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130 one present. His body was after- contrary to each other. belong to the wards privately deposited in the fami- sun, and are equally proper to it? ly vault at Greenwich Church ; and a He is forced to reply negatively, and superb national monument, at the ex- to confess that one alone is true, propense of four thousand guineas, erected per, and particular; to wit, the anto his memory in Westminster Abbey. nual; the other belonging to the Tears will flow for a man who gained primum mobile in twenty-four hours, sach laurels, who added such lustre to &c. contrary, as it were, to the mothe British arms. He who lives for tions of the planets it impels. himself will soon be forgotten, but he • 3dly, I ask him which of the mowhose existence has been solely spent tions produces the day and night? He in forwarding the wishes and promot-is forced to reply, that of the primum ing the best interests of his fellow-mobile ; and that on the sun depend countrymen, can, with confidence, the different seasons, and the entire expect immortality as his reward.
“Now, if the day depends not on
the motion of the sun, but on this REPLY TO A QUERY.
primum mobile, who does not see that,
to prolong the day, it is necessary to MR. EDITOR. SIR,- In the first volume of the Impe- stop the primum mobile, and not the
sun? Who, therefore, with a knowrial Magazine, col. 1072, is a query by ledge of these simple elements of “R. C.” respecting the sun standing astronomy, does not also know, that still, &c. as mentioned in the book of if God had stopped the motion of the Joshua, chap. x. As no answer has been inserted in your Magazine on the sun, instead of prolonging the day,
he would have contracted it, and made subject, I have transcribed the enclos; it shorter? For this reason-that the ed letter of Galileo Galilei; should motion of the sun being contrary to you think any part of it will throw the diurnal conversion,
the more the light upon the query of R. C. you are ať liberty to insert so much as may much the more would it tend to retard
sun should move towards the east, so be applicable to the query.
the motion in its course towards the J. S.
west ; and thus, the sun's motion be
ing diminished or annulled, it would “I admit and concede to the adver- proportionably, in a shorter space, sary for the present, that the words of reach the occident; an accident which the sacred text are to be taken in the is certainly seen to happen to the express sense in which they are moon, which makes her diurnal concouched, namely, that God, at the versions later than those of the sun, intercession of Joshua, caused the sun in proportion as her proper movement to stand still, and prolonged the day, is swifter than that of the sun. It beso as to enable him to gain the victory; ing, therefore, absolutely impossible, but, requiring also for myself, that agreeably to the constitution of Aristhe same determination shall be valid totle and Ptolemy, to stop the motion for me, as if the adversary had not of the sun, and prolong the day, as presumed to bind, but to leave free, the scriptures affirm to have happened, as to the power of changing, the sig- it is necessary that the movements nifications of the words,-I say, that should not be ordered as Ptolemy will this passage manifestly shows us the hare them to be, or it is necessary to falsity and impossibility of the mun- change the sense of the words, and to dane system of Aristotle and Ptolemy, say that, when the scriptures proand, on the other hand, is fitly adapt- nounce that God stayed the sun, they ed to the Copernican.
mean to say that he stayed the primum “ 1st, I demand of the adversary if mobile ; but that, accommodating he knows how many motions the sun themselves to the capacity of those, has? If he knows this, he is forced who are but ill adapted to understand to reply that it has two motions, the rising or setting of the sun, they namely, the annual motion from the declare the contrary of that, wbich west to the east, and the diurnal from they would have said, in addressing the east to the west. Hence,
themselves to intelligent persons. 2dly, I ask him if these two mo- • It is not credible, let me here add, tions, thus diverse, and, as it were, I that God would have stopped the sun
alone, leaving the other spheres to services, beseeching the Lord to run on, seeing that this would, with grant you his blessing and all feliout any necessity, have altered and city. disturbed the whole order, the aspects, Your most reverend Paternity's and the dispositions of the other con
“ Affectionate servant, stellations, respectively to the sun,
GALILEO GALILEI," and would have greatly deranged the “ Florence, Dec. 21, 1613.” entire course of nature ; but it is credible that he would have stopped the whole of the system of the celestial MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OF spheres, which, after the interposition of this time of repose, would have returned concordantly to their ope- ( Continued from vol. iii. col. 1185.) rations without any confusion or change.
