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from them, either in the defence of of your Magazine, to make the followtheir country, or through some of ing inquiries, viz. those common calamitics incident to 1st. Suppose a society, to consist human life.
of 500 members; each member admit. From the printed account there ap- ted at from 21 to 40 years of age, and pears to be at present 58 girls, and to be 5 years on probation before be 66 boys, on the establishment. At becomes free; what is the probable the last election, Jan. 17th, 1822, maximum of free members, the numthere were 91 candidates, but no more ber being kept up by the addition of than 14 could be admitted. The ma- new members as the old oncs die away nagers intend to erect a commodious or withdraw ? building for the extension of this cha- 2nd. Suppose that each member rity, and therefore, in the name of the has the privilege, in the event of the fatherless orphan, solicit contributions death of his wife, of marrying again ; from the wealthy and humane, for this what is the probable maximum of witruly benevolent purpose.
dows' annuities, the annuities being Subscriptions addressed to the Rev. forfeited by their marrying again? C. W. Le Bas, A. M.; Rev. J. C. 3rd. Suppose that each member, on Abdy, A. M.; and the Rev. Andrew attaining the age of 60 years, becomes Reed, Secretaries, at the Orphan an annuitant; what is the probable Office, No. 10, St. Mary Axc, will be maximum of aged annuitants ? and thankfully received ; and, on applica- what proportion of such maximum tion, every information given. Sub- will be annuitants above 70 years of scriptions are also received at Pares, age ? Heygate, & Co. Bankers; and Hatchard and Son, Booksellers, Picca- Genuine Letter of Dr. Franklin, with a dilly.
Fac-Simile of his Signature. Queries respecting Annuitunt Societics,
“Sir, I have talk'd with Pass about by a Commercial Clerk.
casting the Guns, and he tells me there
is not a sufficient Quantity of Sea Coal MR. EDITOR.
to be had for Casting a Quantity, and Sir,--Such is the great utility of
that the Apparatus and Time of PreFriendly Societies, that the legisla- paring it, if but a few are to be cast, ture have given them every encourage- He says, where they make a constant
will occasion these few to be very dear. ment.--Great abuses have, however, crept into these institutions.-In ma
Business of casting Guns, they can if not in all cases, they have been well afford to furnish themselves with founded on erroneous principles ; so
all things necessary, as they will be that, after a number of years' experi
in constant Use; but that to provide ence, their founders have been com
conveniencies, not to be afterwards pelled to alter their original plan, and us’d, will be a great Charge and Loss ;
and he seems to think it would be disappoint the expectations of their members. Some sick-clubs have re
almost as cheap to purchase those in duced their allowances to their sick New England, at the Price demanded; and aged members, if not altogether immediately had, &c.- I have great
and better to do so, as they might be Societies for providing annuities for Hopes our Application to New York widows have come to nought, and
will succeed, and till that is known,
I others have prolonged their existence
suppose no further Resolution will
be taken in the Affair. by measures, both discouraging and
“I am Sir oppressive to the members, when they
“ Your most hum). Servt. found that they could not go on in the original way. As there are several of these latter societies in Lancashire and Yorkshire, I am desirous of knowing something of their respective prospects ; and in order to .excite the particular attention of their members to this subject, and to illicit informa- “ Philad. March 7. 4718. tion, allow me, through the medium To the Hon'ble James Logan Esq. Stenton."
Beaufoy's Guide to True Pilgrims, Eleventh
Edition. 1s. 3d. bound. Just published, The Temple of Romance, Grounds of Hope for the Salvation of all and other Poems, by Stannard Melmoth. Dying in Infancy, an Essay by the Rev. W.
Mr. Melmoth is preparing for publication Harris, 8vo. 4s. 6d. the Beauties of Jeremy Taylor, with a memoir
Burder's Mental Discipline. 12mo. Second of his life, and observations on his genius and Edition. 3s. writings.
