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1193 Catharina Alexowna, Empress of Russia. 1194 ed her in the maxims and duties of thankfulness was hardly greater than religion. Nature had furnished her her surprise, when she instantly recolnot only with a ready, but a solid turn lected in her deliverer, the son of the of thought; not only with a strong, Lutheran minister, her former instrucbut a right understanding. Such truly tor, benefactor, and friend. excellent female accomplishments pro- This was a happy interview for Cacured her several solicitations of mar-tharina. The little stock of money she riage from the peasants of the country; had brought from home was by this but their offers were refused, for she time quite exhausted, and her clothes loved her mother too tenderly to think were gone piece by piece, in order to of a separation.

satisfy those who had entertained her Catharina was seventeen when her in their houses. Her generous counmother died ; she now therefore left tryman, therefore, parted with what her cottage, and went to live with the he could spare, to buy her clothes, furLutheran minister, by whom she had nished her with a horse, and gave her been instructed from her childhood. letters of recommendation to M. Gluck, In his house she resided in quality of a faithful friend of his father's, and governess to his children; at once superintendant of Marienburgh. reconciling in her character unerring Our beautiful stranger had only to prudence with surprising vivacity. appear, to be well received. She was

The old man, who regarded her as immediately admitted into the superone of his own children, had her in- intendant's family, as governess to his structed in dancing and music, by two daughters ; and, though but ninethose masters who attended the rest teen, shewed herself capable of inof the family ; thus she continued to structing her sex not only in virtue improve until he died, by which cir- but politeness. Such was her good cumstance she was once more reduced sense and beauty, that her master to her pristine poverty. The country himself in a short time offered her his of Livonia was at this time wasted by hand, which to his great surprise she war, and lay in a most miserable state thought proper to refuse. Actuated of desolation. Those calamities are by a principle of gratitude, she was ever most heavy upon the poor; where- resolved to marry her deliverer only, fore Catharina, though possessed of even though he had lost an arm, and so many accomplishments, experi- was otherwise disfigured by wounds enced all the miseries of hopeless indi- in the service. gence. Provisions becoming every In order to prevent further solicita. day more scarce, and her private pro- tions from others, as soon as the offiperty being entirely exhausted, she cer came to town upon duty, she resolved at last to travel to Marien- offered him her person, which he acburgh, a city of greater plenty. cepted with transport, and their nup

With her scanty wardrobe, packed tials were solemnized as usual. But up in a wallet, she set out on her all the lines of her fortune were to be journey on foot. She was to walk striking : the very day on which they through a region miserable by nature, were married, the Russians laid siege and rendered still more hideous by the to Marienburgh; the unbappy soldier Swedes and Russians, who, as each had no time to enjoy the well-earned bappened to become masters, plun- pleasures of matrimony; he was called dered it at discretion; but hunger had off before consummation, to an attack, taught her to despise the dangers and from which he was never after seen to fatigues of the way.

return. In the mean time, the siege One evening, upon her journey, as went on with fury, aggravated on one she had entered a cottage by the way- side by obstinacy, on the other by side to take up her lodgings for the revenge. This war between the two night, she was insulted by two Swed- northern powers was truly barbarous ; ish soldiers, who insisted upon quali- the innocent peasant and the harmless fying her, as they termed it, to follow virgin often shared the fate of the solthe camp. They might probably have dier in arms. Marienburgh was taken terminated their insults with violence, by assault, and such was the fury of bad not a subaltern officer, acciden- the assailants, that not only the gartally passing by, come in to her assist- rison, but almost all the inhabitants,

Upon his appearing, the sol- men, women, and children, were put diers immediately desisted; but her to the sword; at length, when the No. 48.- Vol. IV.

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carnage was pretty well over, Catha- bial felicity. By the most upwearied rina was found hid in an oven.

assiduity, and unremitting attention, She had been hitherto poor, but by the softness and complacency of still was free; she was now to conform her disposition, and by an extraordito her hard fate, and learn what it was nary liveliness and gaiety of temper, to be a slave: in this situation, how- Catharina acquired such a wonderful ever, she behaved with piety and hu- ascendency over the mind of Peter, mility, and though misfortunes bad that she seemed necessary not only to abated her vivacity, yet she was bis comfort, but even to his very existcheerful. The fame of her merit and tence. She was his jnseparable comresignation reached even Prince Men- panion on his journeys, and even in zikoff, the Russian General; he de- all bis military expeditions. Gordon, sired to see her, and, struck with her who had frequent opportunities of seebeauty, bought her from the soldier ing her, and being in her company, her master, and placed her under the says, " The great reason why the Czar direction of his own sister. Here she was so fond of her, was her exceeding was treated with all the respect which good temper; she was never seen peeher merit deserved, while her beauty vish, nor out of humour." every day improved with her good

Good humour will prevail, fortune.

