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205
The Physical and Moral World.

206 contained in the scriptures, which is | are both divine in respect of their suited to our nature as we stand re- origin; and both are equally designed lated also to the world of spirits. This by their great Author to fulfil his etersupposition, I say, is so reasonable, nal purposes. They ought not, thereas to lead us to conclude, that at no fore, to be set in opposition the one period of the world did God leave to the other; neither ought the one to mankind to be guided by a system of be held up or extolled, at the expense nature only ; but that long before any of the other. This would be an error part of the scripture was written, he equally on either side; and as it recommunicated to them all that was gards things which in their source are necessary, according to circumstan- equally divine, it is therefore inadces, of a moral system, which was missible. preserved by such as feared him, and In article 6th of his theory, Mr. handed down to posterity by oral tra- Macnab, for instance, attempts to dition. It is equally reasonable to demonstrate the utter uncertainty of suppose, that between these two sys- all human knowledge, declaring that tems, there should subsist the strict- there is nothing absolute in regard to est analogy and harmony; for to such it ;-that there is no fixed principle, a conclusion we are necessarily led; no standard, to which we can appeal, first, from the circumstance of their but the “Word of God,” which “rebeing both productions of the same maineth for ever.”—“ Upon this,” Author; and secondly, from their says he, “all knowledge depends. being both intended for the govern- Remove this, and universal science ment of the same creature, to wit, becomes a chaos, where every attempt man ; who, though he be a compound to systematize has proved abortive.of two principles, distinct from each "It is not in any human composiother, forms yet but one being, and tion, but in the bible, that we are to this one being so perfectly consistent search for the outlines of general with itself, as to constrain us to con- knowledge, and a basis on which we clude that the laws which are to go- may safely build.” Art. 8th. vern man, though of a two-fold na- Here, I confess, I feel myself someture, like the being whose conduct what at a loss to understand his meanthey are to regulate, must so per- ing. Had he expressed himself in fectly agree, as to constitute but one such a manner as to imply, that nature whole.

alone, without the aid of revelation, Thus, is there a necessary connec- was not capable of affording a suffition established between physical and cient foundation on which to build a revealed truth, arising from the very system of universal science ; that, in nature of things.

order to this, it was necessary to comNow, the object we propose, is to bine nature with revelation ; then we demonstrate their agreement; and in could have understood, and admitted doing so, though hypothetical reason his position. But by setting aside the ing be inadmissible, yet, as Bishop truths of nature, and those composiButler observes, “it must be allowed tions of men which demonstrate such just, to join abstract reasoning with truths, as part of the basis of such a the observation of facts, and argue system, I conceive he has inadverfrom such facts as are known, to tently, and without reason, run into others that are like them ; from that the opposite extreme of those, who part of the divine government over would affect to make what they denointelligent creatures, which comes minate the light of nature, to be under our view, to that larger and every thing, and revelation nothing. more general government over then, Whereas, both are existences which which is beyond it; and, from what is have the divine Being for their author; present, to collect what is likely, cre- and both, therefore, must be conjoined; dible, or not incredible, will be here- for every system founded on the one after.”

independently of the other, must be The two classes of physical and re- for ever mutilated, inconsistent with vealed truth, though differing in their itself, and standing on the slender banature, are yet not to be separated sis of one foot, when two are evidently from each other ; because, notwith its province. standing this difference, they agree in His reasoning, however, in regard their most essential property. They to mere physical truths being insuffi

cient for such a purpose, seems to be upon record a better illustration of the just. He observes, art. 79th, “ That truths of Christianity, than is to be unaided reason neither tells us what found in the writings of Helvetius, we are, whence we are, how we are, Diderot, Voltaire, Hume, Bolingnor wky we are. She gives us no sa- broke, Volney, and other champions tisfaction as to past, present, or fu- of infidelity. By a little ingenuity, it ture; but tells us to look to our moral is quite easy to invert their own argufeelings, and the word of God, for an ments upon themselves, and actually answer to these questions.

When we

to metamorphose them into the apconsult our moral feelings, every thing pearance of Christian apologists, setthere is dark and inexplicable. Rea- ting forth the perversions of the Amason is bewildered in fathomless para- nian Idolatry."* doxes, analogous to those concerning But while we insist on the necessary the origin of matter. We cannot ac- connection between the two classes of count for our moral motives, and yet physical and revealed truths, we must they influence all our thoughts and be careful at the same time to distinactions. Reason herself is only their guish between such truths and the servant; ever busy in devising means subtleties of philosophy, by which to execute their imperious commands, both have been so grossly perverted. whether good or evil.