The Evangelical Rambler, No. I. &c. To be The Triple Aim: or, the Improvement of continued Monthly. Leisare, Friendship, and Intellect; attempted An Investigation of the Doctrine of Water in Epistolary Correspondence. 8vo. p. 440. Baptism. By T. L. P. 2s. 6d. An Epitome of Pharmaceutical Chemistry:
Freeston's Directions and Encouragements whereby the art of Prescribing scientifically may
for Travellers to Zion. Fourth Edition. Svo. be facilitated, and those Decompositions avoid 7s. ed, &c. arranged according to the London Phar
Farmer Watson and his Man Harry; or, macopeia. By Rees Price, M. D. Member Hints to Parents. 6d. of the Royal College of Surgeons in London; Barnabas Hill; or, the Cottage on the Honorary Member of the Medical and Physi- Shore; by the Author of the Little Manufaccal Society of Guy's Hospital, &c. &c.
turer. Dr. Chalmers' Christian and Civic Economy In the Press. The Power of Religion Exof Large Towns, No. X. On the bearing which emplified, in the Experience and Happy Death a right Christian Economy has on Pauperism. of Miss Mary Fruer. Price 1s. Published Quarterly. This Number is the commencement of a Series of Essays, by Average Price of Grain per Quarter, for the 12 Dr. Chalmers, on the Causes and Cure of Pau
Districts, from the Gazette. perism, and is designed to expose the evils of
Wheat. Barley. Oats. Rye. Beans. Peas. Pauperism in England, and in those places in
s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. Scotland, where Assessments have been intro- Dec 22.46 8 20 10 17 721 3 23 5 26 10 duced, for the maintenance of the Poor.
29.46 2 19 7 16 821 11 22 8 26 8 A Key to the Critical Reading of the four Jan. 5.45 11 19 2 16 520 5 22 8 21 10 Gospels, consisting chiefly of Gleanings, for
12. 48 11 19 8 16 722 11 22 3 25 3 the use of Students in Divinity, 8vo. 4s. bds. A Guide to Christian Communicants, in the
Number of Bankrupts. Exercise of Self-Examination. By the Rev. Average Prices of Sugar Dec. 21, - 12 William Trail ; with a Life, by the Rev. Ro
Dec. 26, 31s. Od. cwt. bert Burns, Paisley. 18mo. 98.
Jan. 5, 8,
21 A Narrative of the Rise and Progress of Jan. 5, 37 7
9, 31 107
23 Emigration, from the Counties of Lanark and
16, 31 103
17 Renfrew, to the New Settlements in Upper
22, 26, Canada, with a Map of the Townships, De
116 signs for Cottages, and interesting Letters from the Settlements. By Robert Lamond, Price of Slocks, London, Jan. 26. Secretary and Agent. Svo. 3s. 6d. Cathedral Antiquities. By J. Britton, Esq. 3 per Cent. Red. 76%
Bank Stock, 239 81 1 India Stock, 238)
Ditto Bonds, 80 78 pm 1. The History and Antiquities of the Metropo- 3 per Ct. Cns. 76 6 53 | Ex. Bills, 2d., £1000, litical Church of York; II. Of the Cathedral 3, per Cent. 87 Church of Salisbury; III. Of the Cathedral Charch of Norwich; iv. of the Cathedral 5 per Cent. Navy,1073 Ditto, small, 6 pm.
4 per Cent. 963 II Ditto, £500, 4 6 pm. Church of Winchester; V. Of the See and Cathedral Church of Lichfield; VI. Of the Long An.1947-16ths į Cons. for Ac. 763163
Lott. Tickets, 191.18s. Cathedral of Oxford ; VII. In the progress of publication, the History and Antiquities of the
Price of Irish Stocks, Jan. 21.
Do. Stock, 3 do. 861 Å tain; IX. The Architectural Antiquities of Gov. Deb. 5 per cent. 93 )
do. Great Britain.-Vol.V. No. I. to VII.; X. Red- Do. Stock, 5 cliff Church, Bristol ; XI. Just published, in Royal Canal Stock, 233 medium 4to. Specimens of Gothic Architecture, Bank Stock, 2381 selected from various ancient edifices in Eng
Course of Exchange, 82 % per Cent. land; XII. Unique copy of the History, &c. Prices of Foreign Stock in London, Jan. 21. of York Cathedral ; Xill. A Corresponding French 5 per cent. with div. from Sept. 22, Sst. Volume of Winchester Cathedral.
to 864; Exch. 25. 30. to 35. The above works are enriched with elegant Prussian 5 per cent. with div. fr. Oct. 1, 86 Engravings of Views, Elevations, Sections, Russian Metallic 5 per Cents. with div. fr. Sep. &c. of the various Classes of Buildings, and 1., 76); Exchange, 3s. 1d. styles of Architecture, connected with the ve- Neapolitan 5 per Cent. Bords, with div. from nerable edifices described.
