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ducing. But the sympathies of the the power that is wanting to bind mind are not limited by the connec-them, should commonwealths and tions of blood; they extend them- sovereigns also be exempted from selves in attachments of kindness and those laws of reason and right confriendship to those who, we conceive, duct, in their relations with other entertain a similar feeling towards us. states, and their duty of abstaining As these attachments increase, our from bloodshed and aggression, which affections become more enlarged.-On are found to influence and govern infinding that others can dismiss their dividuals and bodies of men in civil selfish propensities, we begin to tram- society ? Shall we say, because such ple on them ourselves ; and not only laws are not acknowledged by them, discard suspicions, but open our and can no where be quoted on precehearts to higher enjoyments, and dent, that they do not actually exist, purer pleasures. The extent to which that they are not in the eye of God this may be carried, is unlimited. and nature equally bound by them,Having experienced the excellence, and that princes and potentates, in the affection, and generosity, of many in- commission of wars and tyrannies dividuals, we begin to acquire a high- from the throne, are not as responsier opinion of, and a greater regard ble as the beggar or the peasant, who for, the rest of mankind, and we feel commits a petty theft, or a trespass a desire to promote their happiness, on his landlord's field? Are not the even at the diminution or the expense laws of both equally well defined, of our own.
though not equally well enforced ? Ali Powerful, however, as these natu- laws are only a definition of the rules ral sympathies and rational motives of common sense, humanity, and right are, it is not to them alone that the reason, impressed by the power and operation of the selfish principle can goodness of the Almighty on all his be safely entrusted; so various and works. True law is only the definition uncertain is their influence, so depen- of the will of God, as revealed in the dent upon the peculiarities of charac- reason, conscience, and humanity, of ter and circumstances, that to leave it his creatures ; the violation of which, in the power of individuals to judge by despotism, by wars, and by public for themselves, would, in fact, be and private aggressions, is a crime nothing less than to subject the weak amenable no less to the court of God, to the powerful, and to make the only than to that of man, in the violation of law that of the strongest. The per- whose rights, they deface or degrade ception of this truth united mankind the image of the Creator in which he in society ; without which, they must was made. The contrary doctrine is have lived in a state of perpetual war- both irreligious and ill-founded: and fare. Thus the weak and the power- if the great mass of regulations and ful were equalized, and man was no treaties which forms the law of namore allowed, for his own gratifica- tions were abolished, that law would tion, arbitrarily to encroach on the still exist. The regulations of society rights of another.
do not create, they only define laws, The regulations thus presented were which are either right or wrong acsanctioned and enforced by penalties cording to the accuracy of such defiand privations, the infliction of which nition. And we are inclined to bewere intrusted into the hands of dele- lieve, from the tenor of some passages gated powers;
of indivi- and allegorical allusions in scripture, duals became those of society, and that our Saviour and his apostles, in private injuries and revenge were a comprehensive and general way, weighed in the balance of justice, and intended by very forcible figures to their retribution administered by the demonstrate to their hearers, the laws. If individuals, tribes, and so- savage and disgraceful predicament, cieties, formerly independent of each in which governments stand in regard other, have derived advantages from to each other, and the necessity of such associations; advantages of still submitting themselves to a common greater importance must be derived law-the great law of love, and setfrom a general adoption of the same tling their differences by a prescribed system, and the subjection of force to and rational mode, before they could reason upon a still more extended be considered as civilized. scale. For what reason, except it be (To be concluded in our next.)
THE PROPHET OF THE ALLEG HANY.
fostering cares of thy people, and
weathered the stormy career of their In the year 1798, one of the mission- pernicions friendship.” Thus saying, aries to the Indians of the north-west, the tall chief darted into the wood, and was on his way from the Tuscarora the good missionary pursued his way settlement to the Senecas. Journey with pious resolution. ing in pious meditation through the He preached the only true divinity, forest, a majestic Indian darted from and placed before the eyes of the wonits recesses, and arrested his progress. dering savages the beauty of holiness, His hair was somewhat changed with the sufferings of the Redeemer, and age, and his face marked with the the sublime glories of the Christian deep furrows of time; but his eye heaven. He allured them with the expressed all the fiery vivacity of hope of everlasting bliss, and alarmed youthful passion, and his step was them with denunciations of an eternity that of a warrior in the vigour of man- of misery and despair. The awehood.