For this interesting account of the “ But, because we have already trial and execution of Jerome of agreed not to alter the import of the Prague, it is evident that Poggio was words of the text, it is necessary to affected with a generous compassion recur to the other constitution of the for the unfortunate reformer; and, parts of the universe, and to see if, notwithstanding his expressions of conformably to that, the naked sense disavowal of such sentiments, it is of the words will be rightly and with also evident that he disapproved of out clashing, such as to accord per- the cruelty which had been exercised fectly with what they manifest to have towards him. The tone of his friend's happened.
mind did not escape the discernment “I having, therefore, made appa- of Leonardo, who, alarmed for the rent, and necessarily demonstrated, safety of his correspondent, deemed that the globe of the sun revolves on it expedient to administer to him a itself, making an entire conversion in little wholesome admonition: “I higha lunar month, or thereabout, express- ly approve (he writes in a letter to ly in the direction in which all the Poggio) the elegance of your epistle other celestial conversions are made; on the subject of Jerome's exeo ion. and it being beside highly probable You seem, however, to attribute to and reasonable, that the sun, as the him more merit than I could wish you largest instrument of nature, and as had done. Though you have taken it were the heart of the universe, the precaution to disclaim the impushould not only give, as it manifestly tation, I cannot but think that you does, light, but likewise motion, to manifest too much of a kind of zeal all the planets which revolve around in his behalf; I therefore advise you it; if, in conformity to the position of to write more cautiously on such subCopernicus, we grant the earth to jects."'* In this admonition Leonardo move, at the least with a diurnal mo- manifests a knowledge of the world, tion, who does not see that, to stop and a deep acquaintance with the the whole of the system, without in- temper of the times. But the letter ducing any change whatever in the of Poggio, which drew down this remainder of the mutual revolutions reproof, evinces higher and much of the planets, to the end that the more estimable qualities—an honour"space and time of the diurnal illumi-able sense of justice, and the lively nation should alone be prolonged, it feelings of humanity. suffices that the sun should be made to Though the compassion thus evinstand still, as the words of the sacred ced by Poggio in favour of a beretic text expressly imply.
drew down upon him the animadverThis, then, is the mode, agreea- sion of his friend, he maintained himbly to which, without introducing any self in the good opinion of Leonardo, confusion into the parts of the uni- and obtained his unqualified commenverse, and without any alteration of dation by a discovery which he made the words of the scriptures, the entire about this time of copies of the works day may be lengthened by making the of several antient writers, which had sun to stand still.
hitherto been sought in vain by the “ I have written more than my learned. These he found lying neginfirmities would well allow; and conclude by tendering to you my * Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. iv. ep. 9.
134 lected and forgotten in an under- eloquence, that methinks all the naground apartment in the monastery of tions of Italy ought to unite to receive St. Gallen, near Constance. On this him with due honours, when, after event he was congratulated by Leo- having liberated him from the long nardo in the following enthusiastic and severe imprisonment to which he terms.
has been doomed by barbarians, you I have seen the letter which you send him to his native country: I lately addressed to our friend Niccolo wonder that you and your associates concerning your late journey, and did not instantly set about transcribyour discovery of several ancient ma- ing him, and that you preferred benuscripts. In my opinion the republic ginning by making copies of authors of letters bas to rejoice, not only on of less note. As to Quintilian, his the acquisition of the works with works are those which the learned which you have just enriched it, but desire with an anxiety, exceeded onalso on the hopes which you entertain ly by those, with which they seek for of recovering others. It is very glo- the lost treatise of Cicero de Repubrious for you to have thus been able, licâ. I must request that you will not by dint of care and labour, to present lose your time in copying writings to our age these precious writings, which are already known. Rather which have hitherto escaped the re- make diligent search for those which searches of the learned. Your gene- we still want, and especially the works rous enterprise entitles you to the of Cicero and Varro. gratitude, not only of your contempo
(To be concluded in our next.) raries, but also of succeeding scho- * Leonardi Aret. Epistolæ, lib. iv. ep. 5. lars. The memory of your services will be eternal. In the most distant times the friends of letters will re- ON THE PROBABILITY OF ABOLISHING member with gratitude that you were the preserver and the editor of works, the loss of which they had so long In considering the question of the indeplored. As Camillus was regarded expediency of war, and the possibility as the second founder of Rome, be- of preventing its recurrence, it seems cause he rebuilt it; so you ought to necessary first to inquire into the nabe considered as the new author of all ture of the causes which occasion it; the writings which your happy efforts for, till these can be ascertained, it have procured for the literary world. would be hopeless to expect a reI earnestly exhort you not to relax in medy. the pursuit of your noble resolution. If we look through creation, we Be not discouraged by the expense. shall find that man is not the only beI will furnish you with the requisite ing that destroys its own species. funds.
