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support the fabric of the earth. They trate into the interior, he perceived rear their peaking heads high above his mistake, for they were composed the clouds, and their summits are of vertical plates, parallel to each mantled with perpetual snow: they other, and were the same throughout traverse vast continents, separate the its whole extent.* basins of rivers from each other, and Chimboraso is one mile and 160 form the skeleton or frame-work of yards higher than Mont Blanc; and our earth. The primitive rocks, con- although, according to Humboldt, taining no relics of organized remains, the general arrangement of the Andes are crystalline, supposed to have consists of granite, gneiss, mica, been formed by chemical precipita- slate, &c. yet those immense upper tions without mechanical deposit. projections seem to be of volcanic

They are not stratified, but have origin, being composed of basalt and various forms; tabular, spheroidal, porphyry; which, says the same celecolumnar. They soar above the lofti- brated naturalist, are arranged in the est summits of other mountains ; at- form of regular and immense columns, temperate the heats of torrid regions, which strike the eye of the traveller by the refrigerating influence of the like the ruins of enormous castles lifted eternal spow that encompasses their into the sky. tops ; abound in veins of rich metal, Mountain rocks are distinguished and dip deeply into the bosom of the from others by their vast magnitude, earth; and on their sides, rocks but even this distinction is relative; of a later origin and minor size re- for Tereniffe, or Mont Blanc, would pose.

be immense mountains, compared Granite, in its highest elevation, as- with those of Britain; while they sink sumes a peaky form, and stretches almost to hills when compared with itself into rugged piles. Humboldt, those of Thibet, and the loftiest of the and others, seem to make it appear, Andes. The compound rock-granite that the matter which gives rise to occurs in China, Van Dieman's Land, volcanic fires, lies far below the gra- | Africa, in Bengal, Brazil, Mexico, nite rock. Granite has never been and Canada, and in all these counseen higher than the elevated summit tries has the same character; so that of Mont. Blanc, a mountain 15,680 | the geognostic character of one is that feet above the level of the sea, and of all, and hence general inferences more than five times higher than any may be drawn, applicable to the whole mountain in England or Wales.- crust of the earth.† From the difficulty of ascent, 18 hours The principal European mountains are required for gaining its summit, are granite ; as those in Scandinavia, and this time must be laboriously and the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Carincessantly employed, exclusively of pathean mountains. Those of Afrithe periods for refreshment and re- ca, are, as far as hitherto known, of pose. On the second day of Saus- the same solid and indestructible subsure's laborious attempt to gain the stance; as are those of Upper Egypt,the height of Mont Blanc, he passed the Atlas mountains, and those about the night on a vast plain of snow, 3100 Cape of Good Hope; whilst in Asia it yards above the level of the sea, at gives origin to a large part of the Alan elevation considerably higher than taic and Uralian mountain ranges. that of the Peak of Teneriffe. The Subterranean sounds, resembling barometer stood at 14 inches. The those of the organ, have been said by upper parts of Mont Blanc are can- travellers to be heard about sunrise by died with perpetual snow, and it is persons sleeping upon the rocks of only at the fissures, and perpendicu- granite. The Missionaries call them, lar clefts, that the bare rock is visible; according to Humboldt, “Laxas de but here he was enabled to gratify his Musica.” 1 That sensible traveller utmost curiosity. He at first believ- accounts for the phenomena, by suped, from what he saw below, that the posing that it is caused by the circuplates of granite were folded round lation of currents of air under these the peaks like the leaves of an arti- shelves of rock. The ear of a person

ke; but now his eye could pene- being in contact with the stone, may odos* Bakewell's Geology. at

* Humboldt's Researches. + Jamieson's Geognosy, sier

Thompson's Annals.


Slavery in Surinam.-Emanuel Kant.