struck Indians, roused by these accu“ White man of the ocean,* whither mulated motives, many of them adoptwanderest thou?" said the Indian. ed the precepts of the missionary so “I am travelling,” replied the meek far as they could comprehend them; disciple of peace, “ towards the dwell- and, in the course of eighteen months, ings of thy brethren, to teach them the their devotion became rational, reknowledge of the only true God, and gular, and apparently permanent. to lead them to peace and happiness.” All at once, however, the little “To peace and happiness!” answered church, in which the good man was the tall chief, while his eye flashed wont to pen his fold, became deserted. fire-“Behold the blessings that fol- No votary came, as usual, to listen low the footsteps of the white man! with decent reverence to the pure docwherever he comes, the nations of the trines which they were there accustomwoodlands fade from the eye like the ed to hear; and only a few solitary mists of morning. Once, over the wide idlers were seen of a Sunday morning forest of the surrounding world, our lounging about, and casting a wistful, people roamed in peace and freedom, yet fearful, look at their little peacenor ever dreamed of greater happiness ful and now silent mansion. than to hunt the beaver, the bear, and The missionary sought them out, the wild deer. From the farthest ex- | inquired into the cause of this mystremity of the great deep came the terious desertion, and told then of the white man, armed with thunder and bitterness of hereafter, to those, who, lightning, and weapons still more per having once known, abandoned the nicious. In war, he hunted us like religion of the only true God. The wild beasts; in peaee, he destroyed us poor Indians shook their heads, and by deadly liquors, or yet more deadly informed him that the Great Spirit frauds. Yet a few moons had passed was angry at their apostasy, and had away, and whole nations of invincible sent a prophet from the summit of the warriors, and of hunters, that fearless Alleghany mountain, to warn them swept the forest and the mountain, against the admission of new docperished, vainly opposing their tri-trines ; that there was to be a great umphant invaders; or quietly dwin- meeting of the old men soon, and that dled into slaves and drunkards, and the prophet would there deliver to the their names withered from the earth. people the message with which he was Retire, dangerous man, leave us all intrusted. The zealous missionary we yet have left, our savage virtues determined to be present, and to conand our gods; and do not, in the vain front the impostor, who was known attempt to cultivate a rude and barren by the appellation of the Prophet of soil, pluck up the few thrifty plants of the Alleghany.. He accordingly obnative growth, that have survived the tained permission from the chiefs to
appear at the council, and to reply to The Indians at first imagined that the white the charges that might be brought men originally sprung from the sea, and that forward. The 12th day of June, 1802, they invaded their country because they had
was the time fixed for the decision of none of their own. They sometimes call them this solemn question, "Whether the and this name is still often applied, contemp- belief of their forefathers, or that of tuously, by the savages of the north-west. the white men, was the true religion ?".
The usual council-house not being | mighty ocean, your fathers were wont large enough to contain so great an to enjoy all the luxuriant delights of assemblage of people, they met in a the deep; now you are exiles in valley, about eight miles to the west- swamps or on barren hills, and these ward of the Seneca Lake. This valley wretched possessions you enjoy by the was then embowered under lofty precarious tenure of the white man's trees; it is surrounded on almost will. The shrill cry of revelry or war every side with high rugged hills, no more is heard on the majestic and through it meanders a small shores of the Hudson, or the sweet river.
banks of the silver Mohawk. There It was a scene to call forth every encr- where the Indian lived and died free gy of the human heart. On a smooth as the air he breathed, and chased the level, near the bank of the slow panther and the deer from morn till stream, under the shade of a large evening-even there the Christian elm, sat the chief men of the tribes.- slave cultivates the soil in undisturbed Around the circle which they formed, possession; and, as he whistles behind was gathered a crowd of wondering his plough, turns up the sacred resavages, who, with eager looks, seem- mains of your buried ancestors. Have ed to demand the true God at the ye not heard at evening, and somehands of their wise men. In the mid- times in the dead of night, those dle of the circle sat the aged and mournful and melodious sounds that travel-worn missionary. A few grey steal through the deep valleys, or hairs wandered over his brow, his along the mountain sides, like the song hands were crossed on his bosom, of echo? These are the wailings of and, as he cast his hope-beaming eye those spirits, whose bones have been to heaven, he seemed to be calling, turned up by the sacrilegious labours with pious fervour, upon the God of of the white men, and left to the mertruth, to vindicate his own eternal cy of the rain and the tempest. They word by the mouth of his servant. call upon you to avenge them—they
For more than half an hour there adjure you by every motive that can was silence in the valley, save the rouse the hearts of the brave, to wake whispering of the trees in the south from your long sleep, and, by returnwind, and the indistinct murmuring ing to these invaders of the grave the of the river. Then all at once a sound long arrears of vengeance, restore of astonishment passed through the again the tired and wandering spirits crowd, and the Prophet of the Alleg- to their blissful paradise far beyond hany was seen descending one of the the blue hills.* high hills: with furious and frenzied " These are the blessings you owe to step he entered the circle, and, wav- the Christians. They have driven ing his hand in token of silence, the your fathers from their ancient inherimissionary saw, with wonder, the tance-they have destroyed them with same tall chief, who, four years be- the sword and poisonous liquorsfore, had crossed him in the Tusca- they have dug up their bones, and rora forest. The same panther skin there left them to bleach in the wind hung over his shoulder, the same toma-1-and now they aim at completing hawk quivered in his hand, and the your wrongs, and insuring your desame fiery and malignant spirit burn-struction, by cheating you into the beed in his red eye. He addressed the lief of that divinity, whose very preawe-struck Indians, and the valley rung cepts they plead in justification of all with his iron voice.
