do of his own good plea- nian, nor beretic, nor blasphemer, nor liar,

ply I will neither call him Socinian, nor Armisure.”

nor lying sophister, nor impudent fellow, or In volumes of sermons which are the like. may be I may now and then admiprofessedly for the edification of plain nister the infusion of some of these simples, and unlettered Christians, we have but will never give him the gross substance. frequently found the disgusting dog - to speak evil of me undeservedly, he will not

I hope that, having taken a liberty, in folio, mas of sect and party ; thus unhappily be a man of so hard a conscience, as not to giving sanction to a suspicion, that give me leave, in decimo sexto, to make merry such preachers would rather strength- with him. If he gives me gall and vinegar, en a party, than convert a soul. From and I requite him with pleasant wine, 1 trast

he shall have no cause, in the judgment of any this charge, the discourses before us

reasonable man, to complain. Though I canare pleasingly free. Utility seems to not meet with any faithful servant of God, in have been the primary object of the all that long road that lieth between Genesis author; and we are persuaded, that the first and the first, and Revelation the last those who peruse what he has written and the last, in a reviling posture ; (but only with an eye to solid improvement, Belial ;) yet I find that holy prophet Elijah in

Shimeis, Rabshakehs, and such like sons of will not find that they have spent pleasant discourse with the sleepy Baal, and their time in vain.

his zealous and slashing priests." And David, we know, had many troubles, trials, difficul- behalf, nor with that love which I owe to yourties, dangers, pressures, Doegs, Abitbophels, self as a Christian brother, to suffer such a sin tongues as sharp as razors, and that cut like to rest apon you. I delight not in contests. swords, upon hiin from time to time, yet be I am for peace with all men, and for a quiet contrived all into matter of music and song, and retired pilgrimage on earth. So that and played them off upon his barp:– The great whensoever I contend with any man, I sacriGod, by whom I must be judged, as well con- fice the darling disposition of my soul upon the cerning my carriage in this business, as the service of the truth. Nor shall any man apother acts of my life, knoweth that I stand prove bimself more easy to be entreated, upon clear and free in my spirit to the man, notwith- any equitable or tolerable account, or more standing bis seven-fold provocation, wishing willing to receive satisfaction from him that him no more evil than I do to myself, and am bath offended bim, than I. Therefore, Sir, I ready at an hour, upon the acknowledgment beseech you, trouble not yourself either with of his oversight, to give him the right hand of seeking out, or pretending to find, any other fellowsbip.'"-pp. 36–38.

intent of this address to you, than as a simple, These sentiments were the product self to vindicate the just right of the dearly

plain-hearted, and christian application of myof such a sweetness of temper, as only beloved of my soul, and I trust of your's also, the grace of God could inspire, in the truth. midst of unmerited and unmerciful "• You reflected upon the author of tbat provocation.

Of this the following book' which so torments those that dwell on quotation is beautifully illustrative, the face of the earth, as if he falsified, wrested, in a reply to Dr. Hill, Master of Tri- if it be comely to call a spade a spade, is a

perverted authors : the very trath is, that this, nity College, Cambridge, one of the pare calumny. The authors cited in the said assembly of divines, a frequent book, at least the far greater part of them, preacher before the long parliaments, speak as directly to the heart of the main docand a zealous advocate of the Calvin- trines maintained in the book, as the author of istic doctrines. This divine having man, able to prove the least touch of any falsi

the book himself. Nor are you, nor any other been appointed to preach at St. Paul's fying or perverting any author broughi apon Church, before the Lord Mayor and that stage. If there be any thing mistaken, (as Aldermen of the city of London, he mistakes may be incident to the most apright availed himself of the opportunity of men,) in any quotation, this only proves the then afforded, to caution bis civic author to be a man, not a falsifier. There is

nothing asserted in the said book, especially auditory against the volume of Mr. in the two main doctrines there contended for, Goodwin, entitled, “ Redemption Re- but what, for substance and effect of matter, is deemed," as a work replete with the plainly affirmed over and over, not only by the errors of Pelagius and Arminius. In most orthodox Fathers, Chrysostom, Angusaddition to this, he cast some severe

tine, &c. but by the most orthodox writers of

later times, as Latber, Calvin, Muscalus, and reflections upon Mr. Goodwin's cha- others. Yea yourselves, the preachers of this racter, and charged him with having age, however by times you appear in flames falsified the numerous quotations con against them, yet otherwbile, and sometimes tained in his book. In his admirable in one and the same sermon, you give testireply, Mr. Goodwin says:

mony unto them. There is sufficient proof

made, page 561 of the book decried by you, Sir, you are a gentleman, to wbom I ne- that a jury of fifty-two preachers, and among ver, to the best of my knowledge, gave the these such as are counted pillars in and about least offence. If unwittingly

. I have done it, I the city of London, in the same pamphlet am ready to make you all Christian satisfaction. wherein, as they pretend, they give Testimony For your learning and knowledge, according to the Truth of Jesus Christ, against Errors to what grounds I had to make an estimate of and Heresies,' do clearly build up the princithem, I proportionably honoured you; and pal doctrine avouched in the said book, Genemuch more because I always conceived you ral Redemption by Christ. Yea yourself, in chiefly employed them about that most honour- this very sermon, wherein you set yourself able work of propagating the glorious Gospel with all the might of your indignation against of God in the world. That testimony also it, gave the right hand of fellowship to it, in which, time after time, I received concerning granting, that had Judas believed, he should your goodness of spirit, blamelessness of con- have been saved by Christ. See (I desire it versation, &c. much advanced my esteem of rather to your satisfaction than shame) the you. Notwithstanding, had you poured shame doctrine of General Redemption demonstraand contempt upon my head alone, had you tively proved from such a position as this, p. ground to powder only me and my name, you 113, &c. and p. 135, &c. of that truth-teachmight have done it without trouble or incon- ing book so often hinted. The Synod of Dort venience to yourself; at least from me. Such itself acknowledgeth, that .If Redemption be millers in black clothing I meet with daily, not acknowledged as a common benefit beand let them pass quietly by me. But inas- stowed on mankind, that general and promismuch as you have magnified yourself against cuous preaching of the Gospel, committed to the truth, yea, several of the most important the apostles to be perfornied among all natruths of the living God, it will neither stand tions, will have no true foundation.' Therewith that loyalty of obedience which I owe to fore wbilst you clamour against General Rethe command of God imposed on me in that demption, you not only cry down the glory of 1129