238 perceive the pulses communicated to try to make it quiet. The unsuspectthe stone; and he farther conjectures ing mother accordingly gave her the that the elastic spangles of mica child, and retired to the fore part of contribute to modify the tones. He the boat. The lady no sooner took conceives that this may have been possession of the babe, than she dipnoticed of some rock of the Thebaid, ped its head and body in the water, and that this natural concert may have holding it by one leg, while the men given the hint for the sublime jugglery rowed her along, without daring to of the priests, in the statue of Mem- expostulate. In this state she connon, who was supposed to have been tinued her murderous hand overboard, rendered vocal by the radiant influ- until she found that life had departed, ence of the rosy-fingered aurora. when, with much indifference, she let

But the musical Memnon has laid the body go on the stream. his harp upon the willows, since his The frantic mother, who had witreluctant removal from his natal | nessed this act of deliberate murder, skies.

without daring to complain, could Veins of Granite have been found | bear her smothered feelings no longer. running to a considerable extent in She gave a horrid shriek, and plunged clay slate, at Tousebole, in Cornwall. | into the water to die with her babe. Dr. Thompson,ş in the Annals of Phi- From the accomplis hent of this purlosophy, describes them as varying pose, however, she was deterred by from one foot and half, to nearly an inch ihe boatmen, who, directed by the in size; and this fact would suggest, lady, exerted themselves and saved that, either granite or schist were of her life. For this attempt, however, contemporaneous origin, or that the on coming on shore, she was sentengranite was once in a state of fusion, ced to receive two hundred lashes, and and that fissures had been made by actually underwent the punishment. fire in the upper rocks, wherein these Of the lady's conduct no notice was veins have been impelled to traverse. taken. None but the negroes were Dr. Thompson has, also, observed witnesses of the transaction, and by the same fact at St. Michael's Mount, law they were disqualified to give the most remarkable spot in Cornwall evidence. in a mineralogical point of view, and from the appearances of its arrangement, it would seem that in this in- OBSERVATIONS ON THE LIFE AND CHAstance, as well as in some others in Norway, observed by Von Bach, the granite is not a primitive, but a tran

Translated from the German. sition rock, and therefore posterior in its formation. I shall allow Dr. Whosoever knows Kant's critical Thompson himself to relate what he writings, and has penetrated into their observed. *

spirit, admires the original deep think* Annals.

ing mind of the author ; who, unsatis(To be continued.)

fied with all the philosophical systems of former times, and animated, through the study of Hume's works, made at last his own way through the

labyrinths of dogma and scepticism, A monster, in the form of a lady, who subjected the power of ratiocination had more slaves than humanity, had itself to a severe critic, found and an occasion one day to be rowed, by limited the boundaries of human unsome of these unfortunate wretches, derstanding, and endeavoured to erect to a place somewhat distant from her on that ground a new edifice of philohome. In the fore part of the boat sat sophy, which, for the victory of truth, a female slave, with her infant in her was to bid defiance to all attacks of arms ; which, through indisposition reasoning led astray. or crossness, she was unable to It is to be lamented, that age overstill. The lady, though at the great took this great thinker, and prevented est possible distance from the infant, him from finishing the explanation of affected to be so annoyed with its his own system. His last work, cries, that she directed the mother to which, according to his statement, bring the child to her, and she would should have been the completion of



the building, was only begun ; he in- , respectful demeanour, for which he tended it to describe the passage from was so remarkable. metaphysics to natural history.

In friendships he was very constant; But his powers of body and mind and the most intimate connection had been on the decline since the year which he ever formed, was with a 1794; and towards the end of his ca- Mr. Green, an English merchant, reer, he had hardly been able to con- though their first meeting was far nect any ideas: he died in 1804, at from being iendly. The circumthe age of eighty, having been born in stance is as follows: 1724. Konigsburg had given him During the time of the American birth and education, and it remained war, Kant was walking with an acalso the place of his residence, al quaintance in a public garden, and though he had been made, in 1787, a their conversation naturally turned member of the royal academy of sci- upon this remarkable political event. ences in Berlin.

Kant sided with the Americans, and His bodily constitution did not condemned the proceedings of Great seem to be intended for a long life; Britain, as being arbitrary and unhis frame was very delicate, and could just; when suddenly a man started, only be preserved through regularity stepped before him, declared himself and attention; his complexion, how- an Englishman, and

manded a ever, was uncommonly fresh, and re- bloody satisfaction for what he conmained so even at a very advanced sidered an insult to himself and his period: he himself ascribed his good country. Kant was not put out of health chiefly to his habit of early ris- countenance by this man's violence, ing, and thought that sleeping from but continued his conversation, and ten at night until five in the morning, began to develope his principles and constituted the chief foundation of a opinions, by shewing in what manner good system: fresh air was of course every man ought to look on the affair duly valued by him, and he appropri- | as a citizen of the world, whatever ated as much time for moderate exer- might be his patriotism : he did this cise as his occupations would allow. with such persuasive eloquence, that