the miseries they have heaped upon “ Red men of the woods, hear what your race. the Great Spirit says to the children “ Hear me, o deluded people, for who have forsaken him !
the last time !-If you persist in de6. Through thc wide regions that serting my altars, if still you are deterwere once the inheritance of my peo- mined to listen, with fatal credulity, ple, and where for ages they roved as to the strange pernicious doctrines of free as the wild winds, resounds the axe of the white men. The paths of your forefathers are polluted by their *“ The answering voices heard from the
caves and hollows, which the Latins call echo, steps, and your hunting fields are
they (the Indians) suppose to be the wailings every day wrested from you by their of souls wandering through these places.” arts. Once on the shores of the
these Christian usurpers—if you are gospel; he painted in glowing and unalterably devoted to your new gods fervid colours the filial piety, the paand new customs--if you will be the tience, the sufferings of the Redeemer, friends of the white man, and the fol- and how he perished on the cross for lowers of his God-my wrath shall the sins of the whole human race : follow you. I will dart my arrows of and, finally, he touched, with enerforked lightning among your towns, getic brevity, on the unbounded merand send the warring tempests of win- cies of the Great Being, who thus ter to devour you. Ye shall become gave his only begotten Son a sacribloated with intemperance, your num- fice for the redemption of bers shall dwindle away until but a kind. few wretched slaves survive, and these When he had concluded this part of shall be driven deeper and deeper the subject, he proceeded to place into the wild, there to associate with before his now attentive auditors, the the dastard beasts of the forest, who advantages of civilization, of learnonce fled before the mighty hunters of ing, science, and a regular system of your tribe. The spirits of your fathers laws and morality. He contrasted the shall curse you from the shores of that wild Indian, roaming the desert in happy island in the great lake, where savage independence, now revelling they enjoy an everlasting season of in the blood of enemies, and in his hanting, and chase the wild deer with turn the victim of their insatiable vendogs swifter than the wind. Lastly, geance, with the peaceful citizen, enI swear, by the lightning, the thun-joying all the comforts of cultivated der, and the tempest, that in the space life in this happy land, and only of sixty moons, of all the Senecas, bounded in his indulgencies by those not one of yourselves or your pos- salutary restraints which contribute terity shall remain on the face of the as well to his own happiness, as that earth.”
of society at large. He described the The Prophet ended his message, husbandman enjoying, in the bosom which was delivered with the wild of his family, a peaceful independence, eloquence of real or fancied inspira- undisturbed by apprehensions of midtion, and all at once the crowd seemed night surprise, plunder, and assassito be agitated with a savage sentiment nation; and he finished by a solemn of indignation against the good mis- appeal to heaven, that his sole motive sionary. One of the fiercest broke for coming among them was the love through the circle of old men to dis- of the Creator and of his creatures. patch him, but was restrained by their As the good missionary closed his authority.