The same circumstance occurs in every “I must tell you that your researches department of animated nature.-We are more advantageous than you are see that quadrupeds, birds, fishes, and aware of. They have procured for us insects, wage war, not only with the a complete Quintilian. We now pos- rest of creation, but in many cases sess entire, a work, of which we hi- with each other. Man has, therefore, therto bad only a sadly mutilated half. this disposition in common with his What a rich treasure! What unex- fellow tenants of the earth. Even the pected good fortune! Shall I, then, sports of young animals are often an behold entire that Quintilian, whose imitation of warfare, and this, in work, even in its imperfect state, was | maturity, frequently arises to the most to me an inexhaustible source of en- | vindictive ferocity. Hence, an argujoyment? I conjure you, my dear ment has been raised in favour of a Poggio, send me the manuscript of state of general hostility, and war has the Institutions as soon as possible, been vindicated in the abstract, as that I may see it before I die. As to consistent with the ends of our being, the writings of Asconius and Flaccus, and if it were not suffered as unavoidtheir discovery gives me pleasure, able, to be sought for as a sort of pothough neither of these writers has sitive good: enriched the Latin language with new Those who have relied upon this beauties. But Quintilian is so accom- argument, have, however, omitted plished a master of rhetoric and of lone consideration, of some moment
in the decision of the question.-share this vindictive and destructive They should have recollected, that feeling with some of the lowest ranks the lower classes of creation are di- of his fellow beings. rected by instinct, and that their Now it is, again, extremely humihabits are, therefore, unchangeable ; liating to us, to reflect, that even in whereas the natural propensities of those cases where animals attack their mankind are under the control of own species, it is seldom excited by reason and moral feeling. This is the the voracious appetite. Nature has great distinction and prerogative of implanted a horror against such a man: and wbilst it segregates him practice. It is only amongst mankind, from the rest of the creation, demon- where the abuse of reason has degradstrates that he is an improvable, and ed the natural feelings, that such a therefore an accountable being. debasing conduct has been resorted
As the disposition to war, is, how-to. If there be exceptions, they are ever, common to mankind and other to be found amongst the shoals of the animals, it is probable that the mo- ocean, some of which destroy with intives by which they are actuated may discriminate voracity all that fall in be, in some respects, similar. Let their way. us, therefore, inquire what are the The non-existence of a disposition principal causes that induce the infe- wantonly to destroy each other, prerior races of animals to make war vents, also, the disposition in the infeupon and destroy each other.
rior animals to attack one another, lest That awful, but indispensable and they themselves should be destroyed. salutary law of animal creation, by -Conscious, as it were, of no hostiwhich one race of beings is supported lity, they fear none; but either assoby the destruction of another, is not, ciate for their natural support, or now, the object of our inquiry. prowl for their separate subsistence.
If it were, the appetites and dispo- It seems to be man alone who dreads sitions, the weapons and the powers, his own likeness,—who sees in his of some races, contrasted with the fellow-man his worst enemy,, who, prolific nature, the weakness, the on meeting another in a desolate situterrors, and precautions of others, ation, hesitates whether he shall hold would sufficiently demonstrate the will out to him the hand of fellowship, or of providence in this respect.-By deprive him of life, and decides acthis alone, a considerable portion of cording to the circumstances in which animated nature is suffered to exist. they are placed. By this, its strength and vigour are That animosity that does not in gecontinually renovated and supported. neral exist amongst brute animals, What would be the state of the world, may, however, be excited by various if every animated being drew its sub- causes ; and of these, none is more sistence immediately from the earth? powerful than the passion of the What would be its appearance, if sexes.
