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Essays Moral and Literary.

150 and receive the favour of heaven. / only be done to show how nobly we “ Blessed are the merciful, for they can forgive it, and to convince the shall obtain mercy.” But perhaps offender that he may yet become a there is no command, which, in the friend. How much greater is the general, is so little acted upon, and thought, I have forgiven him, than with which it is so difficult wholly to the feelings which cherish a lasting comply, as that which tells us to dislike, from prejudiced notions of love our enemies." The common right and wrong. Even to treat one voice is,- an eye for an eye, and a who is fully and decidedly our enemy tooth for a tooth,--and it is seldom that as an enemy, is unchristian like-how an offence can be committed, without much more so then to withhold the at the same time awakening a wish to hand of reconciliation from him, who, retaliate. To “bless them that curse conscious of his offence, is ready to us, and to do good to them that de- give it. We should always endeavour spitefully use us,” is in direct oppo- to keep up that principle of general sition to every human feeling, and it benevolence, which looks not to indiis only when those many frailties that vidual cases, but to the whole human “flesh is heir to" have become chang- family, and should consider ourselves ed by an unearthly influence, that we as placed upon earth to promote the can in any way obey the command. interest and comfort of our fellowHowever, when an injury has been creatures. The world should be lookcommitted, and contrition on the part ed upon as the property of every one ; of the offender is evinced, it is then and the various distinctions of state, that we see the disposition of a man in and customs of nation and province, its true state. Few, I apprehend, on ought not to merit consideration. such an occasion, would be hardy The man, who, because he happens enough openly to call for vengeance; to be born in any particular country, and yet how often do we find the ac- views his surrounding neighbours with tion of this same principle in other a sneer, and supposes himself of a channels,-how often do we find that superior order of beings, has but a a secret enmity is cherished in the narrow mind, and is unfit for the conheart, and is willing, in any hidden templation of human nature. When way, to seek revenge. This is too Goldsmith said, often the fact; the cold sneer- -the

Creation's heir, the world, the world is mine, proud recollection of the pastmand the whisperings of malice, are proofs there was a fine feeling of artless phiof the aversion which still rankles in lanthropy in his bosom, which it the bosom.

would be well to see more generally in There is a species of pride and plea- action; and it was a noble saying of sure, perhaps of the worst description that philosopher, who, on being asked possible, that is sometimes apparent what countryman he was, replied, "I in a man, when one who has been bis am a citizen of the world.enemy becomes suddenly bowed down The indiscretions of men, although by misfortune. Such a situation as they call for reproof, seldom meet with this will show us both the nobility and that treatment which is fittest for the depravity of human nature. To them. Harsh language, and severity contemptuously smile even upon an of behaviour, are not the most probaenemy struggling with adversity, is ble means of effecting a reformation despicable: but to step in to bind up in any one. Men are not to be frighthis wounds, and to shed a tear over ened out of their way of thinking and his, sorrows, is an act which almost acting, neither will they submit to be raises man above humanity. The old catechized with unkindness. There saying, “I can forgive, but not for- are a thousand ways of convincing a get,” which we hear so often repeated man that he has done wrong, and of as a sort of salvo to the conscience, is inducing him to do better, besides, absurd. We may, and it is right we openly and sourly enumerating his should, remember it was a friend, a faults and their consequences. The brother, or a relative, that wronged feelings of every heart are more inus; but we should only do it to call clined to be soothed and sympathized up in review our own failings, and to with, than sneered at and condemned; feel that we are liable to err, even as and, if a change is ever to be wrought others. To recollect an injury, should in any one, it must be by calm and friendly advice. The inadvertencies and induce us to cast a shade over of youth are too often exposed, and the frailties of others; and yet we treated in a way that, so far from pro- sometimes find, that even the follies moting good, commonly produces an of the dead are counted over and comincrease of evil. It is not by severe mented upon. It would seem likely, correction, it is not by cool beha- that the simple knowledge of what viour, it is not by a sort of conscious they are, and of what all else must be, distinction marked out between them would forbid an investigation; but it and others, that they will be found to is not so, they are dragged from their lay aside their evil actions, but it is resting places, and exposed to public by a true and friendly interest in their notice; surely this is in no slight dewelfare, and by a way of acting that, gree unfeeling. If the names of the while it seems to overlook their fol-dead are mentioned, let it be with a lies, points out the path in which they consciousness that we are speaking of should tread. A look of tenderness that which is now sacred : and, if the will do more than all the various spe- veil of their offences must be removed, cies of authority that have ever been let it only be done silently to weep practised ; the heart catches at such over them. Oh! there is something à proof of regard, and every better in the contemplation of the grave, feeling is awakened, while a distant which breaks down every lofty pretendemeanour, or a hard saying, if it sion, and which destroys every proud does not hurry the offender into idea. It is there that all distinctions deeper crime, will at least serve to are obliterated, and all degrees of lessen bis consciousness of guilt. rank unknown. The world is equal Youthful minds generally act from the there. Every ambitious thought, eveimpulse of the moment, and are as ry high-sounding word, every towering quick in their actions one way as an- hope, there meet with one answer. other. They are as ready to confess a The rich and the poor, the wise, the fault as to commit it; and, when pro- | ignorant, and the powerful, of this perly treated, are as easily won over world, there mix and mingle together to the right side. Their acts are the in one lowly habitation; and it is movements of nature, unbiassed by while acknowledging this, that we reflections on particular circumstan- feel the whole force of those noble ces; they have a truer conception of lines : the rectitude of any action, and feel