Jan. 1, 68. No Fiction, 2 vols. crown 8vo. Sixth Edi- Spanish 5 per cent. with div. fr. Oct. 30,56% . tion, 12s.
New Spanish Loan, 1821, with div. fr. Nov. 1, Howe's Works, vol. 8. Royal, 16s. De- 571.
Austrian Metallic 5 per Cent. with div. from "The Widow's Narrative, comprising Re- Oct. 1, 74 å. ; Exchange, 100. 4cr. marks on the Conduct of Humble Life. Crown Danish 5 per cent. with div. from Jan. 1, 80. 8vo. 4s. 6d.
4 6 pm.
Columbian Bonds, 66.
QUERIES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
3. On Animal Increase,-by Sior, of
Holywell. 1. On Shortsightedness.
A Farmer, on the point of giving his C. G. wishes to be informed, whe- daughter in marriage to a young man, ther a short sight is to be considered offered him with her a portion of a disease, or a defect of the eye? and £1000 ; but the young man refused why, if it proceeds from the forma- money in toto, requesting only to have tion, it is not discernible in general a heifer calf, which calf was to protill the age of 13 or 14?
duce a calf when 2 years old, and one
yearly afterwards, for the term of 20 2. On finding the Moon's Place in the years from their wedding day. Now Ecliptic.
all the produce are supposed to be T. D. of Low Moor Iron Works, heifer calves, and to produce when 2 would be obliged to any correspondent years old, and yearly afterwards for who would inform him of the plainest the above named time.
Query the and shortest method of calculating the number produced in the 20 years ? Moon's place in the Ecliptic?
Several Queries and Literary Notices have been omitted for want of room.
COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 26th JANUARY, 1822. SINCE the commencement of the year, there has been an improving demand for several articles, and some descriptions of produce have advanced in price; and this has resulted more generally from the operations of consumers than from any speculative transactions. Speaking generally, the manufacturing districts are in a thriving condition, the beneficial effects of which have been very sensibly felt here--and it is pleasing to observe, that many articles have received a favourable impulse which has long been neglected. A glance at the operations of the past week will exemplify more fully the truth of the foregoing remarks.
Cottons.—Some large public sales yesterday attracted considerable attention, and brought together a numerous attendance of the trade; the sales went off with spirit, and the following are the particulars
d. d. 772 Boweds, sold at 7 to 10 527 Sea Islands,
13 to 17 413 New Orleans, 91 to 113 116 Stained,
8 to 12 558 Alabamas, 7 to 82 219 Demeraras,
9} to 12 The following are the week's transactions by private treaty,—2085 Boweds, at 8 d. to 10 d.; 99 Tennessees, 8}d. to 9d. ; 229 New Orleans, 94d. to 11 d.; 210 Sea Islands, 13. d. to 23d. ; 485 Pernams, 11 d. to 12 d. ; 384 Maranhams, 10, d. to 1 d. ; 583 Bahias, 10 d. to 11 d.; 181 Paras, at 10d.; 120 Demararas, 11d.; 50 Barbadoes, 92d. ; 397 Bengals, 6 d. to 7d.; making a total, including those by public sale, of 7294 packages.
Sugars, this week, consisting of Antigua and Demararas, to the extent of 550 hhds. went off heavily, and brown qualities at rather lower rates, whilst good middling, and good Sugars, fully supporteď former prices: the quotations were, dry brown, 50s. to 56s.; middling, 58s. to 67s. 6d.; and good, 68s. to 70s. per cwt.
Coffee.--Small lots, suitable for grocers, have gone off at better rates : triage, 70s. to 90s ; middling, 111s. to 114s. 6d.