When airs, and flights, and screams, and She had not long been in this situa- scolding fail. tion, when Peter the Great paying Beauties in vain their pretty eyes may roll; the Prince a visit, Catharina bappened Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the


Pope. to come in with some dry fruits, which she served round with peculiar mo- The Empress ever after retained desty. The mighty monarch saw, and those great qualities which first placed was struck with her beauty. He re- her on a throne: and while the extraturned the next day, called for the ordinary Prince, her husband, labourbeautiful slave, asked her several ques-ed for the reformation of his male subtions, and found her understanding jects, she studied in her tarn the more perfect than her person.

improvement of her own sex. She He had been forced, when young, to altered their dresses, introduced mixed marry from motives of interest, he assemblies, and instituted an order of was now resolved to marry pursuant female knighthood: and at length, to his inclinations. He immediately when she had greatly filled all the stainquired the history of the fair Livo- tions of empress, friend, wife, and nian, who was now about twenty. He mother, she died, regretted by all, on traced her through the vale of obscu- the 17th May, 1727. rity, through all the vicissitudes of her

S. fortune, and found her truly great Ptymouth, 9th November, 1822. in them all. The meanness of her birth was no obstruction to his design; their nuptials were soleninized in pri- A COMPARISON OF CIRCUMSTANCES, BY vate at Jawerof, in Poland, May 29,

A PIOUS CHRISTIAN, IN COMM 1711. And on the 20th February following, the marriage was publicly celebrated with great pomp and splen

“Let us compare our own prosperous dour, at St. Petersburgh; the Prince state with the afflicted condition of assuring his courtiers that virtue alone others. Such a dark and mournful was the properest ladder to a throne.

contrast must throw additional brightWe now

see Catharina, from the ness, even upon the brightest scene.low mud-walled cottage, Empress of Above, the skies smile with serenity; one of the greatest kingdoms upon below, the fields look gay with plenty; earth. The poor solitary wanderer is all around, the sportive gales now surrounded by thousands, who Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense find happiness in her smile. She who Native perfumes ; and whisper, whence they formerly wanted a meal, is now capa- Those balmy spoils.

stole ble of diffusing plenty upon whole na

MILTON. tions. To her fortune she owed part “ With us, all circumstances are as of this pre-eminence, but to her vir- easy as the wafture of a boat, as smooth

as the flow of the stream. But let us She soon became a pattern of connu- not forget those grievous calamities



TUES more.

grass, and


Antiquities of the Ward of Bishopsgate. 1198 which befall our brethren in some re- | I am withered like


bones mote tracts of the earth, or distant are burned as an hearth. I go hence, like parts of the ocean. How many sailors the shadow that declineth; while health, are struggling, vainly struggling, with that staple blessing, which gives every all the fury of rending winds and dash- entertainment its flavour, confers ing waves, while their vessel, flung to beauty on all we see and on all we and fro by tempestuous billows, is taste. mounted into the clouds, or plunged “We are blest with a calm possession into the abyss. Possibly, the misera- of ourselves, with tranquillity in our ble crew hear their knell sounded in consciences, and an habitual harmony the shattered mast, and see destruc- in our temper; whereas, many in the tion entering at the bursting planks; dark and doleful cells of lunacy, are this very moment they pour the last gnashing their teeth or wringing their dismal shriek, and sink, irrecoverably hands, rending the air with sallies of sink, in the overwhelming surge. horrid execrations, or burdening it

“ The traveller in Africa's barren with peals of disconsolate sighs. And wastes, sees hidden mountains rise Oh! what multitudes, even amidst and roll on every side. He sees the courts and palaces, are held in splensultry desart ascending the sky, and did vassalage by their own domineersweeping before the whirlwind. Wbat ing passions, or the vanities of a can he do? whither fly? how escape bewitching world. Far less innothe approaching ruin? Alas! while he cently, far more deplorably disorattempts to rally his thoughts, at- dered than the fettered madman, they tempts to devise some feeble expedi- are gnawed by the envenomed tooth of ent, he is overtaken by the choking envy, they are agitated by the wild storm, and suffocated amidst the sallies of ambition, or feel the maligsandy inundation. The driving heaps pant ulcer of jealousy rankling in their are now his executioner, as the drifted breasts. In some, avarice, like a heaps will soon be his tomb.