To free ourselves from the heathenish So constantly does our author keep doctrines of philosophy, which were this grand object in view, (though he early introduced into the Christian has given us enough to do in other church, by persons who had been edurespects) and so forcibly does he urge cated in the schools of the philosoit on all occasions, that I cannot deny phers, becoming converts to the myself the pleasure of here quoting Christian faith;t we have only to take some of his weighty sentiments which the pure word of God for our rule, and accur at the close of his work.

by no means to deviate from it to the Where there is no stable principle right hand or to the left. To avoid, stamped on the mind by moral feeling in like manner, the infidel principles and the word of God, he judiciously which are almost constantly blended remarks, That the quibbling of the with physical truths, we must be careintellect is endless ; so that if logic be ful to distinguish between the truths listened to, it can make black appear themselves, and the garb of sophistical white, and wbite black. We should reasoning with which they are clothed; not think a lawyer deserving of a fee, as it is not with the latter, but with the unless he could throw a plausible lus- former, that this subject has any thing tre on either side of a cause.—Except to do. Facts, and theories built upon ing the word of God, every thing is these facts, are very different things. fleeting, transitory, uncertain, unsta- The former can never run contrary to ble, and susceptible of being twisted the scripture account of things, when at the pleasure of intelligent men. we take in the whole of both; but raTherefore, reserving his faith, and ther, as having the same divine origin, trust, and confidence, for the word of establish and confirm it: whereas the God alone, the Christian, in every thing latter, being founded solely upon the else, should be an unlimited sceptic. conjectures and suppositions of falliSense and reason may deceive him ; ble men, uninfluenced by, or unfriendbut if he put his trust in Christ, the ly to divine truth, cannot but stand Friend of mankind will never forsake opposed to it in all its bearings. The him in time of trouble, nor suffer him word of God, we ought then to make to be misled by the aberrations of a the “light of our feet, and the lamp of false philosophy. The bible is the our path,” in all that regards our mabook of books. It contains the one

ral interests; and to be most scruputhing needful ;” and all other books lous in all that regards the system of are trash, except in so far as they nature, that we adopt no theory, or tend to illustrate that one thing.

human explanation thereof, which “But as all human science, if right- | runs counter to the moral system conly understood, would tend to illustrate tained in the scriptures. And the reathat one thing, we must not (like the son is plain; for as both nature and brutal inquisitors) destroy even the writings of avowed infidels. For, in

Macnab's Theory, page 470, 1. my judgment, there does not stand + Enfield's History of Philosophy.

209 Censorious Judgment.-Generous Action of a Sailor. 210 revelation have one and the same scription this year, you subscribed Author, and both taken together, con- only half-a-guinea. He made no restitute the two-fold set of laws adapt- ply; but after a time asked, “Pray, ed for the government of the compound Sir, answer me a question :-why do being, man; so the theory which does you live upon potatoes ? (I did so benot make them agree, must, undoubt-tween three and four years.) I repliedly be founded on error.

ed, “It has much conduced to my But what are we to do with the health.' He answered, “I believe it difficulties, it may be asked ? For, has. But did you not do it likewise that there are difficulties in both, can- to save money?' I said, 'I did, for not be denied. He who believes what I save from my own meat, will the scripture to have proceeded from feed another that else would have Him who is the Author of nature, none.'--'But, Sir,' said he, 'if this said a Christian father, * “may well be your motive, you may save much expect to find the same sort of difficul- more; I know a man that goes to marties in it, as are found in the constitu- ket at the beginning of every week. tion of nature.

There he buys a pennyworth of parsSince, then, it is admitted that nips, which he boils in a large quantity there are difficulties in both, what are of water. The parsnips serve him for we to do with these? We are to seek food, and the water for drink, the enfor the solution of real difficulties which suing week, so his meat and drink occur in nature, not in the theories of together cost him only a penny a men respecting them, but in the volume week. This he constantly did, though of inspiration ; for here, in most cases, he had two hundred pounds a year, to such solutions are alone to be found. pay the debts which he had contracted And on the other hand, many of the before he knew God! –And this was real difficulties which occur in scrip- he, whom I had set down for a covetture, are alone to be solved, by refe- ous man !" rences to the history of nature and of providence. Hence, therefore, the propriety of connecting, and of not GENEROUS BUT UNFORTUNATE ACTION allowing, on any account, these two sources of all our information to be separated. Nature and revelation are

“O! why has worth so short a date, the two volumes written by the finger

While villains ripen grey with time?