Rum. There is no alteration in this article, about 70 puncheons of strong Demararas have been sold at 2s. 1d. to 2s. 2d.; strong Jamaicas, of old imports, at the rate of Is. Id. per gallon.
Tobacco, is tolerably steady, for since the beginning of the present month, more than 400 hhds. have been sold; no variation of price, however, can be named.
Rice, of good quality, sells readily at 16s. to 18s. per cwt. for Carolina. Naval Stores, keep up their price. Turpentine 13s. to 15s. Stockholm Tar, at 20s. Archangel, 19s. per barrel. Rosin, 7s. 6d. per cwt. Hemp. £58 per ton, with very little stock. Ashes fully support former quotations. Logwood continues in good demand. Fine Jamaica has fetched £10; and Campeachy £11 per ton. Prime Cuba Fustic £11. lls. The last sale of Nicaragua Wood was at $50 per ton, but the arrival of 250 tons is likely to effect the future currency of this article. Camwood has advanced to £20 per ton. Barwood is also in more demand. It cannot fail to impress the most superficial observer, that the great advance in the dry saltery articles must arise solely from the improved state of our manufactories.
American Flax Seed, is held at 65s. to 68s. per hhd. French Clover Seed at 57s. per cwt.
Oils.-Olive Oil unvaried. Rape Oil is in better demand, at 3s. 9d. per gallon. Linseed at 2s. 8d. In Fish Oils little is ing. Turpentine Oil brings 66s. per cwt. and more is inquired for.
Grain Market. The Corn Trade has reverted to its former languid state, in consequence of the neighbouring markets being abundantly supplied from the interior of the country. Bonded American Flour is selling at 25s. to 28s. per barrel, but bonded grain continues without inquiry.
LONDON : PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY H. FISHER.
OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
THE PHYSICAL AND MORAL WORLD.
MARCH.] “ SOCIAL REFINEMENT HAS NO EXISTENCE WHERE LITERATURE IS UNKNOWN.” [1822.
= wind returneth again according to its
circuits. All the rivers run into the No.3.—The Connection between Natural sea, yet the sea is not full; unto the and Revealed Truths further insist- place whence the rivers come, thither
they return again.”
Thus, according to the method of ( Continued from col. 115.)
nature in all her works, there are As the system proposed by Mr. Mac- intervolutions, circles within circles, nab is somewhat new, and founded and wheels within wheels; so that upon principles very different from each object depends, not merely upon such as in the present day carry popu- those which precede or follow it, but larity in their favour; it may not be also upon those which surround it, improper to suggest a caution against and the great whole of which it forms premature judgment, merely from its a part. And what is more astonishfirst appearance. But what need we ing, all is so arranged, that every say? Has there ever appeared in this part is, as it were, a miniature of the fastidious world, any general improve- whole. The little circle is a miniature ment, which has not met the most of the great circle; and all the interformidable opposition? How mightily, mediate circles are so intervolved and for instance, was the Herverian doc- blended with each other, in such an trine of the circulation of the blood at endless variety of ways, as to connect first opposed ? His demonstrations, the whole in a manner into one. however, being founded on facts, Matter may thus represent mind, * afier a few struggles, at length gained either by analogy or antithesis, likea victory so complete, that no one now ness or unlikeness. This world, in ever calls the subject in question. In like manner, may represent the other fike manner, What opposition had the worlds of the system; and the planetary present received theory of the planet- system, as a whole, may represent the ary system to encounter, ere it was various other systems of the universe. fairly established, that the planets and Yea, man himself may be considered the earth move round the sun, instead as a microcosmi, a world in miniature, of the sun, planets, stars, and the involving in his constitution all the whole heavens, moving round the constituent principles which compose earth ?—And what is proposed here, the universe. The whole universe, it pray, but just an extension of the is evident, is under two different kinds same principle ? For in truth, What of laws, the one physical, and the is the circulation of the blood, but a other moral : and man, from the naconstant going to and fro from the ture of his constitution, as a comheart, or centre, to the extremities, pound being, made up of body and and from the extremities to the beart, mind, is alike allied to both. or centre, again? Or, What is the We may therefore conclude, a priori, motion of the planets of our system, that, as the whole universe, both of and by analogy of all other systems, matter and mind, had its origin from but a demonstration of the same thing? one common source, namely, the Di-See how beautifully the wise and vine Being, the laws of the physical philosophical King of Jerusalem de- part will correspond with those of the scribes these circumvolutions of na- moral ; and that whatever can be ture: in the language of common life, proved as evidently proceeding from he says, Eccl. i. 5-7. “The sun also this one source, -whether it regard ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and the subject of Creation, that is, the hasteth to his place where he arose. The wind goeth toward the north; it See Introduction to Butler's Analogy, whirieth about continually; and the where the same thing is hinted. No. 38.-Vol. IV.