ravening harpy, gripes. In some, re“While we possess the valuable venge, like an implacable fury, rages; privileges and taste the delicious while others are goaded by lordly and sweets of liberty, how many partakers imperious lusts of impure delight, and of our common nature are condemned left at last to the most venomous stings to perpetual exile, or chained to the of bitter remorse.” oar for life! How many are immured

S. W. R. in the gloom of dungeons, or buried in the caverns of mines, never to behold the all-enlivening sun again. ANTIQUITIES OF THE WARD OF BISHOPSWhile respect waits upon our persons,

GATE, IN THE CITY OF LONDON. and reputation attends our characters, are there not some unhappy creatures BishopsAte ward is bounded on the led forth by the hand of vindictive jus- east by Aldgate ward, on the west by tice, to be spectacles of horror, and Broad-street ward, and on the south monuments of vengeance,

by Langbourn ward. It is very large,

and divided into Bishopsgate Within, • To waste eternal days in woe and pain.'

and Bishopsgate Without. The first While ease and pleasure, in sweet contains all that part of the ward withconjunction, smooth our paths and in the city ward and gate, and is disoften our couch, how many are toss- vided into five precincts; the second ing on the fever's fiery bed, or toiling lies without the wall, and is divided along affliction's thorny road. Some into four precincts. under the excruciating, but necessary

It took its name from the gate, operations of surgery; their bodies which has been pulled down to make ripped open with a dreadful incision, that part of the city more airy and to search for the torturing stone; or commodious. The first gate was built their limbs amputated, to prevent the by Erkenwald, then Bishop of London, mortification's fatal spread. Some, in 675, and was repaired by William emaciated by pining sickness, are de- the Conqueror, soon after the Norman prived of all their animal vigour, and conquest. In the time of Henry III. Transformed into spectres, even before the Hanse merchants had certain their dissolution. They are ready to privileges confirmed to them, in return adopt the complaint of the psalmist, for which they were to support this


gate; and in consequence of this im- gothic building, with a bow window manity, they rebuilt it elegantly in on one side; the roof is timber, and 1479. There were two statues of much to be admired. At present, this Bishops, in memory of the founder and magnificent room is occupied by a first repairer. In 1551, the company packer. of Hanse merchants prepared mate

The Marine Society next claims our rials for rebuilding this gate; but that notice. This excellent establishment corporation being dissolved, the work commenced in 1756, and was incorpowas stopped, and it continued in a rated in 1772. Its object is to fit out bad state till 1731, when it was taken landsmen volunteers, to serve as seadown, and rebuilt at the expense of men on board the king's ships, in the city, but was not finished until time of war; and for equipping dis1735. In 1761 it was finally pulled | tressed boys to serve at sea at all down, and the materials were sold. times. The number of men and boys The ward contains three parish church- the society has clothed during the late es, viz. St. Botolph, (of which an ac- war, is upwards of 24,700. On the count may be found in the Imperial same side of the street is Devonshire Magazine, col. 552, vol. iii.) St. Ethel- Square. The Earls of Devonshire bad buga, and St. Helen's.

a town-house near the street, which St. Ethelbuga church, which is situ- was called after their name. Queen ate on the east side of Bishopsgate- Elizabeth lodged in it, in one of her street Within, owes its appellation to visits to the city. Nearly opposite, St. Ethelbaga, the first Christian prin- on the other side of the street, stands cess of the kingdom of the East Sax- the White Hart Tavern, bearing the

It contains nothing of much date of the year 1480. I consider the note. It is a rectory in the gift of the above, from its antiquity, must have Bishop of London; and is known to been part of the inn for the entertainhave been a parish before the year ment of strangers, as was customary 1366.

in those times. Passing a few houses St. Helen's church, dedicated to St. on the north, we reach the London Helen, the mother of Constantine Work house. This is a large and the Great, is a vicarage in the gift of commodious building, for the recepthe Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's tion, employment, and relief, of the Cathedral. This church was founded indigent and helpless. Formerly, the originally before the year 1180, and at parishes paid one shilling per week the dissolution of the contiguous pri- for each child, besides the usual asory of Black Nuns, A. D. 1539, was sessment; but in 1751, the governors enlarged by removing the intervening came to a resolution, that no more partition. Among the monuments in children, paid for by the parishes, this church, there is one to the me- should in future be received; but only mory of Sir Francis Bancroft, who such children should be taken into the founded a school and almishouse at house, as were committed by the city Mile End, to which the Company of magistrates, found begging or pilferDrapers are trustees. By his will, he ing on th quays, or lying about in appointed them to attend once a year glass houses, or uninhabited dwellat his monument in this church, to ings. They are dressed in russet receive him at his return to life; but, cloth. When they arrive at a proper notwithstanding their punctual confor- age, the boys are apprenticed to trade mity to his desire, he has hitherto or navigation; and the girls placed in made them wait and call in vain. service. The badge of the institution