He bestowed much time upon his Green, who was the Englishman, dinner, and he then also enjoyed a struck with astonishment, held forth glass of good wine; but during the his hand, and asked pardon for his rest of the day he only drank water, untimely passion. His partner, Moand made no other meal. In his therby, was an eye-witness of the younger years he was fond of dining scene, and was afterwards frequently at inns, but afterwards he had his own heard to say, that Kant had appeared establishment, and invited his friends, during his speech, to be animated by but never more than five: he sent his a heavenly spirit, and that from that invitations only on the same day, that very moment he had won the hearts of they might not deprive any one of all present for ever. Mr. Green acanother engagement; he paid great companied Kant home in the evening, attention to his guests, and joined and invited him in return, which laid cheerfully in the conversation. the foundation of a friendship, only to

He had a great dislike to any thing be dissolved by death. Mr. Green resembling pedantry, and wished that was a man of great talents, and poshis disciples might avoid all singula- sessed such an highly cultivated mind, rity of appearance and manners. He that Kant acknowledged that, whilst recommended them very strongly to composing his critique on pure reacultivate an acquaintance with re- son, he had never put any thing to spectable and well-informed ladies, paper without first discussing it with as the best school for true refinement. Green, and submitting it to his unbiIn this he added the example to the assed understanding. Green's chaprecept; but whether he had been racter, however, was singular ; distinunsuccessful in his first attachment, guished, indeed, by strict rectitude or whether his metaphysical studies and real generosity, but full of oddiand scientific pursuits had made him ties, he was a man whose days were neglect the proper opportunities for a regulated by whimsical, but invariserious engagement, is uncertain: able rules of his own. An example however, he never married, but con- will suffice: fined his attentions to a polite and Kant had promised one evening that 241

Answer to a Query.



he would ride out with him at 8 o'clock | mentioning vices, as obnoxious to next morning. Green, who on such honest minds. Even less flagrant occasions walked up and down the misdemeanours appeared to him as room at 45 minutes past 7, put on his an unworthy object of conversation, hat at 50, took his stick at 55, and and he never failed to give it a more opened the door at 8, rode away, and dignified turn. In the latter years of saw Kant, who was about two minutes his life, he became fond of military too late, coming towards him; but did music, and listened with great attennot stop, because it was against his tion to the band which passed his rule. This being perfectly under- house in going to the parade ; but he stood, the friendship suffered no in- could never bear the sound of the harterruption, and their regular meetings monica, or any instrument of the went on as usual. Kant came every whining kind. He retained the talent afternoon, and frequently found Green of expressing himself with vivacity asleep in an arm chair; he then sat and warmth to his latest age, and his himself down in another, and after inmates were particularly delighted having indulged in his own ideas for in hearing him relate the following a short time, fell asleep too. Then the wonderful instance of animal inbank director, Ruffman, came and stinct: did the same; until Motherby, at a During a cold summer, he was fixed time, entered the room, and passing near the great flour maawoke them ; the conversation then gazine, in Konigsburg, when he became very lively, and continued perceived many swallows' nests, with till seven in the evening : this was so dead young ones below them. This regular, that the neighbours knew the excited bis attention, and led him to hour by their breaking up, and would make a discovery which he could often say that it could not be seven, as scarcely credit; namely, that the old Mr. Kant had not gone past.

birds had cast out part of the young After Green's death, Kant never ones, in order to save the remainder went again to an afternoon party, as from starvation for want of food. if willing to devote to solitude a time “ This baflled my understanding," he which had been consecrated to the would then exclaim, “because here friend of his bosom, and even in his I could only fall down and worship.” walk he did not like to be joined by He said this in an indescribable and any body. He maintained, never- inimitable manner. The high devotheless, very friendly feelings towards tion which glowed in his venerable many persons of his acquaintance, face, the tone of his voice, the foldand took particular pleasure in for- ing of his hands, and the enthusiasm warding and promoting young men to with which the words were pronounthe utmost of his power, if it was even ced, were striking and sublime. at his own expense. Hearing of a In a future life he hoped and wished physician, who promised himself great to meet with very good, rather than advantages from a two years’residence with very wise, people; and he in Edinburgh, and a return by the thought it would be no bad sign, if he way of France, and understanding were to meet, soon after his arrival, that his limited means would not his old and honest servant Lambe. allow him to undertake the scheme; He died without a groan, or any Kant not only interested his friends other sign of violent and painful disin it, but offered the traveller in pri- solution. vate, that there should be always 500 dollars in readiness for him, in case of need; and he rather regretted that the Answer to a Query, inserted col. 101. money was not wanted.