physical laws under which creatures upon reasoning, without foundation are placed,–Or of Providence, that for the principles which we assume, is, the laws by which they are govern- whether from the attributes of God or ed, -Or of Redemption, that is, the any thing else, is building a world principle upon which they are restor- upon hypothesis, like Des Cartes. ed from their lapsed state ; must har- Forming our notions upon reasoning monize, not only with the nature of from principles which are certain, but God their author, but with the nature applied to cases to which we have no of man for whom they are designed, ground to apply them, (like those who and the whole system of both the explain the structure of the human worlds of matter and mind, to which body, and the nature of diseases, and he stands related.
medicines, from mere mathematics, “When therefore, we compare the without sufficient data) is an error known constitution and course of much akin to the former ; since what things, or what is said to be the moral is assumed, in order to make the system of nature, namely, the ac- reasoning applicable, is hypothesis."* knowledged dispensations of Provi- For example, we have said, that dence, or that government under man is a microcosm, or world in miniawhich we find ourselves placed, with ture, involving in his constitution all what the scripture teaches us to be the constituent principles which comlieve and expect, in order to see whe- pose the universe. But this, certainther they are analogous and of a piece; ly, does not mean that the globe of “ it will be found, I think,” says the this earth, is to be compared with the celebrated Bishop Butler, “upon such corporeal parts of a human being, a comparison, that they are very much with heart and lungs, thoracic and so; that both may be traced up to the abdominal viscera, with internal linsame general laws, and resolved ings, surrounded by ribs, muscles, into the same principles of divine con- and external integuments. To such duct.”
an unbounded length, however, do Taking it for granted, then, that the some run the comparison. But such proofs of Creation, and Providence, a comparison is entirely chimerical ; and Redemption, as the peculiar and should it still be insisted on, that works of God, are familiar to the man is a microcosm, or world in miniamind of every one; it will be the ob- ture, it must be taken only in a general ject of these papers to trace their con- sense, and not run up in the manner nection and correspondence, and to some have done, without sufficient adduce them as the most convincing data. If the universe be taken in a and satisfactory answers to objections general acceptation, as composed of brought against the evidence of Re- matter and mind, it is true in this velation.
sense that man is a microcosm ; for the Supposing the above observations two principles which compose both to be so many undeniable facts, it will are the same. And in this respect yet require considerable judgment man stands distinguished from every properly to apply and illustrate them. other creature that we know: he is not The utmost caution will be necessary a mere spirit, for he has a body ; nor not to run the comparisons too far, or is he a mere living animal, for he has to make them speak things they were a rational mind ; and therefore, the never designed. In the analogical laws which govern man, must be those and inductive method of reasoning, it which relate not to one branch of the must be regarded as a sine qua non, subject only, but to the whole universe that the principles assumed as the both of matter and mind. foundation of our reasoning must not Upon this ground, it is reasonable be doubtful or far-fetched. They to suppose, that the Author of our ought to be self-evident truths, or, at being would afford us not only a sysleast, truths proved and established tem of nature, such as that of which as matters of fact; and all our reason- our experience and reason inform us, ings from things known, to things un- which is suited to our condition prinknown, should be unforced, and flow cipally as we stand related to the manaturally and spontaneously as a terial world ; but that he would also stream from a fountain.
afford us a moral system, such as that “Forming our notions of the constitution and government of the world
* Butler's Analogy.