The glories of our earthly state more acutely for the performance of Are shadows, not substantial things; any thing blameable, than perhaps is There is no armour against fate, done at any other period of life. If Death lays his icy hand on kings. they have their follies, they have usu

Sceptre and crown

Must tumble down, ally their hour of repentance, and And in the dust be equal made their day of reformation; and few are With the poor crooked scythe and spade. there, who, even while they have

SHIRLEY. been partaking of the vanities around Let us then cherish those feelings, them, have not known and felt the that incline us to pity and forgive the truth of those fine and original lines of frailties of others, and that direct us Burns, where he tells us that

to the contemplation and practice of ." Pleasures are like poppies spread,

those actions which are virtuous and We seize the flower, its bloom is shed; praiseworthy. So shall we pass Or like the snow-falls on a river,

through life, enjoying and giving One moment white, then melts for ever.”

happiness, and be conducted to the But there is one consideration, very threshold of death, fitted to die which, supposing there were none smilingly.

G. M. other, should ever incline us to live in Derby. charity with all men, and to regard their worst deeds more “in sorrow

TRANSLATION OF AN OLD CHARTER. than in anger,” and that is, the consciousness of our common doom-that The following is a translation of an we are all hastening to that place Old Charter, originally written in the where every strife is quieted, and Saxon language, and granted by Wilevery grief forgotten. Did this recol- liam the Conqueror to the inhabitants lection more frequently arise within of London (communicated by J. D. B. lis, it would humble our pretensions, / of Bilston, Staffordshire.)

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Memoir of the Rev. Claudius Buchanan.

154 “WILLIAM, King, greets William, devotional exercises of his parents, Bishop, and Godfrey Portgrave (the and from the kind, but serious admosame in office as Lord Mayor) and all nitions of his grandfather, from the Borough of London, French and whom he derived his baptismal English, friendly. And I now make name. known to you, that you are worthy to In 1773 young Claudius, at the age enjoy all those laws and privileges of seven years, entered the grammarwhich you did before the decease of school of Inverary, in Argyleshire, of King Edward. And it is my will that which his father was then master, and every child be his father's heir after under whose instruction he made a his father's decease. And I will not considerable proficiency in the Latin suffer any man to do you wrong. and Greek languages. He continued “God you keep.”

at Inverary until some time in 1779, when, spending his vacation with a

schoolfellow near the island of Mull, MEMOIR OF THE REV. CLAUDIUS BU- | he attracted the attention of a Mr.

CHANAN, D. D. LATE VICE-PROVOST Campbell, of Dunstafnage ; and on OF THE COLLEGE OF FORT WILLIAM the following year, though only four

teen years of age, he received an apWith a Portrait.

pointment to become the tutor of his

two sons, one of whom, in the year Few ministers of the gospel, who 1803, was the captain of the “United have appeared in modern days, are Kingdom" East Indiaman. In this more entitled to the notice of the bio- situation Mr. B. continued nearly two grapher than Dr. Claudius Buchanan. years; and it is probable that he would His visiting the Syrian Christians, have remained longer, had it not inhis bistory of Juggernaut, and his en-terfered with a necessary attention to trance into the Inquisition at Goa, his own education. While in this are circumstances that cannot easily employment, his serious convictions be forgotten. His Christian research- again returned, an account of which he es in India can hardly fail to immor- communicated to his pious grandfatalize his name.

ther, who did all in his power to cheClaudius Buchanan was born at rish them both by his advice and his Cambuslang, near Glasgow, on the piyers. But these continued only 12th of March, 1766. He was the son for a season : his association with a of Mr. Alexander Buchanan, a man of dissipated companion soon quenched respectable learning and of excellent the kindling spark, and several years character, who was highly esteemed elapsed before he was permanently in various parts of Scotland, as a la- led to seek that God whose invitaborious and faithful teacher, and who, tions he had so ungratefully disrea few months previous to his death, garded. was appointed rector of the grammar In the year 1782, he left the family school of Falkirk.

of Mr. Campbell, and proceeded to His mother was the daughter of Mr. the University of Glasgow, where he Claudius Somers, one of the elders of remained during that and the followthe church of Cambuslang. This ing year, diligently pursuing the varigentlemen was awakened to a deep ous studies for which he afterwards and lasting sense of real religion by became so distinguished. In the year the preaching of Mr. Whitefield, in 1784, he left the University, and went the year 1742. His piety was solid to the island of Islay, for the purpose and lasting; and his spirit seems to of becoming tutor to the sons of Mr. have been imbibed by his daughter, Campbell, of Knockmelly. In 1785, the mother of young Claudius, who, he removed to Carradell, in Kintyre, at an early age, was awakened to the and performed a similar office to the importance of religion, and on whom, sons of Mr. Campbell of that place. as he advanced to maturity, the spirit In 1786, he again returned to the coland mantle of Elijah fell. By his lege at Glasgow; and a certificate pious parents he was carefully trained from the Professor of Logic testifies, up in religious habits; and though that he regularly attended the public naturally of a lively disposition, his lectures, and that, at the examination, mind was susceptible of serious im- he gave commendable proof of attenpressions, which it received from the tion, diligence, and improvement, in No. 37,- VOL. IV.


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