Must then, the noble, gen'rous, great, of God, and contain innumerable refe- Fall in bold manhood's hardy prime ?”. rences from the one to the other; so

BURNS. that neither can be rightly understood, Five years have nearly performed unless both are attended to.

their revolution, since John Carnchan Origen. Philo. p. 23.

(a seaman) and a little boy, prepared (To be continued.)

to go ashore in a boat from the smack Jane, of Carrickfergus, then lying at

anchor off Silver Stream, about two CAUTION AGAINST CENSORIOUS miles and a half from that town. The JUDGMENT.

boy first entered the boat in safety;

but as the seaman was descending the On this subject, the late Rev. John side of the smack, to enter also, he Wesley has recorded the following lost his hold, fell upon the gunwale of fact, occurring under his own imme- the boat, upset her, and both were diate observation.

precipitated to the bottom of the deep. “Beware,” says he,“ of forming a When they canue again to the surface hasty judgment concerning the fortune of the water, both made towards the of others. There may be secrets in boat, which the wind and the surge of the situation of a person, which few the sea had driven to a short distance. but God are acquainted with. Some But as the boy happened to rise nearyears since, I told a gentleman, “Sir, er to her than the seaman, he reached I am afraid you are covetous. He her first, and clung to her stern. In a asked me, “What is the reason of your few seconds the seaman also arrived fears ? I answered, “A year ago, at the boat, but when he caught hold when I made a collection for the ex- of her for support, how great must pense of repairing the Foundry, you have been the anguish of his heart to subscribed five guineas; at the sub- find, that she was incapable of pre

OF A SAILOR.

serving both their lives, and that if known God. But infidels have boldly one of them did not relinquish his asserted to the contrary—that there is hold, the boat would inevitably go to no God. Let them, however, trace the bottom.

effects to their causes, and they will When the boy found the boat to be find that there must be a great first sinking, he addressed the seaman in cause, who created man, and, “who, the most earnest and suppliant lan- ever busy, rules the silent spheres :" guage to let go his hold. “Ah! (says but enough has been said in your Oche,) will you see me drowned, gracious tober magazine, col. 912, upon this heaven! what shall I do! Dear, dear subject, in an essay entitled “ Atheim parents, must I never behold you an Absurdity.” again!' The benevolent, the generous, The immortality of the soul, they the tender-hearted Carnchan, touched have also denied ; and thus degraded with the piercing accents of the boy, man below the brute : for as the deimmediately relinquished his hold, sires of our souls are infinite, it can and, as he was an excellent swimmer, never be supposed, that the Great made towards the shore ; for the smack | Architect of Nature would endow us was so high above the surface of the with desires and faculties, which can water, and two of the crew that remain- never be gratified. Can we suppose ed in her were so stupified with terror, that he who breathed into our no that they were unable to render them the breath of life, should design us the least assistance. But, alas! the only for this transient life? No, the seaman had not proceeded forty perch- soul es when his strength failed him, and -shall flourish in immortal youth he sunk, to rise no more! Thus, this Unhurt, amidst the war of elements, excellent and compassionate charac- The wreck,, of matter, and the crush of

worlds." ter fell a victim to his own generosity; to preserve the life of a fellow-crea- But they also, by declaring the Biture, he exposed his own to the great-ble untrue, would rob the Christian of est danger. His object, indeed, was his comfort and support under difficulaccomplished, for the boy was saved; ties. One of the strongest proofs for but the sweet consolation of having the truth of the Bible is, that remarksaved a fellow-creature from destruc- able chain of prophecy which distintion was not permitted to cheer his guishes it throughout. But the infideparting moments.

del says, that, as this prophetic spirit W.L

bas subsided, the prophecies are only Carrickfergus, Oct. 8, 1821.

histories, written after the events had come to pass. This is an old objec

tion; it was urged by the earliest eneOBSERVATIONS ON THE NATURE of nies of revelation, and refuted by its INFIDELITY.-BY JUVENIS.

earliest friends.