appeal, Red Jacket, a Seneca chief of When this sudden feeling had some great authority, and the most eloquent what subsided, the mild and benevo- of all his nation, rose, and enforced lent apostle obtained permission to the exhortations of the venerable speak in behalf of him who had sent preacher. He repeated his leading him. Never have I seen more arguments, and, with an eloquence touching pathetic figure than this good truly astonishing in one like him,
He seemed past sixty-his pleaded the cause of religion and figure tall, yet bending-his face mild, humanity. The ancient council then pale, and highly intellectual and deliberated for nearly the space of two over his forehead, which yet displayed hours; after which the oldest man its blue veins, were scattered, at soli- arose, and solemnly pronounced the tary distances, a few grey hairs. result of their conference, “ That the Though his voice was clear, and his Christian God was more wise, just, action vigorous, yet there was that in beneficent, and powerful, than the his looks, which seemed to say his Great Spirit; and that the missionary pilgrimage was soon to close for who delivered his precepts, ought to
be cherished as their best benefacWith pious fervour, he described to tor their guide to future happihis audience the glory, power, and ness. beneficence, of the Creator of the When this decision was pronounced whole universe ; he told them of the by the venerable old man, and acquipure delights of the Christian heaven, esced in by the people, the rage of the and of the never-ending tortures of Prophet of Alleghany became terrible. those who rejected the precepts of the He started from the ground, seized
his tomahawk, and, denouncing the lamentably true, that the evils arising speedy vengeance of the Great Spirit out of a state of society are almost ali on their whole recreant race, darted the creation of man's perversity of from the circle with wild impetuosity, will, and are rendered so numerous and disappeared in the shadows of by the neglect of that noble maxim, the forest.
"Do unto all men as ye would they should do unto you.” If a fault is
committed, it is viewed in a thousand ESSAYS, MORAL AND LITERARY. lights, and magnified in a thousand
ways; it is scattered far and wide; No. 1.-On the Forgiveness of Injuries. and, although the inadvertency be,
perhaps, small in reality, it becomes “ To err is human, to forgive divine.---Pope. a by-word for the wicked to mock at, There is something in a forgiving and the hypocritical to rejoice in. temper so noble and endearing, that Well migbt that sweet-soul'd poet, it alike commands our reverence and who himself experienced no small our love. We almost consider it, portion of such treatment, say, when contrasted with the usual acts of
“ Man's inhumanity to man men, as a possession scarcely belong- Makes countless thousands mourn." ing to human nature, and look upon
BURNS. it as a disposition of feeling which is Charity is a virtue which every one not of this world. It wipes away from claims, but of which very few are in our remembrance every painful reflec- possession. It does not appear in the tion; it makes us more in love with distribution of certain sums of money, mankind; and it atones for a thousand -it is not in the supporting of the va
We cherish a kindly regard rious institutions which at present for its possessor, and feel an interest exist,-it is not in the performance of in every thing which he undertakes. those splendid acts which have their We view him as a being with some- reward in this world; but, it shews thing more of humanity about him itself in the humble prayer of piety, in than appears to be the common lot,- the secret act of benevolence, in the as one, who, partaking of the evil expansion of that heart, whose phiand the good, travels over the path of lanthropy takes in the boundaries of this life scattering peace and good will the world, and which, forgetting every around him; whose track is strewed variation of custom, and colour, and with blessings, and brightened with tongue, looks upon every man as a the deeds of pity and forbearance. “ friend and a brother." And here, The man whose heart is thus fashion- if we would observe this feeling in its ed, has a consciousness of peace in widest and most unqualified exertion, his own bosom, which the world can we must turn our attention to those neither give nor take away, and will devoted men, who are yearly leaving ever have the gratitude and respect of the shores of their native countrythe better portion of his species. who forfeit every national comfort, Whether in the higher or humbler and every friendly enjoyment-who, walks-whether in public or private in the loftiness of their views overstep life,-he will be followed by the same the limits of almost all that makes life regards and associations, and of him desirable ; and, instead of the society it will be said, “When the ear heard of friends and kindred, are content to him, then it blessed him; when the take up their abode with the scowling eye saw him, then it gave witness of savage, and the long-forgotten heahim."
then. These “angel visitants," whose But, alas, if we examine the general only object is to plant “peace upon body of mankind, how widely diffe- earth, and good-will towards men,” rent appears to be the feelings by are swayed by other motives than which they are usually actuated. As those which belong to this world—by if the world did not present difficulties hopes which are to be realized hereafenough-as if life itself was not at- ter, and by feelings which have“ their tended with sufficient evils—as if the answering chords in heaven.” state of human nature was not suffi- To forgive an injury, is to call for ciently degraded, we see men acting gratitude on the part of the offender, as though their only object was to to insure the good-will of every real injure their fellow creatures. It is Christian, and to act in obedience to,