Not far from St. Helen's Church has the following motto: “God's prostands Crosbie Hall. The house vidence is our inheritance." When known by the name of Crosbie House, the city gates were pulled down in was a magnificent structure, built by 1761, the debtors in Ludgate, citizens Sir John Crosbie, Sheriff in 1470, on of London, were removed to a part of the ground leased to him by Alice this house, till the building of Giltspur Ashfield, Prioress of St. Helen's. In Compter was completed. this house, Richard, Duke of Glouces- Nearly adjoining, stands a public ter, lodged, after he had conveyed house, of a curious construction, his nephews to the Tower. The hall, which, though now degraded from its called Richard the Third's Chapel, is original destination, was once the restill very entire. It is a beautiful sidence of Sir Paul Pindar, who was

Geological Discovery.

1202 ambassador nine years to the Ottoman | is it possible to suppose that it was Porte, in the reign of James the First. accidentally ignited in the earth by He died in 1650, at the age of eighty- latent heat, for in that case it must four, and was interred in the vault of have totally consumed both itself and St. Botolph's Church.

the stratum of coal over which it The ward officers are as follows: lies.

Sir R. C. Glynn, Bart. Alderman. 3dly. That coal has been a deposit 14 Common Councilmen.

left by some dreadful inundation since 2 Ward Clerks.

man came into existence, and that its 2 Ward Beadles.

stratification has been formed by a There are three charity schools, and succession of tides; and not in the many other benevolent associations.

ages of ages prior to the formation of

S. Burgess. man, as Werner, Boyd, and Macnab, Oct. 27th, 1822.

have supposed.

4thly. It is also probable, that this

catastrophe was sudden and unexGEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY.

pected. And how strikingly does this

accord with sacred history: “They MR. EDITOR.

were marrying and giving in marriage SIR,--You will oblige a certain class until the day that Noah entered into of your readers by giving publicity to the ark.” The terrific ravages of this the following discovery :-On the 16th flood are every where visible, unless instant, on examining a mine of coal, at the tops of the primitive rocks. Its called the Knowles-Coal, at the Fen- dreadfally destructive power must be ton Park Colliery, in the Stafford- inferred, not only from innumerable shire Potteries, 60 yards below the sur- remains of fossil animals, quadrupeds, face of the earth, I discovered a stra- and fishes, but from the vast forests tum of charcoal, from two to three of wood that were torn up by the roots, inches thick, running as a regular and left on calmer shores as the walayer over the stratum of coal. This ters subsided, an immense treasure charcoal was fossilated, and mixed, for future ages. apparently, with zinc or copper. It 5thly. The charcoal occupying the is in a fine state of preservation. All uppermost stratum in the deposit, is the fibrous parts of the wood are as very naturally accounted for, from its perfect as if only charred yesterday. specific gravity. Being lighter than They are apparently alluvial deposits green wood, it would necessarily of various sizes, laid together disor- have the uppermost place on the derly, the fibrous parts crossing each waters. other at right angles. The wood has 6thly. Its concretion with the copa been of different kinds, as some is per, I can only suppose to have taken soft, and goes to ashes by exposure to place from the turbid waters holding the atmosphere ; but for the most part in solution a portion of that mineral it appears to have been oak. It has By the actual study of nature, and a the sonorous effect of charcoal on the careful attention to facts of this kind, ear, but in its concretion, its nature we shall gain more satisfactory knowappears to be partially changed to ledge, than by all the theories that copper.

have amused the inquiring mind. It Now, Sir, I have several remarks is a well-known fact, that charcoal is to make on this important subject, for one of the most indestructible subimportant I think it is, both to the stances with which we are acquainted. interests of Christianity and science. Fragments of it bave been taken up

1st. This fossil charcoal appears to from the long lost cities, Pompeii and have been an alluvial deposit, left by Herculaneum, as fresh, perfect, and the retiring waves on the surface of the in as high a state of preservation, as stratum of vegetable matter, that is if burned yesterday. the basis of our coal.

I am not acquainted with any emi2dly. I infer that this charcoal was nent geologists in this country, other realy burned by the agency of man. wise I would have submitted this pheFor it has not been discovered that the nomenon to their more mature judgmost sagacious brute has ever known ment, ere I had made this communithe use of fire, nor could ever be train- cation. Those of your

numerous ed to kindle or manage one. Neither readers who bave made geology their

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