Review-Life of John Goodwin.


the upsearchable riches of the free grace of way of answer to those who represent my preGod, vouchsafed in Christ to the world, sent judgment as little valuable, because it but also fight your best friends, as well as sometimes stood in a contrary way. Though those whom you traduce under tbe name of I know nothing in the allegation subservient to Pelagians, Arminians, &c.; liveries of like the purpose mentioned, but rather much cloth which the servants of truth have been against it

, yet let me say, (1.) That however compelled to wear in all ages. Yea, in your sin and an evil conversation are just matter of inconsiderate contests, you act as men divided shame, repentance and amendment are truly against yourselves; and your sayings, like the honourable. Nor do I know why it should be children of Ammon and Moab, when they of any more a disparaging interpretation came forth to battle against Judab and Jehosh- against any man, to reform his jądgment than aphat, help to destroy one another.

his lise; neither of wbich can be done without " "If I knew how to relieve those truths of a change. Nor (2.) can I resent any such conGod, which you desperately affronted, with formity with mỳ adored Saviour, which conout making a breach upon your reputation, I sists in an increase of wisdom, any matter of should freely pass by mine own interest, and disparagement either to myself or any other demand nothing of you for personal repara

man. Though He indeed was never prevented tions; although I believe that you bardly with error, yet was he post-enriched with know how to provoke at a much higher rate, many things. A man can hardly 'grow in than you practised provocation upon me: an- grace, and in the knowledge of Jesus Christ less haply that be some allay, that you were our Lord,' without out-growing himself in ravished by some other man's spirit, far worse judgment and understanding; without making than your own, into such a splenetic ecstasy. straight many things in his mind, which were For Dr. Hill bath formerly worn the crown of crooked before. (3.) That chosen vessel Paul a meek, temperate, and christian spirit. But never quitted himself like a man, never conwe read that Moses, the meekest man on sulted peace and glory to himself, till he built earth, was, at the waters of strife, provoked up again that faith which be bad destroyed. to speak upadvisedly with his lips; and I, Nor was his authority in the Gospel a whit with many others, believe, that Dr. Hill was lighter upon the balance, because he had once overshadowed with the spirit of some lion or

been a Pharisee. (4.) I desire to ask the men other, (which probably I could point at among

who make the change of my judgment a spot the herd,) when he conceived those · devour of weakness or vileness in it, 'Whether theming words' whereof he was delivered in the selves were always in the same mind touching pulpit, May 4th, 1651. The ground of my all things with themselves at present? If so, conjecture is, partly because that which was it plainly argues, that their thoughts and apborn of him here, had so little of his own like- prehensions, now that they are men, are but ness in it; partly because it had so much of such which are incident to children. And if, the likeness of another man. But concerning since their coming to riper years, they have myself, the best is, that neither you nor always stood, and are resolved always to others can value me at any lower rate than I stand, by their first thoughts and apprehendo myself. You trod but upon the earth, when sions in all things, it is a sign that their judgyou trampled me under your feet. If you ments reside more in their wills, than their pursue me to the grave, you cannot hinder my wills in their judgments, and that they are resurrection ; the day whereof will be time much more likely to judge according to appearenough for me to become any thing.'”.

"-pp. ance, than to judge righteous judgment. Yea, 252255.

there are very few of those who call them

selves Ministers of the Gospel, but many Nothing, however, seems to have times when they preach, within the compass produced greater exasperation on the of an hour, either change their judgments or part of his Predestinarian brethren, deny them; their doctrine being Samaritan, than the decisive and avowed change broken cisterns with the forsaking of the

when their application is a Jew. (5.) If to dig of his opinions from Calvinistic ortho- Fountain of living water, be the committing of doxy, to those of general redemption, a double evil, how shall not a recoursing to as luminously stated and defended in the Fountain of living water, in conjunction his great and immortal work, “Re- with a forsaking of broken cisterns, be the demption Redeemed.” Little other practising of a double daty? To forsake an resource appears to have been left to other : whereas to persist in the same mind,

error is one duty, and to embrace truth is anhis opponents, unable as they were

suppose it to be sound and good, is but a sinto produce any thing like a refutation gle duty. There is joy in heaven over one of Mr. Goodwin's argumenis, than to sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety endeavour to invalidate his book, by which is an occasion of multiplied rejoicing in

and nine which need no repentance. That invidious representations of its au- heaven, why should it be matter of complaint, thor's instability and tergiversation charge, or imputation, upon earth ? (6.) He is To this we are indebted for one of the most likely to give a right judgment bethe most masterly touches of his pen, tween two countries, who hath been an inhabi. in vindication of his conduct.

tant of both, and hath acquainted himself with

the respective conditions of both. In like "• I crave leave,' says he, 'to add a few manner, it is so far from being a reason why a words concerniug the change of my judgment man's present judgment should be rejecterl, in the great controversy about the Death of that he hath been of a contrary judgment for Christ, (with the rest depending hereon,) by merly, that it repdereth it the more considerNo. 47.-Vol. IV.

4 C

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