But wbatever may be said respecting INFIDELITY, which had been wander- some distant predictions, it is certain ing about the earth like a malignant that there are others, to which this spectre, only cherished in the minds objection cannot apply; especially to of a few individuals, became imbo- those that are receiving their fulfildied into a club, under Voltaire, ment in the present day. Among D'Alembert, and other French philo- these may be included, those wbich sophers. Its design was to suppress relate to the establishment of MaboChristianity, and to disseminate vice, metanism, to the antichristian domiby propagating a system of philosophy nion of the Pope, and to the dispersed more cold and cheerless to the mind condition of the Jews. Mahomet con. of man, than any that had hitherto tinues at the present moment, to raise afflicted the world. It denied the ex- his proud crescent in the east; and, istence of a God, declared that death until the reformation dawned upon was only an eternal sleep of the soul, our ancestors, the papal antichrist and contemned the truth of the drew the dark curtain of ignorance Bible.

over this country. But “the Sun of The existence of a supreme being righteousness arose with healing, in has been believed even by beathens; his wings ;' and dispersing the mists for when St. Paul went to Athens, he of error, emancipated us from those found there an altar erected to the Un- chains of superstition, which several

R.

213

Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

214

LEONARDO ARETINO.

nations still continue to wear. The and guarded with the 'utmost strictJews, though scattered among the ness. The Emperor was gone before various kingdoms of the world, and to the episcopal palace, to which they carrying with them the records of were all to repair before they shut their own destiny, remain every where themselves up. At their arrival he a distinct people. Their conquerors alighted from his horse, and received have disappeared, having been melted them at the gate of the palace, with down among the nations with which so many marks of respect and devothey have had an intercourse, while tion, that from many of them be drew the vanquished still survive, exhibit- tears. When they bad entered the ing to the world that “blindness in palace before the cathedral, they all part is happened to Israel, until the fell on their knees; and whilst they fulness of the Gentiles be come in." were in that posture, the Patriarch of

In relation to civilized society, Antioch, accompanied by the clergy, wherever infidelity prevails, there with the cross and a great number of anarchy and confusion will soon fol- wax tapers borne before them, '

went low. This was the case in France. out of the church in his pontifical haThe scaffolds streamed with the blood bit, and gave them his blessing, after of its nobles. It was infidelity which which they arose and went to the conmurdered the sovereign, to make way clave. The Emperor was already for a set of tyrants to rule with the there, and took each of the electors dagger of terror, under the olive by the hand to lead them in; earnestly branch of peace; and it was this pow- entreating them to choose such a man er which caused the waters of the as they thought worthy of the triple Loire to swell with the blood of the crown, without partiality or unseemly mangled victims of its cruelty. disputes. They then entered, by torch Derby, Dec. 9, 1821.

light, into the conclave, which had been carefully darkened. They took

each but one waiting man, though MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OF they were allowed two a piece, so that

the whole number of those who were ( Concluded from col. 134.)

shut up in the conclave, amounted to one hundred and six.

When they It has been already mentioned, that, had entered with the Emperor, he immediately on his deposition, John caused them all to take an oath, that XXII. was conveyed, in pursuance of they would choose a Pope of piety and the orders of the council, to the for- good manners, able and willing to tress of Gotleben. This event took reform the church. After this path place in the month of June, 1415.* was administered, the Emperor reThe assembled fathers seem not to tired, and the conclave was locked have been in haste to fill the vacancy up. All possible measures were taken wbich had thus occurred in the papal | for the security of this place. Two chair. The critical state of the princes, with the grand master of church, no doubt, required that they Rhodes, kept watch at the gate day should proceed upon this important and night, with the keys hung about measure with due deliberation, and their necks ; and upon the steps there they, in all probability, deemed it were six soldiers, who were enjoined expedient, before they entered upon to so profound a silence that they were a new election, to make a variety of not heard to speak. Before the house regulations concerning ecclesiastical where the conclave was, there was matters, in the maturing of which placed a table, at which sat the Bishthey would have been thwarted and ops and Doctors, appointed to search embarrassed by the jealousy of an

the dishes carried to the conclave, for actual occupant of the pontifical fear lest any letters or billets should throne. Two years and upwards be conveyed in the dishes or cups. elapsed before their plans were ripen- After this search, the Grand Master ed; and at length, on the 7th of Nov. of Rhodes carried the dish or bowl, in 1417, the electors entered the con- which was the meat or drink, to the clave, in which they were watched window, and gave it to the servant of

him to whom the vessel belonged, L'Enfant's Council of Constance, vol. i. who at the same time returned back

that in which iany meat or drink

p. 310.

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