* Was the conduct of Junius Brutus, His servants, who had a kind and in condemning and executing his two benevolent master in him, he was in sons, consistent with justice or humathe habit of calling by their surnames, nity?until he got one with the name of Kauffman, and then he used the man's The importance of an acquaintance christian name, for fear of giving with history can only be sufficiently offence to a merchant of that name, appreciated, by its being attentively who frequently came to see him. perused and felt. From it we may He spoke ill of nobody; and avoided derive the most salutary and practical lessons, by imitating the virtues, and taken away, were the father and broshunning the vices, of those who have ther of Junius Brutus; and Brutus gone before us. History,” says the himself escaped falling a victim to the eloquent Cicero, “is the evidence of devouring fury of Tarquin, only by ages, the light of truth, the life of me- assuming the disguise of an idiot; for mory, and the school of life;" and Tarquin supposing his folly real, deWrangham beautifully and figurative- spised him; and “having possessed ly observes, that “Reason, slow and himself of his estate, kept him as an doubtful in her progress, requires an idiot in bis house, merely with a view intelligent guide to accelerate and re- of making sport for his children.” gulate her march. History takes her Brutus having imbibed the strongest by the band in infancy, accompanies sense of moral virtue, and possessing her up to maturity, and collects the a bighly cultivated understanding, testimony of universal experience for with an excellent education which he her instruction.”

had received from his father, deterIf the records of any country what- mined to remain in disguise no longer ever be calculated to benefit man- than should be found absolutely neceskind, and to convey useful and necessary, when he was resolved to appear sary information, the history of the in bis real character, and honourably, Roman empire must be peculiarly so, and publicly, avenge his father's and pregnant as it is with events of a most brother's deaths upon the guilty head singular, interesting, and remarkable of their most implacable enemy and character. The successive changes murderer, and the usurper of the peoof power, affluence, and governments, ple's crown. The day soon arrived with the constant and varied move for a full display of his purposes. ments of the whole political machi- Sextus Tarquinius, the king's son, nery, arising from the clashing inte to gratify a lustful passion, committed rests of individuals,-influence, patri. a rape upon Lucretia, the virtuous otism, ambition, and tyranny,—with a wife of Collatinus, the stain of which thousand other multifarious causes, she could not survive, for while surstamp it as one of the most valuable rounded by her friends, she drew a and striking records in the history of poniard from beneath her robe, and the world. Connected with that his plunging it into her bosom, she intory, the question which your corre- stantly expired. Brutus, who stood spondent has proposed for solution, is by Lucretia, and saw the fatal wound certainly one not the least interesting, inslicted, drew the reeking poniard, and which cannot fail in being produc- and raising it up to heaven, he swore: tive of mutual advantage.

“Be witness, ye gods, that from this However much, unfortunately, the moment I proclaim myself the avenger relation of very many historical facts of the chaste Lucretia's cause : froni may be involved in mystery and this moment I profess myself the enedoubt, owing to the confused dis- my of Tarquin, and his lustful house; agreements in the details, as given by henceforth this life, while life contivarious historians, the present subject nues, shall be employed in opposition presents no such obstacles to impede to tyranny, and for the happiness and our progress from coming to a conclu- freedom of my much-loved counsion, founded upon a strict accord-try.” ance of testimony, at once reasonable The family of Tarquin, who had and satisfactory. In order to form a always been looked upon with the correct judgment, however, it will be most utter contempt and horror, now necessary briefly to state the promi- became odious and insupportable. nent circumstances from which this Brutus availed himself of this favourquestion is derived.

able opportunity, by obtaining a deIt will be recollected that Tarqui- cree of the Senate, that Tarquin and nius Superbus, commonly called Tar- his family should be for ever banished quin tud, an oppressor and a from Rome; and that it should be

made his way to the capital for any to plead for their re

spiracy and stratagem, turn. The immediate consequence violation of legitimate was, that the monarch and his family 5 the numerous indivi- were expelled ; and with them termihe put to death, for fear nated the kingly government of Rome. and government being Two consuls were instantly appoint

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