Hence this vindictive propenevery creature were to perish by age sity does not attach to animals that or disease? The earth would be a de- pair. In these instances, the species solation and a charnel house.
are not only peaceable, but gregariBut it is to the propensity which na- ous. It is only where the intercourse ture has implanted in some animals to of the sexes is promiscuous, that this destroy their own species, that our in- disposition is found. When the male quiries are directed ; and it is ex- is competent to a number of females, tremely remarkable, that this propen- he regards another male with jealousy, sity is so far from being general, that as an intruder on his pleasures. The it is confined, comparatively, to a few cock, the bull, the stag, and even the species only, and these not of the ram, will bear no rival; and if they most fierce and savage tribes. It has meet, the contest can only be termilong ago been remarked, that neither nated by death. the Lion nor the Wild-Boar, the Ti. We are so imperfectly acquainted ger nor the Bear, devour each other; with the nature of the bee, that we
are at a loss to ascertain, with preci
sion, the cause of that dreadful haJuv. Sat. xv.
vock which frequently occurs in their
communities, and which certainly reAnd mankind must be contented to sembles the contests of the human
138 race, more than those of any other propensities of our nature;—the immeclass of beings. Armed by nature diate one, in attributing to others with poisoned daggers,- fierce, vin- those feelings and designs, of which dictive, and careless of death,—they we are conscious in ourselves. We lie strewed on the ground like the he-conceive ourselves to be in daily and roes of Jemappe or Waterloo, and hourly danger of destruction, or of would, if possible, destroy each other injury from others, and we, therefore, to the very last individual.
daily and hourly seek to injure or de“ Animasque in vulnere ponunt.”
stroy them, in order to secure our
selves against their machinations. VIRGIL.
Every man is to himself the centre of It has been supposed that these creation; the rest revolves about bim, effects have been occasioned by a kind and he considers it only as it endanof political animosity, as to the mode gers his welfare, or contributes to his of their government, or the person of happiness. An Italian gentleman, we their sovereign ; a conjecture which, if believe a professor of Humanity and well founded, would assimilate them the Belles Lettres,” on being asked still nearer, in point of disposition whether he would not lay down his and intellect, with the human race. life to secure the eternal liappiness of
Such, however, seem to be the prin- all mankind, replied, somewhat out cipal motives by which the lower of character, but with great sincerity, classes of animals are stimulated to “I would not give this little finger to hostilities against the individuals of save all mankind from eternal pertheir own species ; and these, with dition.” various modifications, may also be Here then we seem, not only to ranked amongst the leading causes of have given way to those natural indissension in the human race. Un- stincts of selfish gratification, which happily, bowever, in addition to these we possess in common with other aniprimitive causes, there are various mals, but to have carried them to an passions and appetites peculiar to excess, of which the other races of mankind, which multiply them to an being are incapable; so that this incalculable extent.
disposition, if persevered in, would The preservation of existence might revive the fable of Cadmus, and depobe accomplished, and the individuals pulate the earth. But here an associof the buman race, being assured of ation with them ceases, the tyranny of their personal safety, might be pre- the passions gives way, and the empire sumed to live on terms of amity with of reason begins. each other ; but man consults, not only No sooner do we raise ourselves his being, but his well-being, and above the immediate gratifications of this, he conceives, is not always to be sense and passion, than we feel ouracquired but at the expense, and by selves transformed into different bethe humiliation, of another. He is ings. The selfish principle is restrainno sooner furnished with the necessa-ed and counteracted, not only by varies of life, than he begins to thirst rious natural and social attachments, for its superfluities, and its luxuries. but by considerations of reason and He is no sooner released from the do- prudence, by the dictates of philosominion and tyranny of another, than phy, which opens the way to higher he begins to domineer and tyrannize views, and by the precepts of religion, over others himself. Pride, ambition, which direct us to the true end of our the love of fame, and of pleasure in being. all her forms, continually prompt him By these the selfish feelings natural to action ; and as he is conscious to to man are not only checked and mohimself, not only of these feelings, dified, but frequently suppressed and but of the sacrifices he would make of extinguished ; and in proportion as the happiness of others for their grati- this takes place, he rises in the rank fication, so he reasonably and justly and scale of existence. attributes the same principles and The affections of kindred, and the feelings to those around him, and thus charities of domestic life, are as powerevery individual of mankind becomes ful as the selfish principle itself-the his rival and his enemy.
first-fruits of that abundant harvest of Hence, the remote cause of war, benevolence and generosity, which exists in the instinctive and selfish, the human bosom is capable of proNo. 37.-Vol. IV.